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Of illustrious Romans during this period, we may remark,
SCIPIO AFRICANUS II, the conqueror of Numantia, 132, whence he received the additional surname of Numantinus.
CAIUS LELIUS, Prætor in the Lusitanian war against Viriathus, 141.
DECIMUS, JUNIUS BRUTUS, General in the Lusitanian war, builds Valentia, 137.
P. CORN. SCIPIO, NASICA, opposed the Gracchi.
P. RUPILIUS, general against the slaves in Sicily, 132.
CAIUS MARIUS, serves in the wars against the Numantines, against Jugurtha, the Teutones, &c., begins the civil war with Sylla, 88; died 86.
CECILIUS METELLUS, conquers Dalmatia, and is thence surnamed Dalmaticus, 118.
Q. C. METELLUS, defeats Jugurtha, and is thence surnamed Numidicus, 109.
L. C. METELLUS, conquers Crete, and is thence surnamed Creticus, 66.
Q. SERVILIUS CEPIO, General in the Cimbrian war, defeated by the Teutones, 105.
Q. LUTATIUS CATULUS, General in the war with the Teutones and Cimbri, defeats them, 101.
L. C. DOLABELLA, conquers Lusitania, 99.
P. RUTILIUS RUFUS, the consul, banished by Sylla, 94. CNEUS POMPEIUS, (surnamed Strabo,) General in the Marsic war, 91; opposes Cinna and Marius.
L. CORN. SYLLA, served in the Numidian, Cimbrian, and Marsic wars; appointed to conduct the Mithridatie war, 89; which exciting the jealousy of Marius, leads to the civil war with him, 88; dies, 78.
P. SULPICIUS RUFUS, the Tribune, betrayed to Sylla, who puts him to death, 87.
L. CORN. CINNA, being banished, joins Marius, 86; assassinated, 84.
L. MURENA, General under Sylla in the Mithridatic war, 83
L. SERTORIUS, General against the Teutones and Cimbri, supports Marius and Cinna; is proscribed by Sylla, and flies to Spain; makes a league with Mithridates, 74; is killed by Perpenna, 73.
M. EMILIUS LEPIDUS, joins the faction of Marius, after the death of Sylla, 77.
LICINIUS LUCULLUS, served in the Marsic war; General in the Mithridatic war, 74; defeats Mithridates and Tigranes, 69; is superseded by Pompey.
AURELIUS COTTA, opposed Marius; made consul with Lucullus, in the Mithridatic war, 74.
LICINIUS CRASSUS, General against the Gladiators, 71; makes one of the 1st Triumvirate, 60; made Proconsul of Syria, 54; plunders the temple at Jerusalem ; is defeated and killed by the Parthians, 53.
CNEUS POMPEIUS, (or Pompey the Great) espoused the interests of Sylla in the civil war with Marius, and after the death of the former, still opposed the Marian faction; conquers Syria, 65; finishes the Mithridatic war, 63; becomes one of the first Triumvirate, 60; begins the civil war with Cæsar, 50; is defeated in the battle of Pharsalia, 48; flies into Egypt, where he is killed by order of Ptolemy; his sons, CNEUS and SExtus, carried on the war in Spain; the former was killed in the battle of Munda, 45; and the latter fled to Sicily; he was defeated in a naval battle by Octavius and Lepidus, fled into Asia, and was put to death by Antony, 35. L. JULIUS CESAR, when only 16 years of age was proscribed by Sylla as a Marian, 84; went into Asia; returned to Rome upon the death of Sylla, 78; after gra
dually rising through all the offices of Military Tribune, Questor, Edile, High Priest, and Triumvir, 60, he obtained the provinces of the two Gauls for 5, (afterwards extended to 10) years, 59; during this time he pursued his conquests in Germany, Helvetia, Gaul, and Britain. He began the civil war with Pompey, 50, finished it in the battle of Pharsalia, 48-prosecuted his victories in Africa and Spain, and returned to Rome, 44-was made perpetual Dictator, and killed in a conspiracy of Brutus and others the same year.
M. CATO, Jun. surnamed of Utica, (great grandson of the Censor) assists Cicero to quel the Conspiracy of Catiline, 63-opposes Cæsar in the war of Africa, 46-kills himself the some year.
PUBLIUS CLODIUS, the Tribune, procures the banishment of Cicero, 58-is murdered by Milo, 52.
AULUS GABINIUS, Proconsul of Syria, settles the affairs of Judea, 57, and Egypt, 55.
LABIENUS, Caesar's General in Gaul, 55-goes over to Pompey, 49-is killed in the battle of Munda, 45. CAIUS CASSIUS followed the interests of Pompey in the civil war with Cæsar, who gives him his life after the battle of Pharsalia, 48-joins Brutus in the Conspiracy against Cæsar, 44-receives Africa as his province-kills himself after the battle of Philippi, 42.
M. BRUTUS, espouses Pompey's party against Cæsar, who spares his life after the battle of Pharsalia, 48-stabs Cæsar in the Senate House 44-is defeated in the battle of Philippi, and kills himself, 42.
OCTAVIUS (surnamed) AUGUSTUS CESAR, adopted by his uncle Julius Cæsar, and at his death, though only 18 years of age, soon succeeds to his power-was made one of the 2nd Triumvirate, 43-he retains the western provinces for himself, appointing the east to Antony, and Africa to Lepidus-gains the battle of Philippi, 42
begins the civil war with Antony, 32-becomes head of the Roman State after the battle of Actium, 30.
M. ANTONY attaches himself to the party of Julius Cæsar -forms one of the 2nd Triumvirate, 43-begins the civil war with Octavius, 32—is defeated in the battle of Actium, 31-kills himself, 30.
M. EMILIUS LEPIDUS, Consul with Julius Cæsar, 46one of the 2nd Triumvirate, 43—receives Africa as his province-is banished by Octavius, 36.
VENTIDIUS, General in the Parthian war, defeats and kills
M. AGRIPPA, Minister to Augustus, advises the restoration of the republic, 29--quarrels with Marcellus, nephew of Augustus, and retires to Mitylene, 23-is recalled, and left in charge of the empire during the absence of Augustus in the East, 21-dies, 12.
M. LOLLIUS, General in Gaul, 16.
DRUSUS (brother of Tiberius), General in Gaul-conquers several German nations, 15-dies there, 9.
As opponents of the Romans during this period, we may notice
VIRIATHUS, Tyrant of Lusitania-after maintaining himself for 14 years against the Roman power, he was treacherously put to death by Capio, 141.
EUNUS, the Syrian slave, begins the servile war in Sicily, 135-is conquered and killed by Perpenna, 132.
ARISTONICUS, Tyrant of Pergamus, defeated by Perpenna,
MITHRIDATES VII. (surnamed Eupator and the Great,)
king of Pontus, 123—makes war upon the Roman allies in Asia, which leads to the Mithridatic war, 89-in which the king of Pontus was successful in Asia and
Greece for the first three years, but his forces were then defeated by Sylla, 86, and he was reduced to sue for peace, 84-war soon broke out again, and Mithridates was defeated by Lucullus, 74, and 69, and by Pompey, 66-his own son rebelled against him, and Mithridates being defeated in battle by him, killed himself, 63. JUGURTHA, grandson of Masinissa, king of Numidia, appointed by Micipsa joint heir with his sons Adherbal and Hiempsal, to the throne-Jugurtha destroyed Hiempsal and deposed Adherbal, who, flying to the Romans for protection, this caused the Jugurthine war, 111; which was finished by Marius 106, Jugurtha being treacherously delivered up to him by Bacchus, king of Mauri
SPARTACUS, the Gladiator, begins the Servile war, 73-is defeated and killed by Crassus and Pompey, 71...
Philosophy flourished during this period, under the Stoics,
ANTIPATER of Tarsus, (surnamed Calamoboas) 144.
POSIDONIUS of Apamea, the Astronomer, 79.
DIODORUS, 140-ERYMNIUS, 126-ATHENION, 108.APELLICON of Teia, Collector and Proprietor of the famous library at Athens, which was carried to Rome by Sylla, 86. TYRANNION of Pontus, the Grammarian, 71.
ANDRONICUS of Rhodes, (revised and published the works of Aristotle and Theophrastus) 59.
CRATIPPUS of Mitylene, 53.
NICHOLAS DAMASCENUS, the Historian, 12.
CLITOMACHUS of Carthage, successor to Carneades of Cy