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Memoirs of Sir Arthur Wellesley, K. B. Lieutenant General of his Majefty's Forces, Chief Secretary to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, &c. &c. (Continued from page 456.)
AT the commencemeut of the year 1800, general Harris having quitted India for Europe, the command of the Madras army devolved upon ma jor gen. Brathwaite ; about which period it was judged expedient to order colonel Wellesley upon an expedition against the freebooter Dhoondia Waugh, who was at this time in confiderable force, and committed the moft violent outrages upon the company's territory, and of whom it was neceifary to make a fevere example.
This perfon, originally a pattifan in the fervice of the Pata ftate of Savanore, having committed various depredations on the territorities of Tippo Sultaun, had incurred the refentment of that prince, who having found means to fecure his perfon, he was induced by him to become a mahometan, and engage in his fervice. In fome time, however, Tippoo, either fufpecting the fidelity, or having detected Dhoondia in fome treacherous projects, confined him in the fort of Seringapatam, where he was actually found in irons, at the time of its capture by general Harris.
He was, with many others in fi milar circumstances, releafed in confequence of that event: but instead of manifefling gratitude to his deliverers, he fled in the direction of Bednore, where, affociating himself with fome of the disbanded cavalry of Tippoo, and various predatory adventurers, he fpread rapine and defolation throughout that fine province. In the months of July and Auguft, 1799, colonels Stevenfon and Dairymple, of the Madias army, had been fent against him, took fome of the forts of which he had poffeffed himself, deftroyed many of his men, and drove him in
was not deemed prudent to follow him. to the Marhatta territory, whither i was not deemed prudent to follow him. tifement, it was not fufficient to deter Severe, however, as was this chaíDhoondia from again tempting his fate Upon the return of thofe offcers to their cantonments, he again commenced hoftilities, and in the courfe of a few months his force had increafed to that alarming extent, s to menace the tranquility of the com pany's poffeffions, and thofe of its al lies in the western provinces of the peninfula. Hence rofe the neceffity of detaching col. Wellesley with fuch a force as fhould, directed by his ac knowledged military talents, and conducted by his accustomed zeal and activity, leave little doubt of the total fubjugation of the rebel. Not was the event mifcalculated. In the month of September, 1800, this gal lant officer took the field: on the 5th, he entered the nizam's territories; and on the 9th, after a series of the moft masterly movements, executed with almoft unexampled vigour and rapidity, he intercepted Dhoondia's force, confifting of 5,000 cavalry, at Conaligull, on his march to the weftward. This body was ftrongly pofted, its rear and left flank being covered by the rock and village of Conahgull; at this moment the horse alone of colonel Wellefley's army were come up. With thefe, however, he determined to attack the enemy, and at the head of the 19th and 25th dragoons, and ft and 2d regiment! of native cavalry, extended into one line, in order to prevent his being outflanked, he commenced the bare. The enemy at first thewed much firmness; but fuch was the termination and rapidity of the charge, that he foon gave way, and was purford for feveral miles by the conquerors Dhoondia with vast numbers of his followers were killed, and the whole body was fo broken up and difperfe as never again to caufe any difter bance.
For this great and effential fervice colonel Wellesley received the thanks of general Brathwaite and of the governor-general in council, for the indefatigable activity which he difplayed in all his operations-his judicious arrangements for the fupply of his army, and the maferly difpofition which terminated in the defeat and difcomfiture of the enemy. In effect, this thort, but brilliant and decifive campaign raised the character of coonel Wellesley in India to a degree, in the estimation of military men, which even his fubfequent great actions in that country have not heigh ened.
At this time the first revolutionary war, which preceded the fhort-lived peace of Amiens, raged in every quarter of the globe. Having efta lithed an apparently profound tranquility throughout India, the great ind comprehenfive mind of the goveror-general, now marquis Wellesley, neditated an expedition to Batavia, io e commanded by general Baird, who ad diftinguished himfelf by leading he affault at Seringapatam, in the vent of the fuccefs of this enterprife, part of the force was to have been etached for the purpose of attacking he Mauritius and the ifle of Bourbon. Colonel Wellesley was deftined to is important duty. Accordingly, in he month of December, 1800, that fficer was recalled from his comand in the Myfore, and quitted his overnment of Seringapatam, folowed by the good withes and prayers f the native inhabitants, and the fin ereft teftimonies of friendship and reect from the troops fo long under is command.
From fome ftrange misconception f the powers of the governor-genel, the neceffary co-operation of adiral Rainer, then commanding in hief in the Indian feas, could not be btained to this great and delirable ob&; and it accordingly fell to the round, very much to the detriment
and injury of the British interests in India.
This circumftance enabled the governor-general to avail himself once more of the fervices of colonel Wellefley in the Myfore; he was accordingly remanded to the command of the forces in that country, and to his government of Seringapatam; to which capital he returned in May, 1801.
In the interval between this period and the Marhaita war, in which the fubject of this memoir took fuch a diftinguished part, he attained the rank of major-gen. in his majesty's forces.
It would be as foreign to the plan of this part of our publication, as it would far exceed our limits, to enter into a detailed account of the caufes and orign of the hoftilities commenced by the British government of India against the Marhatta chieftans, Bhoolla and Scindeah, in Novem ber, 1802, and which terminated fo glorioufly for England in the following year. To dwell upon the profound policy, the unabating energy. and the unchecked profperity which marked this conteft from the beginning, would be to enter upon the eulogium of the marquis Wellesleya fubject far beyond our feeble pen. and to be handed down to pofterity by far other abilities than those we prefume to poffels. Suffice it for the prefent, that when the intrigues of thofe chieftains, their predatory fpirit and the ufurpation of the peithwah's authority by one of them, had rendered it indifpenfably neceffary to the exiftence of the British power in la dia that they should be checked in their career, lord Clive, then at the head of the Madras government, affembled an army of 19,000 men, under lieutenant-general Stuart, on the north-western frontier; whence it became neceffary to detach a very confiderable force into the Marhattá territories, in order to refcue Poonah,
the capital of the peifhwal, our ally, as well as the perfon of that prince himfelf, from the rapacious grafp of Scindeah and Holkar, who were conrending who thould poffefs himfelf of both.
This force, confifting of about 12,000 men, was placed under the command of major-general Wellef ley, who had alfo under him polonel Steventon, at the head of the nizam's, fubfidiary force of nearly 9,000 troops, ftrengthened by 6,000 of that prince's difciplined infantry, and about 9,000 of his cavalry; making, in the whole, an army of nearly 35,000 men, with a proportionate train of artillery.
very critical juncture. Indeperden.
Having, by the judicious position of the force under colonel Stevenfon, fecured his communication with the latter, and fupplies of provifions for his own army, general Weilefley deemed it effential to advance to Poonagh the whole of the force destined to refcue the peithiwah from the tyrannous ufurpation of the Marhatta chieftain Holkar, who was not only in poffeffion of his peton, but of his capital and dominions. On the night of the 19th of April, therefore, live ing undoubted information that Holkar's general was determined to plun
Having fucceeded in completely reftoring tranquility in the dominions of the peifh wah, and placed the revenues and troops of that prince upon the belt footing, in contemplation of the approaching campaign, rendered more than probable by the haltile confederation of Bhooflı ard Scindenh, immediately under the influence of French intrigue and interference, generai Welefley marched from Foonah on the 4th of June, with the main body of his army, and on the 14th, took up his ground at Walker, a throng post belonging to Scindeah, within a fhort distance of the city and almost impregnable for tiefs of Amednagur, belonging alfo to that chieftain, and eighty miles
of the British troops, he pushed forward over a rugged country, through a dangerous and difficult pafs, and in thirty-two hours reached the capital of the peithwah, at the head of his cavalry, after a forced march of fixty miles! The unexampled celerity of this movement faved Poonah from the dreadful fate by which it was memaced; and in a few days he had the fatisfaction of restoring this city to
der and buin Poonah on the approach.diftant from Poonah: a pofition chofen with the greatest judgment, as it placed the Bith army in the best fituation for commencing hoftilities, fhould the pending negociations be broken off between the British government and the Mathatta confederates.
In this advanced point of the Deccan, it became neceflary for the go- | vernor-general, on the ground of avoiding unneceffary delay in the imlawful fovereign, audit the rejoic-portant difcuffions to which we have ings of the inhabitants, who, as well above adverted, to veft general Weias the peithwah, manifefted the fly with full powers to carry them greatest gratitude to the British gene- on, and fettle, on the fpot, every refal for their unexpected and aimoft quitite arrangement either for peace unhoped-for deliverance. or war, as circumftances thould determine. This important commini
The refult of this brilliant achievement was of the utmoit confequence, on was accordingly bestowed on geto the British interefts in India, at a
ral Wellesley, whofe fubfequent conquest, the fift fruits of general Wellefley's activity, which immediately gave the poffeffion of diftricts to the annual amount of 72,000l. fterling. On the 24th of Auguft, the British force croffed the Godavery river, and, on the 29th, reached Au rungabad. From this point, by a matterly and rapid movement along the left bank of the Godavery to the caft ward, general Wellefley completely prevented Scindeah from croffing that river, and attacking, as he had intended, our ally, the'nizam, in his very capital; and, at the fame time, covered two valuable convoys of treafure and grain, which were on the way for the fupply of his forces.
Scindeah, thus baffled, affembled the whole of the army under his immediate command at a ftrong pofition on the north bank of the river Kaitreah, near the Adjuntee Pass, to the amount of 38,500 cavalry, 10,500 regular infantry, 500 matchlocks, 500 roc ket men, and a 190 pieces of ordnance, determined, it thould feem, to try the fate of a battle with the Britih army, which the vaft fuperiority of his force, and the ftrength of his pofition, gave him the strongest and faireft probability of hazarding with advantage. In addition to the troops we have particularized, Scindeah ftationed a few thoufand well-trained Marhatta cavalry in the Adjuntee hills.
nduct, during a diplomatic conteft nducted on the part of the Marhatprinces with all the wiles and fubty of the east, fully juftified the fidence reposed in his characteriffagacity, judgment, fpirit, and de
It would far exceed our propofed hits to detail the various evalive fu2, and infincere measures which irked the conduct of the confedeed Marlatta chieftains, and which, length compelled the British gornment to refort to the fword; and is equally impoffible for us to enter to the mafterly manner which the vernor-general planned a campaign, which he brought into the field 918 men, fo diftributed as to caron at one and the fame moment e moft vigorous operations against e enemy in almost every quarter of e peninfula of India, and by which e terminated a war of a few months aration with the attainment of every ropofed object, without fuftaining that period the fligheft check or reerfe of fortune! Suffice it to menon, that while the army of Bengal was defined to actunder the perfonal ommand of general Lake in the orth-western provinces of Hindofan, that of Madras was placed uner the orders of major-general Welley, for the purpofe of oppofing he combined army of the enemy nder the perfonal command of Scinleah, to the fouthward.
On the 8th of Auguft, general Wellesley took the field, and marched vith about 9,000 troops; in the proortion of 7,000 fepoys to 2,000 Euopeans, againit Amednagur; and on the fame day that city was taken, furrounded as it was by a high and trong wall, by a fpirited effort, it being carried by efcalade and ftorm, with but fmall lofs. On the 10th, the batteries were opened before the fortels of the fame name, and, on the 12th, it furrendered at difcretion: a November, 1808.
On the 21ft of September, colonel Stevenfon, who commanded the subfidiary force, and who acted in concert with, and under the orders of general Wellefley, formed a junction with that officer. It was then determined that they fhould again feparate? and advance towards the enemy in diftinct divifions, and by different routes, as the best means of compeiling him to a general action, were he found difpofed to continue the defens five fyftem he had hitherto adopted. General Wellesley and colonel Stevenfon accordingly marched towards 4 P
the enemy's encampment, the former taking the eastern, the latter a western direction; their point of junction, and the time, having been previously arranged.
On the ever-memorable 23d of September, general Welledley arrived at Naulnair, where he received information that the combined Marhatta army was within fix miles of the ground he intended to occupy; but that fome fymptoms appeared of his intention to break up his encampment, and retreat on the approach of the British troops. In the apprehenfion of lofing an opportunity which might not again occur of ftriking a decitive blow, general Wellesley inftant ly determined, although his army had marched fourteen miles that morning, to attack him, without waiting for colonel Stevenfon's divifion. This This bold refolve was at once the refult of the greatest intrepidity and the profoundest judgment. Had the Britih general awaited the junction, the enemy, informed of their approach, would have ample time to have with drawn his guns and infantry during the night, and thus have eafily avoided a general engagement; a circum ftance which must not only have protracted the campaign, but have probably been greatly detrimental to the future progrefs of the British arms in that quarter wherea, by the bold meature which general Wellesley adopted, of attacking him without delay, the fmalice's of the British force would probably tempt Scindeah to engage, where I e had the greate it profpect of defearing.
In puifuance of this refolution, which could alone have been undertaken by the n oft refolute and daundets mind, general Wellesley, traving retrethed his men, moved forward, and came in fight of the eremy (after a march in the whole of twenty miles, the last fix of which under the heats of a vertical fun,) poited, as we have al cady deleted,
their right being upon the villag Bokerdun, and their left on thi Affve; which latter place, ing its name to the battle, has beca
General Wellesley's approach in front of the enemy's right: finding that the infantry and co were pofted on the left, he relle there to make his attack. Acco ly, he made the neceffary more for that purpofe, covering his in try, as they moved round, wi British cavalry in the rear, an that of the peifhwah and nizan the right flank. Having t the river Kaitna at a point be the enemy's left, general We24 now tormed his army in order c te; drawing up his infantry in lines; the Britith cavalry in a as a referve; and the auxiliary tive horfe were posted on the the British army, in order to c the approach of a large body of of the enemy, which had flow lowed its movement, from the of their own position.
The force of the confeled
chieftains we have already de that of the British army d exceed, on this trying day, 40 men, of whom 2,005 alone wi Europeans! Superior fkill, ment, difcipline, and intrepidity however, on the fide of the and more than counterbalance. fuperiority of the enemy's numb
(To be continued.)
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