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judgements: neither have we hearkened unto thy servants the 6 prophets, which spake in thy name to our kings, our princes, and our fathers, and to all the people of the land. O Lord, righteousness belongeth unto thee, but unto us confusion of faces, as at this day; to the men of Judah, and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and unto all Israel, that are near, and that are far off, through all the countries whither thou hast driven them, because of their trespass that they have trespassed against thee. O Lord, to us belongeth confusion 8 of face, to our kings, to our princes, and to our fathers, because we have sinned against thee. To the Lord our 9 God belong mercies and forgivenesses, though we have

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6. The guilt is the greater, because Israel had been warned, but had not listened to the warning.

neither have we hearkened unto thy servants the prophets] A reminiscence of Jer. xxvi. 5; cf. vii. 25, xxv. 4, xxix. 19, xxxv. 15, xliv. (all containing the expression 'my servants the prophets,' followed by ‘and ye (or they) hearkened not').

to our kings, our princes, and our fathers, and to all the people of the land] The same combination in Jer. xliv. 21; cf. 'our fathers, our kings, and our princes,' Jer. xliv. 17: comp. Neh. ix. 32, 34.

7. Thus righteousness belongs only to God: to the sinful people only confusion and shame. With vv. 5, 86, cf. Baruch i. 15–17.

confusion of faces, &c.] Cf. Ezr. ix. 7, "and for our iniquities have we, our kings, and our priests, been delivered...to confusion of face, as (it is) this day.' Lit. 'shame of face,' as the same expression is rendered in 2. Ch. xxxii. 21; cf. Ps. xliv. 15, 'shame of my face;' Jer. vii. 19, 'the shame of their own faces'; also Ps. Ixix. 7. The meaning is the shame (i.e. disappointment) which is visible upon the face after a repulse, disaster, &c.

as (it is) this day] as experience shews is now the case. the men (lit. man,-collectively) of Judah, and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem) A combination found otherwise only in Jer. (8 times),e.g. iv. 4, xxxii. 32,--and 2 Ki. xxiii. 2 (= 2 Ch. xxxiv. 30). An evident reminiscence of the language of Jer.: cf. all the countries whither thou hast driven them' from Jer. xvi. 15, xxiii. 3, 8, xxxii. 37.

that are near and that are far off] Jer. xxv. 26 ; cf. Is. lvii. 19.

their unfaithfulness wherein they have dealt unfaithfully against thee] The idea of mā'al is disloyalty rather than trespass.' The same phrase Lev. xxvi. 40; Ez. xvii. 20, xviii. 24, xxxix. 26; 1 Ch. x. 13. Both the subst. and the cognate verb are almost confined to the priestly sections of the Hexateuch, to Ezek., and the Chronicles: cf., however, the subst. in Ezr. ix. 2, 4, X. 6, and the verb in Ezr. X. 2, 10; Neh. i. 8, xiii. 27.

8. to our kings, &c.] Cf. Jer. xliv. 17 (quoted on v. 6). 9. mercies] The word often rendered 'tender mercies' (Ps. xxv. 6,

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DANIEL

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jo rebelled against him; neither have we obeyed the voice

of the LORD our God, to walk in his laws, which he set 11 before us by his servants the prophets. Yea, all Israel

have transgressed thy law, even by departing, that they might not obey thy voice; therefore the curse is poured upon us, and the oath that is written in the law of Moses

the servant of God, because we have sinned against him. 12 And he hath confirmed his words, which he spake against

us, and against our judges that judged us, by bringing

upon us a great evil: for under the whole heaven hath not 13 been done as hath been done upon Jerusalem. As it is

written in the law of Moses, all this evil is come upon us : yet made we not our prayer before the LORD our God, that xl. II, &c.). The cognate verb and adj. are often rendered by have compassion on (e.g. Is. xlix. 15), and full of compassion (e.g. Ps. Ixxviii. 38). Compassion would be the best word to adopt uniformly for this word and its cognates.

forgivenesses] Ps. cxxx. 4, With thee is forgiveness'; and Neh. ix. 17, 'a God of forgivenesses.

though) because or for. The clause explains how it is that there is need for the exercise of forgiveness by God.

10. obeyed (lit. hearkened to) the voice, &c.] So Ex. xv. 26, xix. 5; and especially in Deut. (as iv. 30, ix. 23, xxviii. 1, 2, 15), and Jer. (as iii. 13, ix. 13, xliv. 23). Cf. with this verse Bar. i. 18, ii. 10.

to walk in his laws] Cf. Jer. xxvi. 4, xxxii. 23, xliv. 10, 23.

which he set before us] See Deut. iv. 8, xi. 32 ; Jer. ix. 13, xliv. 10, and esp. xxvi. 4 (cf. the last clause).

even by departing] and have turned aside, as v. 5. so as not to obey (hearken to) thy voice) as Jer. xviii. 10, xlii. 13 (Heb.).

and so there hath been poured out upon us the curse and the oath, that is written, &c.] *Poured out, Jer. xlii. 18, xliv. 6 (of anger): 'the curse that is written in,' as Deut. xxix. 20, the reference being here to Deut. xxviii. 15 ff.; ‘curse' strengthened by ‘oath,' as Num. v. 21,

Moses, the servant of God] Neh. X. 29: and (with Jehovah for God) Deut. xxxiv. 5, and often in Josh. (as i. 1, 13, 15, viii. 31, 33).

12. confirmed his words) The phrase as Neh. ix. 8; cf. Deut. ix. 5, 1 Ki. viii. 20, al. with this verse, cf. Bar. ii. 1, 2. judges) apparently a general term for rulers, as Ps. ii. 10.

by bringing, &c.] to bring evil upon’ is a phrase common in Jer., as xxxv. 17, xxxvi. 31 (where 'pronounced' is lit. spake, as here).

for) better, so that, such that, i Ki. iii. 12. under the whole heaven] cf. on vii. 27.

As it is written, &c.] Cf. Deut. xxviii. 156, xxx. I. yet have we not intreated the favour of (R. V.)] lit. made the face sweet (i.e. gracious), the idiom used with reference to a human object

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Neh. X. 29:

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we might turn from our iniquities, and understand thy truth. Therefore hath the LORD watched upon the evil, 14 and brought it upon us : for the LORD our God is righteous in all his works which he doeth : for we obeyed not his voice. And now, O Lord our God, that hast brought thy 15 people forth out of the land of Egypt with a mighty hand, and hast gotten thee renown, as at this day; we have sinned, we have done wickedly. O Lord, according to all 16 thy righteousness, I beseech thee, let thine anger and thy in Job xi. 19; Ps. xlv. 12 ; Pr. xix. 6, and frequently with reference to God, as Ex. xxxii. 11; 1 Sam. xiii. 12; Jer. xxvi. 19, al. Cf. Bar. ii. 8.

understand thy truth] better (R.V.), have discernment in thy truth, "truth' being used in the objective sense which it has in viii. 12, and the meaning being (Keil, Prince) to acquire insight into God's revealed will, and to think and act in accordance with it. The words might, however, also be rendered (R.V. mars.) deal wisely (viz. in amending our ways) through thy truth (v. Lengerke, Behrm.), i.e. through Thy revealed word. The verb has the former meaning (understand, discern) in v. 25; and the latter in xi. 33, 35, xii. 3, 10..

And (so) Jehovah hath watched over] The same expression in Jer. i. 12, xxxi. 28, xliv. 27 ('I watch over them for evil and not for good '), the meaning being that Jehovah is wakeful or vigilant over the evil, that it may duly be brought 'when the right moment arrives. Cf. Bar. ii. 9.

is righteous] cf. Jer. xii. 1, Lam. i. 18, Ezr. ix. 15, Neh. ix. 8 end, 33.

in the matter of all his works which he hath done] cf. (with the same peculiar use of the prep. 'al) Neh. ix. 33, "and thou art righteous in the matter of all that is come upon us.' and we have not obeyed (lit. hearkened to) his voice] cf. v. 10.

16—19. The confession passes now gradually into a supplication for help. Cf. Bar. ii. 11, 12 a, 13a, 14 a, 16b, 17a, 19.

15. that hast brought, &c.] Deut. vi. 21, ix. 26, xxvi. 8; cf. Jer. xxxii. 21.

and hast made thee a name, as at this day] verbatim (in the Heb.), though not quite literatim, as Jer. xxxii. 20 and Neh. ix. 10; to make one. self a name (i.e. to gain renown), also, Gen. xi. 4, and (of God) Is. Ixiii. 12, 14, and (with a syn. in the Heb. for make) 2 Sam. vii. 23.

we have sinned, we have done wickedly) 1 Ki. viii. 47.

16. according to all thy righteousnesses] The plural, of righteousness exhibited in deeds, or, in other words, of acts of righteousness : so Jud. v. II; 1 Sam. xii. 7; Mic. vi. 5 ; Ps. ciii. 6. God's deliverance of His people, according to His covenant-promise, when and in so far as it deserves it, is regarded as a manifestation of His righteousness. As in the last verse, God's acts of mercy towards His people and His interpositions on its behalf, in the past, are appealed to as a ground why He should interpose similarly now. | There is a similar ambiguity in the verb and accompanying prep. in Ps. ci. 2.

fury be turned away from thy city Jerusalem, thy holy mountain : because for our sins, and for the iniquities of

our fathers, Jerusalem and thy people are become a reproach 17 to all that are about us. Now therefore, O our God, hear

the prayer of thy servant, and his supplications, and cause

thy face to shine upon thy sanctuary that is desolate, for 13 the Lord's sake. O my God, incline thine ear, and hear;

open thine eyes, and behold our desolations, and the city which is called by thy name: for we do not present our

let thine anger, &c.] for the expression, cf. Num. xxv. 4, Jer. xxiii. 20, XXX. 24, Is. xii. 1.

thy city] v. 19 : cf. 'my city,' Is. xlv. 13.
thy holy mountain] Ps. xv. 1, xliii. 3, and elsewhere. So v. 24.

the iniquities of our fathers] Cf. Lev. xxvi. 39, Jer. xi. 10, Is. Ixv. 7, Neh. ix. 2 ; also Ps. lxxix. 8.

a reproach to all that are round about us] Cf. Ps. xliv. 13, lxxix. 4; also Ez. xxv. 3, 6, 8; xxxv. 10, 12, 13. The words may, however, also glance at "the position of the faithful Jews under Antiochus, since in addition to the tyranny of the king they had to endure the taunts of their heathen neighbours, the Edomites, the Ammonites, etc.' (Bevan).

17—19. The supplication becomes more urgent, especially in VU. 18, 19.

17. hearken unto the prayer, &c.] A reminiscence of 1 Ki. viii. 28 (= 2 Ch. vi. 19). Similarly Neh. i. 6, 11 (from 1 Ki. viii. 29).

cause thy face to shine upon] i.e. be favourable to: Num. vi. 25; Ps. lxvii. 1, lxxx. 3, 7, 19 (in a prayer for help, as here), cxix. 135.

desolate] The word (shāmēm) used in Lam. v. 18, mount Zion, which is desolate? (cf. 1 Macc. iv. 38), chosen perhaps at the same time with allusion to the transgression, or abomination, 'causing appalment' (shömēm, měshūmēm), of viii. 13, ix. 27, xi. 31, xii. 11.

for the Lord's sake] The words in themselves occasion no difficulty (cf. v. 19; Is. xlviii. 11, 'for mine own sake '), though for thy name's sake would be more usual (Jer. xiv. 7, 21; Ps. lxxix. 9): Jehovah's honour, or reputation, it is implied, would be impaired, if His sanctuary remained longer in abasement; out of regard to Himself, therefore, He is entreated to interfere. But the third person in the midst of a series of petitions in the second person, is very strange : it is probable, therefore, that either a letter or a word has dropped out in the Heb., and that we should read, either with Theod., Prince, for thine own sake, O Lord (cf. v. 19), or with LXX, Bevan, Marti, for thy servants' sake, O Lord (as in the very similar appeal of Is. lxiii. 17).

18. incline...and behold (lit. see)] Almost exactly the words in Hezekiah's prayer, 2 Ki. xix. 16 (=Is. xxxvii. 17).

desolations) v. 26: cf. Is. xlix. 19, lxi. 4 (twice).

over which thy name hath been called) i.e. of which Thou art the Owner. The sense of the expression appears from 2 Sam. xii. 28, ‘lest

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supplications before thee for our righteousnesses, but for thy great mercies. O Lord, hear; O Lord, forgive; O 19 Lord, hearken and do; defer not, for thine own sake, O my God : for thy city and thy people are called by thy name.

And whiles I was speaking, and praying, and confessing 20 my sin and the sin of my people Israel, and presenting my supplication before the LORD my God for the holy mountain of my God; yea, whiles I was speaking in prayer, 21 even the man Gabriel, whom I had seen in the vision at the I take the city, and my name be called over it,' in token, viz. of my having conquered it. The expression is often used, especially in Deuteronomic writers, of the people of Israel, Jerusalem, or the Temple, as v. 19; Deut. xxviii. 10;

Jer. vii. 10, 11, 14, 30, xiv. 9, xxv. 29; i Ki. viii. 43 ; Is. Ixiii. 19. The paraphrase of A.V., R.V., which is called by my name,' weakens and obscures the real force of the expression. Cf. further on Am. ix. 12.

present] lit. cause to fall : so v. 20, Jer. xxxviii. 26, xlii. 2, 9; cf. xxxvi. 7 (lit. 'their supplication will fall before Jehovah'), xxxvii. 20 (here in the sense of being accepted). The expression does not occur elsewhere in the O.T.: Prof. Kirkpatrick compares, however, Baruch ii. 19 (oŮ... Kataßáxlouev töv & Neov we do not cast down our supplication).

for...for] properly on (the ground of).

thy great compassions] v. 9. The same expression in Neh. ix. 19, 27, 31 (A.V., R.V., 'manifold mercies'): cf. 2 Sam. xxiv. 14 ('for his compassions are great '), Ps. cxix. 156.

19. hear...forgive] The combination is, no doubt, suggested by i Ki. viii. 306, 34, 36, 39.

hearken) attend, as the word is often rendered in the Psalms, xvii. 1, lv. 2, lxi. 1, lxxxvi. 6, cxlii. 6.

and do] cf. Jer. xiv. 7, 'though our iniquities testify against us, O Jehovah do for thy name's sake': see also on viii. 12.

defer not: for thine own sake, O my God, because, &c. (R. V.). The Hebrew accentuation places the main break in the verse at defer not,

defer not] as Ps. xl. 17 (=lxx. 5: in A.V., R. V., make no long tarrying)

for thine own sake] see on v. 17, end.

because thy name hath been called over thy city and thy people] see on v. 18.

20—23. Daniel's prayer heard ; and the angel Gabriel sent with the answer.

20. whiles] So v. 21. See on v. 2.
confessing) v. 4.
for the holy mountain of my God] cf. v. 16.

21. even the man] 'even' arises from an incorrect apprehension of the syntax, and should be omitted (as is done in R.V.).

in the vision at the beginning] viii. 16.

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