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which have been dishonourably employed upon each other, WILbe turned against the common enemy of our religion. Have K. of Eng compassion upon the poor Christians that live in Jerusalem and the neighbouring country, and endeavour to retrieve them from tyranny and oppression. Do your utmost to shew your repentance for your own miscarriages; and make some satisfaction for the rapine and murder, for the libertinism and desolation of Christian countries, of which you have been too much guilty. Give a check to the insolence of the barbarians, whose business it is to extinguish the name of Christianity. As for us, we shall omit nothing on our part to promote so glorious an undertaking. And therefore, relying chiefly on the authority of almighty God, derived upon us through the hands of his holy apostles St. Peter and St. Paul; in reliance upon this authority, I say, by virtue of which the power of binding and loosing is delegated to us; all those who venture their lives and fortunes in this expedition (upon condition they confess their faults, and are heartily sorry for them), shall receive a plenary indulgence at present; and, which is more, they will have a comfortable expectation of immortal happiness at the resurrection of the just. Those, likewise, who, being hindered from going themselves, shall either send forces, or contribute towards the charge of the expedition, shall have a share in the same indulgence.

"Go on, therefore, in the name of God, you that are famous for military exploits : distinguish yourselves in your Saviour's cause, and despise the hazard of the enterprise: for the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which shall be revealed in us. This is our advice and injunction, both to those that are here, and those that are absent, and let the next spring be the time to set forward. You cannot engage too soon, for God will go along with you: the seasons will smile upon the enterprise, and the year will furnish plenty for your forces. Those that fall in the field will go in triumph into heaven; and those that survive will have the honour of seeing our Saviour's sepulchre. To conclude, happy are those that engage in this expedition, and have the privilege of viewing that holy country, in which God has condescended to converse with mankind: a place which was the

ANSELM, scene of all the wonders of his incarnation, and where he Abp. Cant. was born, crucified, and raised from the dead for us." Mat. Paris. Hist. Major. 23.

After this speech, the pope commanded the prelates in the synod to press the expedition with all imaginable vigour at their return home.

This exhortation, together with some other concurrent motives, made a wonderful impression upon the princes and The expedi- people of Christendom: the business was generally relished, tion against the Saracens a strong confederacy set on foot, and the croisade immediundertaken. ately undertaken. Some of the principal persons of the expedition, were Hugh, Philip the king of France's brother; Godfrey, duke of Lorraine; Robert, duke of Normandy; Raimond, count of Thoulouse; Robert, earl of Flanders; Stephen, earl of Chartres; Baldwin and Eustathius, brothers to duke Godfrey; Stephen, earl of Albemarle; Boamund, of Puglia, a Norman; Stephen, earl of Blois, &c. These, with several others not mentioned, were at the head of the expedition: and, at the opening of the campaign, set forward with a vast army against the infidels.

That which started the first thought, and pushed the pope and princes upon the enterprise, seems to have been the zealous preaching of Peter the Hermit. This Peter, a Frenchman by birth, and a priest by profession, had lately come off a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. While he was at Jerusalem, he was extremely affected with the servitude and ill usage the Christians lay under; of which, beside his own observation, he had a full relation from the patriarch Simeon. Before his coming away he promised the patriarch to use his interest with the Western Christians, to engage for them. But that which determined Peter more strongly for the cause, was, as it is said, our Saviour's appearing to him in a dream, commanding him to go on, with a promise of success to the undertaking. Upon the encouragement of this vision, he immediately embarked, and landing at Bari in Italy, he went directly for Rome, where, waiting upon pope Urban, he delivered letters from the patriarch and other . persons of note at Jerusalem; and, with great particularity

Mat. Paris. and rhetorick, set forth the miseries the Christians of that

P. 24.

Peter the

preaches up
the Holy


country endured. Upon this the pope promised his assistance when opportunity should serve; and made his word good in the council of Clermont above mentioned.

of Eng.


And thus having given an account of the rise of the holy WILwar, in which several of our princes were engaged, I shall at LIAM II. present pursue it no farther: only it will not be improper to take notice, that to make the enterprise more successful, it was thought fit to pray for the protection of the blessed Virgin in a more particular manner. To this purpose, the council settled a new office in honour of our Lady. This service was first drawn up in the year 1056, by Peter Damiani, for the use of his monastery in Germany, and ordered to be joined to the canonical hours, and performed every day. This office the council of Clermont enjoined the clergy in general, that by such extraordinary application, the blessed Virgin might intercede the more effectually with our blessed Saviour to support the crusade in their dangerous undertaking against the infidels. The laity likewise, Baron. Ansoon after, had a share in this liturgical address.

nal. tom. 11. ad Ann.


Robert, duke of Normandy, to furnish his quota for the 1056. et Palestine expedition, engaged his duchy of Normandy to his brother of England for three years, on consideration of a sum of money agreed between them. To provide this sum, which was raised partly by tax and partly by way of benevolence, the English were miserably impoverished. The king, who was eager for his brother's duchy, spared no place upon the occasion: the Church ornaments were sold, the altars plundered of the holy plate, and if there was any gold or silver about the Bible it was torn off. And here Anselm, to shew himself a good subject, supplied the king Eadmer. to the utmost of his power.

Hist. No

p. 35.


About this time, William, bishop of Durham, departed The death of William, this life. He was a person, as Eadmer and Malmsbury de- bishop of scribe him, of more rhetorick than sincerity. He was very His characfar in the favour of William Rufus at his coming to the ter. crown; but this advantage at court could not keep him firm to his prince, for, without any manner of disobligation on the king's side, he deserted to Odo, bishop of Baieux, and his party. And when that interest sunk, he was banished for his misbehaviour. But the king, after two years, passed over the matter, and gave him leave to return. And now, being seated in his former post at Durham, he endeavoured to retrieve himself at court. To this purpose, he was perfectly obsequious to the king's pleasure, tacked with his

ANSELM, humour to every point, and went into all his measures, of Abp. Cant.' what kind soever. This compliance, notwithstanding, did not prevent his falling at last under the king's displeasure. And when he was obliged to appear in person at court, and answer a charge drawn up against him, he sent word he was sick; upon which the king swore, in his usual oath, he did but counterfeit. However, the bishop's sickness was in earnest, and carried him off in a few days after. This bishop procured a license from pope Gregory VII. to remove the monks of Yarrow to Durham; and, to make way for them, dislodged the secular clergy, and provided them with benefices elsewhere. He settled several manors of his own purMalmsb. de chasing upon the monks, and procured a charter of the

Gest. Pon

tif. 1. 3. fol. Conqueror to confirm the endowment.


Godwin in


This year, Murchertach, king of Ireland, Donagh, bishop Episc. Du- of Dublin, with the rest of the prelates, temporal nobility, Waterford clergy, and commonalty of that island, wrote to Anselm to erected into acquaint him that Waterford, being a very populous city, a bishoprick. had suffered for want of a bishop: they request him therefore to do his part towards the removing this inconvenience. To this purpose they desire him to consecrate one Malchus, a priest, whom they had pitched upon for that station. This Malchus they commend from all the topicks of the character designed for him; for his orthodoxy, for his learning, for his extraction, and for all the qualifications of a spiritual governor. This letter is subscribed by the king, by duke Dermeth, his brother, by Donagh, bishop of Dublin, by the bishops of Meath, Leinster, &c.

Anselm, after he had examined the person recommended, and found him qualified for his function, took the customary profession of canonical obedience from him, and then consecrated him at Canterbury, with the assistance of two of his suffragans.

The king, having taken possession of Normandy, and settled that duchy to his satisfaction, returned into England; and soon after, marching his forces into Wales, brought that country to submission. And now, there being nothing of war or civil disturbance, it was generally hoped the king would have been contented that Anselm should exercise his spiritual jurisdiction without impediment, and proceed to a revival of discipline and a reformation of


Hist. Nov.

1. 2. p. 36.

A new

breach be

tween the king and Anselm.


manners: for the archbishop, having formerly desired the LIAM II. king that a synod might be called, and the Church put under K. of Eng. a due regulation, his answer was, that he could not think of such an expedient till his affairs were less embarrassed. And since the opportunity seemed to promise fair, Anselm designed to lay hold of it, but was discouraged in his application; for now he found himself under the king's displeasure, who sent him word, he was by no means satisfied with the quota the archbishop furnished for the Welsh expedition, that he failed in his proportion, and that his men were neither well accoutred nor fit for service; that he designed to have him tried at his court for this misdemeanour, and ordered him to be ready to make his appearance at the first summons. By this Anselm perceived the king had a mind to fall out with him; that it was to no effect to venture himself upon his trial, being fully persuaded the regards of justice would be set aside, either by fear or interest, and that the whole proceedings would be absolutely governed by the king's pleasure: though, by the way, Anselm seems to have misapprehended this point, for, being questioned only in a civil cause, and upon a branch of allegiance and duty owing to the crown, he ought to have appeared in the king's court, and trusted the event with Providence. And had the king pursued his resentment, and brought the archbishop to the test, it is possible he might have altered his mind upon recollection: at present, he thought silence the best expedient, and therefore returned no answer to the message. And now, finding his authority was too weak for the disorder of the times; that the religious were thrown out of their property; that the rule of their institution was not observed; that immorality and injustice gained ground, and things grew worse and worse continually; that it was impossible for him to provide an effectual remedy, since all this license was countenanced at court, and the prince was a party in the miscarriage; and since nothing could be done at home, the archbishop thought himself obliged in conscience to go in person to Rome, and consult the pope upon the affair.


And being at court, according to custom, the Whitsuntide Malmsbur. following, he sounded the king, in hopes to find him in a de Gest. better disposition, but was disappointed upon the enquiry; fol. 125. and, which was still more discouraging, he perceived his

Pontif. 1. 1.


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