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Of the knowledge of the existence

SECT.

1. Knowledge is not from

of other things.

SECT.

1. Is to be had only by sen-

sation.

2. Instance, whiteness of this

paper.
3. This, though not so cer-

tain as demonstration, yet
may be called knowledge,
and proves the existence

of things without us.
4. First, because we cannot

have them but by the in-

lets of the senses.
5. Secondly, because an idea

from actual sensation, and
another from memory, are

very distinct perceptions.
6. Thirdly, pleasure or pain,

which accompanies actual
sensation, accompanies not
the returning of those
ideas, without the external

objects.
7. Fourthly, our senses assist

one another's testimony of
the existence of outward
things.

maxims.
2. (The occasion of that opi-

nion.)

3. But from the comparing

clear and distinct ideas.

4. Dangerous to build upon

precarious principles.
5. This no certain way to

truth.
6. But to

compare clear,
complete ideas under stea-

dy names.
7. The true method of ad-

vancing knowledge, is by
considering our abstract

ideas.
8. By which, morality, also,

may be made clearer.
9. But knowledge of bodies

is to be improved only by

experience.
10. This may procure us con-

venience, not science.
11. We are fitted for moral

knowledge, and natural

improvements.
12. But must beware of hypo-

theses and wrong princi-
ples.

please.

13. The true use of hypothe- 3. Being that, which makes

us presume things to be

14. Clear and distinct ideas,

true, before know

with settled names, and

them to be so.

the finding of those, which 4. The grounds of probabi-

show, their agreement or

lity are two; conformity

disagreement,

the

with our own experience,

ways to enlarge our know-

or the testimony of others

experience.

15. Mathematics an instance

5. In this all the arguments,

of it.

pro and con, ought to be

examined, before we come

to a judgment.

CHAP. XIII.

6. They being capable of

Some other considerations con-

great variety.

cerning our knowledge.

CHAP. XVI.

SECT.

1. Our knowledge partly ne-

Of the degrees of assent.

cessary, partly voluntary. SECT.

2. The application volun- 1. Our assent ought to be re-

tary ; but we know

gulated by the grounds of

things are, not as

probability.

2. These cannot be always

3. Instances in number, and actually in view, and then

in natural religion.

we must content ourselves

with the remembrance,

that we once saw ground

CHAP. XIV.

for such a degree of as-

sent.

Of judgment.

3. The ill consequence of

SECT.

this, if our former judg-

1. Our knowledge being

ment were not rightly

short, we want something

made.

else.

4. The right use of it, is

2. What use to be made of mutual charity and for-

this twilight estate.

bearance.

3. Judgment supplies the 5. Probability is either of
want of knowledge.

matter of fact, or specula-

4. Judgment is the presum-

tion.

ing things to be so, with- 6. The concurrent experi-

out perceiving it.

ence of all other men with

ours produces assurance

approaching to know-

CHAP. XV.

ledge.

Of probability.

7. Unquestionable testimony

and experience for the

SECT.

most part produce confi-

1. Probability is the appear-

dence.

ance of agrecment, upon 8. Fair testimony, and the

fallible proofs.

nature of the thing indif-

2. It is to supply the want of ferent, produces also con-

knowledge.

fident belief,

1

9. Experience and testimonies 15. The next is demonstration

clashing, infinitely vary by reasoning

the degrees of probability. 16. To supply the narrowness
10. Traditional testimonies, of this, we have nothing

the farther removed, the but judgment upon pro-
less their proof.

bable reasoning
11. Yet history is of great use. 17. Intuition, demonstration,
12. In things which sense can- judgment.

not discover, analogy is 18. Consequences of words,
the great rule of probabi- and consequences of ideas.
lity.

19. Four sorts of arguments :
13. One case, where contrary first, ad verecundiam.

experience lessens not the 20. Secondly, ad ignorantiam.
testimony.

21. Thirdly, ad hominem.
14. The bare testimony of re- 22. Fourthly, ad judicium.

velation is the highest cer- 23. Above, contrary, and ac-
tainty.

cording to reason.
24. Reason and faith not op-

posite.

Of reason.

CHAP. XVIII.

SECT.

1. Various significations of Of faith and reason, and their dis-
the word reason.

tinct provinces.

2. Wherein reasoning con-

SECT.

sists.

1. Necessary to know their

3. Its four parts.

boundaries.

4. Syllogism, not the great 2. Faith and reason what, as

instrument of reason.

contra-distinguished.

5. Helps little in demonstra- 3. No new simple idea can

tion, less in probability.

be conveyed by traditional

6. Serves not to increase our

revelation.

knowledge, but fence with

4. Traditional revelation may

it.

make us know proposi-

7. Other helps should be tions, knowable also by

sought.

reason, but not with the

8. We reason about particu-

same certainty that reason

lars.

doth.

9. First, reason fails us for 5. Revelation cannot be ad-

want of ideas.

mitted against the clear

10. Secondly, because of ob- evidence of reason..

scure and imperfect ideas. 6. Traditional revelation

11. Thirdly, for want of inter-

much less.

mediate ideas.

7. Things above reason.

12. Fourthly, because of wrong 8. Or not contrary to reason,

principles.

if revealed, are matter of

13. Fifthly, because of doubt-

faith.

ful terms.

9. Revelation in matters

14. Our highest degree of where reason cannot judge,

knowledge is intuitive, or but probably, ought to

without reasoning

be hearkened to.

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sions.
3. Force of enthusiasm.

13. The means of evading

4. Reason and revelation.

probabilities, 1st, supposed

5. Rise of enthusiasm.

fallacy.

6, 7. Enthusiasm.

14. 2dly, supposed arguments

8. 9. Enthusiasm mistaken for

for the contrary.

seeing and feeling.

15. What probabilities deter-

10. Enthusiasm, how to be-

mine the assent.

discovered.

16. Where it is in our power

11. Enthusiasm fails of evi.

to suspend it.

dence, that the proposition

17. Fourthly, authority.

is from God.

18. Men not in so many er-

12. Firmness of persuasion, no

rours, as is imagined

proof that any proposition

is from God.

13. Light in the mind, what.
14. Revelation must be judged

CHAP. XXI.
of by reason.

15, 16. Belief, nu proof of reve- Of the division of the sciences.

lation.

SECT.

1. Three sorts.

CHAP. XX.

2. First, Physica.

Of wrong assent, or errour.

3. Secondly, Practica.

4. Thirdly, nusIWTIXX.

SECT.

5. This is the first division of

1. Causes of errour.

the objects of knowledge.

OF

HUMAN UNDERSTANDING.

BOOK III. CHAP. VII.

Of Particles.

1. BESIDES words which are names of

Particles ideas in the mind, there are a great many connect others that are made use of, to signify the parts, or connexion that the mind gives to ideas, or whole senpropositions, one with another. The mind,

The mind, tences toge

ther. in communicating its thoughts to others, does not only need signs of the ideas it has then before it, but others also, to show or intimate some particular action of its own, at that time, relating to those ideas. This it does several ways; as is, and is not, are the general marks of the mind, affirming or denying. But besides affirmation or negation, without which there is in words no truth or falsehood, the mind does, in declaring its sentiments to others, connect not only the parts of propositions, but whole sentences one to another, with their several relations and dependencies, to make a coherent discourse.

The words, whereby it signifies In them conwhat connexion it gives to the several affirm- sists the art ations and negations, that it unites in one of wellcontinued reasoning or narration, are gene

speaking rally called particles; and it is in the right use of these, that more particularly consists the clearness and beauty of a good style. To think well, it is not enough that a VOL, II.

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