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sakes that shall make known the interpretation to the king, and that thou mightest know the thoughts of thy heart.

Thou, O king, sawest, and behold a great image. This great image, whose brightness was excellent, stood before thee; and the form thereof was terrible. This image's head was of fine gold, his breast and his arms of silver, his belly and his thighs of brass, his legs of iron, his feet part of iron 33 and part of clay. Thou sawest till that a stone was cut out 34 without hands, which smote the image upon his feet that were of iron and clay, and brake them in pieces.

Then was 35 the iron, the clay, the brass, the silver, and the gold, broken to pieces together, and became like the chaff of the summer threshingfloors; and the wind carried them away, that no

31–35. Daniel tells Nebuchadnezzar his dream. 31. Sawest] more exactly, wast seeing. So v. 34.

This image, which was mighty, and whose brightness was surpassing] Excellent' in Old English (from excello, to rise up out of, to surpass) had the distinctive meaning, which it has now lost, of surpassing, preeminent; and it is regularly to be understood with this force, wherever it occurs in P.B.V. of the Psalms, in A.V., and (usually) even in R.V. See the passages cited in the Note at the end of the Chapter ; and cf. Blundeville, Exercises, fol. 156 a (ed. 1594), stars are not seen by day “ because they are darkened by the excellent brightness of the sun” (W. A. Wright, Bible Word-book, s.v.).

form) aspect (R.V.), or appearance. Cf. Gen. xii. 11, 2 Sam. xiv. 27 (and elsewhere), where the Hebrew is lit. 'fair of aspect.?

32, 33. The head of the image was of gold; but its substance deteriorated more and more until the feet were reached, which were of mingled iron and clay.

32. This image's head was, &c.] more forcibly, and also in better agreement with the original, As for that image, its head was, &c. brass] i.e. copper (or bronze): see Wright's Bible Word-book. 34. was cut out] viz. from a neighbouring mountain (see v. 45).

without hands] without human cooperation; it seemed to fall away of itself. But of course the implicit thought is that its secret mover was God: cf. the similar expressions in viii. 25 end (“shall be broken without hand,' of the death of Antiochus Epiphanes); Job xxxiv. 20; Lam. iv. 6: also in a different connexion) 2 Cor. v. 1, Heb. ix. 24:

35. The absolute dissipation of the image. The feet being broken, the entire image fell to pieces; and the fragments were dispersed by the wind. A fall would not naturally break masses of metal into fragments small enough to be scattered by the wind ; but in a dream physical impossibilities or improbabilities occasion no difficulty.

threshingfloors) which were generally on exposed or elevated spots, where the chaff might_readily be cleared away by the wind. . Cf. Hos. xiii. 3, Is. xli. 16, Ps. i. 4; and with no place, &c., Rev. xx. U.

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king Nebuchadnezzar what shall be in the latter days. Thy dream, and the visions of thy head upon thy bed, are these; As for thee, O king, thy thoughts came into thy mind upon thy bed, what should come to pass hereafter: and he that

revealeth secrets maketh known to thee what shall come to 30 pass. Bụt as for me, this secret is not revealed to me for any wisdom that I have more than any living, but for their

in the latter days] lit. in the end (closing-part1) of the days. An expression which occurs fourteen times in the O.T., and which always denotes the closing period of the future so far as it falls within the range of view of the writer using it. The sense expressed by it is thus relative, not absolute, varying with the context. In Gen. xlix. I (spoken from Jacob's standpoint) it is used of the period of Israel's occupation of Canaan ; in Numb. xxiv. 14 of the period of Israel's future conquest of Moab and Edom (see vv. 17, 18); in Deut. xxxi. 29 and iv. 30, of the periods, respectively, of Israel's future apostasy and return to God; in Ez. xxxviii. 16 (cf. v. 8—with years for days) of the imagined period of Gog's attack upon restored Israel ; in Dan. x. 14 of the age of Antiochus Epiphanes. Elsewhere it is used of the ideal, or Messianic age, conceived as following at the close of the existing order of things: Hos. iii. 5; Is. ii. 2 ( = Mic. iv. I); Jer. xlviii. 47, xlix. 39; comp. xxiii. 20 (=xxx. 24). Here, as the sequel shews, it is similarly the period of the establishment of the Divine Kingdom which is principally denoted by it (vv. 34, 35 ; 44, 45); but the closing years of the fourth kingdom (vv. 40–43) may also well be included in it.

visions of thy head] iv. 5, 10, 13, vii. 1, 15.

29. came into thy mind) lit. came up,—the corresponding Heb. word followed by upon the heart,' being a Heb. idiom for occur to, be thought of by: cf. 2 Esdr. iii. 1; and see Is. Ixv. 17; Jer. iii. 16, vii. 31, xix. 5, xxxii. 35, xliv. 21, li. 50; Acts vii. 23. The king, as he lay awake at night, was meditating on the future, speculating, it may be, upon the future destinies of his kingdom, or the success of his projects for the beautification of his capital; and the dream, it seems to be implied, was the form into which, under Providence, his thoughts gradually shaped themselves. In a dream, the images and impressions, which the mind, while in a waking state, has received, are recombined into new, and often fantastic forms ; in the present case, a colossal and strangely constructed statue was the form which the recombination ultimately produced.

30. Like Joseph (Gen. xl. 8, xli. 16), Daniel disclaims the power of interpreting dreams by his own wisdom.

but for their sakes that shall make known, &c.] but to the intent that the interpretation may be made known to the king, and that thou mayest know, &c. (R.V.).

· For the sense of n'ynx see Job viii. 7, xlii. 12 (where it denotes clearly the latter part of a man's life).

? Cf. in the N.T. Acts ii. 17 (for the 'afterward' of Joel ii. 28), Heb. i. 2, 2 Tim. iii. 1, 2 Pet. iii. 3.

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sakes that shall make known the interpretation to the king, and that thou mightest know the thoughts of thy heart.

Thou, O king, sawest, and behold a great image. This great image, whose brightness was excellent, stood before thee; and the form thereof was terrible. This image's head was of fine gold, his breast and his arms of silver, his belly and his thighs of brass, his legs of iron, his feet part of iron 33 and part of clay. Thou sawest till that a stone was cut out 34 without hands, which smote the image upon his feet that were of iron and clay, and brake them in pieces. Then was 35 the iron, the clay, the brass, the silver, and the gold, broken to pieces together, and became like the chaff of the summer threshingfloors; and the wind carried them away, that no

31–35. Daniel tells Nebuchadnezzar his dream. 31. Sawest] more exactly, wast seeing. So v. 34.

This image, which was mighty, and whose brightness was surpassing] 'Excellent’in Old English (from excello, to rise up out of, to surpass) had the distinctive meaning, which it has now lost, of surpassing, preeminent; and it is regularly to be understood with this force, wherever it occurs in P.B.V. of the Psalms, in A. V., and (usually) even in R.V.

See the passages cited in the Note at the end of the Chapter ; and cf. Blundeville, Exercises, fol. 156 a (ed. 1594), stars are not seen by day, “because they are darkened by the excellent brightness of the sun” (W. A. Wright, Bible Word-book, s.v.). form) aspect (R.V.), or appearance. Cf. Gen. xii

. 11, 2 Sam. xiv. 27 (and elsewhere), where the Hebrew is lit. "fair of aspect.?. 32, 33.

The head of the image was of gold; but its substance deteriorated more and more until the feet were reached, which were of mingled iron and clay.

32. This image's head was, &c.] more forcibly, and also in better agreement with the original, As for that image, its head was, &c.

brass] i.e. copper (or bronze): see Wright's Bible Word-book.
34. was cut out] viz. from a neighbouring mountain (see v. 45).

without hands] without human cooperation; it seemed to fall away of itself. But of course the implicit thought is that its secret mover was God: cf. the similar expressions in viii. 25 end (“shall be broken without hand,' of the death of Antiochus Epiphanes); Job xxxiv. 20; Lam. iv. 6: also in a different connexion) 2 Cor. v. 1, Heb. ix. 24.

35. The absolute dissipation of the image. The feet being broken, the entire image fell to pieces; and the fragments were dispersed by the wind. A fall would not naturally break masses of metal into fragments small enough to be scattered by the wind ; but in a dream physical impossibilities or improbabilities occasion no difficulty.

threshingfloors) which were generally on exposed or elevated spots, where the chaff might_readily be cleared away by the wind. Cf. Hos. xiii. 3, Is. xli. 16, Ps. i. 4; and with no place, &c., Rev. xx. U.

king Nebuchadnezzar what shall be in the latter days. Thy

dream, and the visions of thy head upon thy bed, are these; 29 As for thee, O king, thy thoughts came into thy mind upon

thy bed, what should come to pass hereafter: and he that

revealeth secrets maketh known to thee what shall come to 30 pass. But as for me, this secret is not revealed to me for any wisdom that I have more than any living, but for their

in the latter days) lit. in the end (closing-partl) of the days. An expression which occurs fourteen times in the O.T., and which always denotes the closing period of the future so far as it falls within the range of view of the writer using it. The sense expressed by it is thus relative, not absolute, varying with the context. In Gen. xlix. I (spoken from Jacob's standpoint) it is used of the period of Israel's occupation of Canaan ; in Numb. xxiv. 14 of the period of Israel's future conquest of Moab and Edom (see vv. 17, 18); in Deut. xxxi. 29 and iv. 30, of the periods, respectively, of Israel's future apostasy and return to God; in Ez. xxxviii. 16 (cf. v. 8-with years for days) of the imagined period of Gog's attack upon restored Israel ; in Dan. X. 14 of the age of Antiochus Epiphanes. Elsewhere it is used of the ideal, or Messianic age, conceived as following at the close of the existing order of things: Hos. iii. 5; Is. ii. 2 (=Mic. iv. 1); Jer. xlviii. 47, xlix. 39; comp. xxiii. 20 (=xxx. 24). Here, as the sequel shews, it is similarly the period of the establishment of the Divine Kingdom which is principally denoted by it (vv. 34, 35; 44, 45); but the closing years of the fourth kingdom (vv. 40—43) may also well be included in it. visions of thy head] iv. 5, 10, 13, vii. 1, 15.

came into thy mind] lit. came up,—the corresponding Heb. word followed by upon the heart,' being a Heb. idiom for occur to, be thought of by: cf. 2 Esdr. iii. 1; and see Is. Ixv. 17; Jer. iii. 16, vii. 31, xix. 5, xxxii. 35, xliv. 21, li. 50; Acts vii. 23. The king, as he lay awake at night, was meditating on the future, speculating, it may be, upon the future destinies of his kingdom, or the success of his projects for the beautification of his capital ; and the dream, it seems to be implied, was the form into which, under Providence, his thoughts gradually shaped themselves. In a dream, the images and impressions, which the mind, while in a waking state, has received, are recombined into new, and often fantastic forms ; in the present case, a colossal and strangely constructed statue was the form which the recombination ultimately produced.

30. Like Joseph (Gen. xl. 8, xli. 16), Daniel disclaims the power of interpreting dreams by his own wisdom.

but for their sakes that shall make known, &c.] but to the intent that the interpretation may be made known to the king, and that thou mayest know, &c. (R.V.).

For the sense of minox see Job viii. 7, xlii. 12 (where it denotes clearly the latter part of a man's lite).

2 Cf. in the N.T. Acts ii. 17 (for the 'afterward' of Joel ii. 28), Heb. i. 2, 2 Tim. iii. 1, 2 Pet. iii. 3.

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sakes that shall make known the interpretation to the king, and that thou mightest know the thoughts of thy heart.

Thou, O king, sawest, and behold a great image. This great image, whose brightness was excellent, stood before thee; and the form thereof was terrible. This image's head was of fine gold, his breast and his arms of silver, his belly and his thighs of brass, his legs of iron, his feet part of iron 33 and part of clay. Thou sawest till that a stone was cut out 34 without hands, which smote the image upon his feet that were of iron and clay, and brake them in pieces. Then was 35 the iron, the clay, the brass, the silver, and the gold, broken to pieces together, and became like the chaff of the summer threshingfloors; and the wind carried them away, that no

31–35. Daniel tells Nebuchadnezzar his dream. 31. Sawest] more exactly, wast seeing. So v. 34.

This image, which was mighty, and whose brightness was surpassing] * Excellent' in Old English (from excello, to rise up out of, to surpass) had the distinctive meaning, which it has now lost, of surpassing, preeminent; and it is regularly to be understood with this force, wherever it occurs in P.B.V. of the Psalms, in A. V., and (usually) even in R.V. See the passages cited in the Note at the end of the Chapter; and cf. Blundeville, Exercises, fol. 156 a (ed. 1594), stars are not seen by day“ because they are darkened by the excellent brightness of the sun” (W. A. Wright, Bible Word-book, s.v.).

form) aspect (R.V.), or appearance. Cf. Gen. xii. 11, 2 Sam. xiv. 27 (and elsewhere), where the Hebrew is lit. 'fair of aspect.?

32, 33. The head of the image was of gold; but its substance deteriorated more and more until the feet were reached, which were of mingled iron and clay.

32. This image's head was, &c.] more forcibly, and also in better agreement with the original, As for that image, its head was, &c. brass] i.e. copper (or bronze): see Wright's Bible Word-book.

was cut out] viz. from a neighbouring mountain (see v. 45). without hands] without human cooperation ; it seemed to fall away of itself. But of course the implicit thought is that its secret mover was God : cf. the similar expressions in viii. 25 end (ʻshall be broken without hand,' of the death of Antiochus Epiphanes); Job xxxiv. 20; Lam. iv. 6: also (in a different connexion) 2. Cor. v. 1, Heb. ix. 24.

35. The absolute dissipation of the image. The feet being broken, the entire image fell to pieces; and the fragments were dispersed by the wind. A fall would not naturally break masses of metal into fragments small enough to be scattered by the wind ; but in a dream physical impossibilities or improbabilities occasion no difficulty.

threshingfloors] which were generally on exposed or elevated spots, where the chaff might_readily be cleared away by the wind. Cf. Hos. xiii. 3, Is. xli. 16, Ps. i. 4; and with no place, &c., Rev. xx. U.

34.

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