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confirmed than confuted. The balneæ of the ancients, particularly among the Romans, were often colleges of science and martial exercise; such were the buildings erected by Diocletian and Caracalla, and by the Emperor Adrian, according to Pausanias, as an ornament to the city of Corinth.
On the south side of this building, and very near it, we found the remains of a circular edifice, resembling those structures at Baiæ, in Campania, now called temples, but primarily baths. Half of this edifice remained in an entire state, it had a small corridor round the base of the dome with which it was originally covered. Farther ou, toward the sea, to the southwest, we found the ruin of a small oblong temple, and afterward observed another of considerable size, whose foundation remained unbroken. Then, turning toward the west, we came to the substruction of a very large building, but could comprehend nothing of its former history. At present it consists only of a series of vaults and spacious subterranean chambers, one beneath another, now serving as sheds for tenders and herds of goats. Again pursuing a southwestern course, we arrived at the immense theatre of the city, still in a state of considerable perfection. The semicircular range of seats is vaulted at either extremity: the diameter, taken from one side to the other, where the vaults remain, measured two hundred and fifty-two feet. Like almost every Grecian theatre, it was constructed by making the slope of the hill itself subservieat to the sweep necessary for accommodating spectators. It conmands a poble view of the sea, with the whole island of Te. nedos as the principal object immediately in front. Lower down, toward the port, were marble soroi, and other antiquities of less importance. The few inscriptions discovered here by Chandler, and by others, have been removed; neither is it necessary to add what has already been published. Perhaps, even in this brief description of the confused and desolate remains denoting the site of Alexandria Troas, it has not been altogether possible to avoid a repetition of observations made by preceding travellers.t
* Pausap. in Corinth. c. 3.
“From Bonarbashi, I set off, April 8, 1806, to a village called Kistambol, for the purpose of examining the ruins of Alexandria Troas. I procured a small hut for myself and servants; and leaving the baggage there, rode to Alexandria, at the distance of an hour. The ruins there, the different fragments of marble from Paros, and Marmora; the blocks of granite; all attest the former magnificence of this city. The theatre faced the sea, as seems to have been the custom whenever the situation aloved it. It is 'a mile from the shore, and commands a view of Tenedos, and the islands adjacent, To the north of this is a spacious oblong building, constructed with stone, and its work strong and massive. A herd of goats, guarded by some large dings, who much inolested the guides, was feeding by this place. The black felt tents of some wandering Turcomans were pitched at a small distance. A little to the east of the above building are the great ruins of the baths, of Roman work: in the wall are some of the earthen pipes, through which the water was conveyed. To the northwest of these are granite columns, lying on the ground ;, one of which measured twenty-seven feet in length, and in diameter more than four feet. By the port were columns of still greater dimensions. To the northeast of the baths are many sarcophagi of stone ; some of the lids of which resemble those represented in The drawings of the Necropolis of Telmessus. Mottraye, when on the spot, caused one of these tombs to be opened; and found in it two sculls, which crumbled to dust on being touched. The ancients used to deposit in them different persons of the same family, as may be seen by inscriptions found on them. I measured a sarcophagus here, eleven feet in length, and six in breadth But I did not observe any splendid monuments of this kind, to be compared with those which I observed at Aphrodisias, where are many sarcophagi ornamented with bas-reliefs, and figures, in excellent preservation. The antiquities of this place (now calleu Geyra, a few days distance to the southeast of Smyrna,) which I visited in December, 1805, have not been examined as they merit; and would, from their great magnificence and quantity, fully repay the pains and trouble of any one who would explore them.
We arrived again at Bergas, apd, taking a northern route, turned toward Vdjek, with an intentioň of visiting the tomb of Æsyetes. As we left the village, I observed, near an old cemetery, a large square slab of Parian marble, lying upon the soil, and broken in two pieces. From its form, I suspected that some inscription might be concealed upon its lower surface, and this proved to be the case. We had no sooner raised the two fragments, than there appeared the highly interesting tribute to the memory of Drusus Cæsar, son of Germanicus and Agrippina, which is now in the vestibule of the public library at Cambridge.* Arriving afterward at the village of Udjek, distant two hours from Bergas, I copied another inscription from a smaller piece of marble: this we left in the country. The legend is as follows:
"All the ground within the walls of Alexandria is covered with the valani (BaMan), producing the valanida, the cup of which is used for dyeing by the orientals, and some nations of Europe. An English vessel was taking in a load of this, when I passed by some months after. A beautiful slope of two miles, covered with this iree, and small bushes, among which are lying pieces of marble, and remains of the
city, carries you to the sea. H on the shore, is an oblong bollow spot, artificially formed, which was perhaps connected with the port; and this last had a canał about two hundred yards in length, which joined it to the sea. The communication of the canal on one side with the sea, and on the other with the circular basin, which formed the port, explains well this passage of Vitruvius ; Fossis ductis, fit aquæ exitus ad littus: et ex mari tempestatibus aucto in palvdes redundantia motionibus ercitatur.' Lib. i. c. 4.
"On a sinall rise of ground, without the walls of the town to the east, is a hot spring of mineral water, whieh supplies two basins at a small distance; one of which I found extremely warın. The people in the neighbourhood come there to obtain relief for different diseases Pococke says, some have thought this to be Larissa. This conjecture, I think, is very much strengthened by a reference which I find Attenzus makes, among other hot waters, to those at Troic Larissa. See lib. ii. c. 5
" Near the hot baths may he seen specimens of the netted building (opus reticulatum, as Vitruvius calls it) of the ancient Alexandrians, or Larisseans. A small ritulet runs in the plain below.
" I returned to Kistambol, with the remains of lamb, which were to serve for our supper, and which the guide had bought at Alexandria for the value of three shillings English. . While I examined the ruins, it was killed, skinned, and roasted on the spot by a large wood fire."
Walpole's MS. Journal. * See the account of it in a description of the “ Greek Marbles," No. XXIII. D. 15. published in Cambridge in 1809.
We then proceeded to Udjek Têpe, or the imdiense tumulus of Æsyetes, whose situation precisely agrees with the account given of that monument by Strabo. It is of all others the spot most remarkably adapted for viewing the plain of Troy, and is visible in almost all parts of Troas, From its top may be traced the course of the Scamander; the whole chain of Ida, stretching toward Lectum;* the snowy heights of GargaTus; and all the shores of the Hellespont near the mouth of the river, with Sigeum, and the other tumuli upon the coast. From this tumulus we descended once more into the plain of Troy, upon an eminence of the southern side of which it is placed, and came in half an hour to a village called Erkessy. In the street of this village is a marble soros, quite entire. This was brought from Alexandria Troas, and is now used as a public cistern. It is of one piece of stone, seven feet in length, three feet and a half wide, and without including the operculum, rather more than three feet in depth. The inscription upon it is in Greek characters, beautifully cut, and in a very perfect state. Having before published the original,* I shall bere merely add a translation; as it will serve to prove what I so lately stated concerning the nature of the Grecian, and, I may add, Egyptian soros; the chamber of the great pyramid of Cheops containing a sepulchre of granite of the same form and size; and another, once the soros of Alex. ander the Great, mentioned by Herodian, being now in the Britislı museum.
* Mr. Walpole crossed the Idæan Chain, as appears by the following extract from his Journal, relating to an excursion he made from Alexandria Troas to the Adramyttian Gulph.
From the village of Kistambol, where on a stone sarcophagus, by the hut in which I lived, were the letters POST VMIA VENEREA, I set off to cross the part of Ida which separated the Troad from the Adramyttjan Gulph. This ridge of mountains is cailed, by Strabo, ñ ámo tou Arxtoð pāxis dratsivouca após try "18ny. p. 87). In an hour's time I reached Yalagick, where, on a stone by a fountain, I read the words Signifer, Imperator, Decurioni, well cut. The rocks near the road are of granite. I continued my route S. E. and E. S. E. for seven hours, passing small streamg running down from the mountains : by the sides grew the nerium (which Hasselquist asserts is the tree referred to by David, Psalm i. 3.) and the plane. The therebinthus grew above, on the rocks. I then reached a hamlet,' Sunovassi, encircled by mountains; bere we procured a slied for our party to pass the night, which consisted of myself, a servant, a guide, and a black soldier who was to accompany me to Adramyttium. We were able to find some bread, which the Turks eat unleavened; some petmez: and some rice. The inhabitants of the village, who were Turks, showed no disposition to annoy us, nor any impertinent curiosity, although in that recess of Ida, they could see hut few European travellers. Corn, olives, cotton, and maize, the ears of which are eaten roasted, were the produce of their fields. From the mountain side they got fir, and the wood of the arbutus, to supply their liearthis. At hate past eight the next morning I left Sunovassi: at nine, I began to ascend Dikili-Dah, part of Ida. Nothing could exceed the beautiful scenery which I beheld on all sides, as I continued my ride, occasionally casting my eye downward upon forests of pines, and on villages hanging on the side, or placed at the feet of the mountains. On reaching the summit, the sea and island of Mitylene presented themselves; aod in three hours time, from the moment of ascending, I reached the shore, along which I continued to ride till a quarter before four, when I turned up to the N. È.. On the sea side were pieces of fir, cut down from Ida, for ship-building. At half past four I arrived at 'Avgillar, a small village, where I slept. There is a Greek inscription placed sideways in the outer wall of the mosque. The next day, at the distance of an hour and a half, I passed some warm baths, which I was not able to examine, as some Turkish women were there bathing. These may be the hot waters, to which Galen says, an invalid, who lived not far from Pergamus, was sent, (De Sim. Med. p. 296. v. 13.) AQAVTi nájlwWv. In two hours and a half from the baths is Adramyttium, now called Edremit: distant more than an hour from the sea. From that place,
....“ Aurelius Agathopodos Othoniacus, and the son of Aurelius Paulinus, who also was a Pancratiast, of whom there is a hollow statue in the temple of Smintheus, and here in the temple of Esculapius, I have placed this soros for myself and my dearest father, the afore-written Aurelius Paulinus, and to my descendants. But if any person shall dare to open this soros, and lay in it the dead body of any other, or any man's bones, he shall pay, as a fine to the city of the Troadenses, two thousand five hundred drachmas, and to the most sacred treasury as much more.”
The characters of this inscription cover one side of the soros at Erkessy, precisely as the hyeroglyphical characters cover those of the Alexandrian. Both one and the other have been used by the moderns as cisterns; and it may reasonably be presumed the repugnance of a very few of our English antiquaries, to admit that such cisterns were originally designed as teceptacles for the dead, will, in the view of satisfactory evideace, be done away.
going first west, and then southwest, I came to Chemar in two hours. From Cle: mar, passing Karagatch, you reach in seven hours Aiasmata, distant two miles from the sea."
Walpole's MS. Journal. * See the “ Jetter addressed to the gentlemen of the British Museum," containing a summary of the author's observations concerning " the tomb of Alexander," with some additional evidence respecting the Alexandrian soros, printed at Cambridge in 1809, by way of supplement to a former dissertation on the same subject.
We were one hour and a quarter going from Erkessy to Sigeum, or as it is now called, Yeny Cheyr. The promontory on which the present village is situated bears the name of Cape Janissary. Its inhabitants are all Greeks, living with great cleanliness in their little cottages, and practising the customs of their forefathers, in their hospitality 'to strangers. Many valuable aptiquities have, at different times, been discovered by the inhabitants. They brought to me an extremely rare bronze medal of Sigeum: on this the letters [ITE, with the square sigma, were very perfect. The stone with the famous Sigean inscription, had been removed a short time before, by the British ambassador; and more recently, a marble had been found at Koumkeuy, a village in the neighbourhood, with an inscription of the age of the Seleucida: this they permitted me to copy. It is, perhaps, Dearly as ancient as the well-known inscription, now placed in the vestibule of the library of Trinity College, Cambridge, brought from Sigeum, by Edward Wortley Montague; although, in the uncertainty which involves the series of Syrian kings, it is impossible to assigu any precise date. Antiochus, in the year 196, A. C. went into the *Thracian Chersonesus, to establish a kingdom there, and in the neighbouring country, for Seleucus, his second son* It is, however, difficult to discover any particular incident, in the history of the Seleucidæ, alluded to by the first part of the inscription. Antiochus was woupded in some battle; and Metrodorus probably afforded him assistance. The purport of the inscription is not very clear, until we arrive at the eighth line; we there see, that " Metrodorus of Amphipolis, the son of Timocles, is praised by the senate and
people, for his virtue and
good will toward the kings Antiochus and Seleucus, and the people: he is deemed a benefactor to the state ; is to have access to the senate, and to be inscribed into the tribe and fraternity, to which he may wish to belong." No attempt, except in a letter or two, has been made toward the restoration of the first part of the inscription; the characters are given as they appeared upon the marble, throughout the wbole: and the learned reader will perceive where the words require correction
* Livy, lib. xxxiii, Appian. in Syriasis. Prideaux, part 2.