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LUCIUS MUMMIUS conducts the Achæan war, (and is thence surnamed Achaicus); destroys Corinth, and reduces Greece to a Roman province, 146.

Of Carthaginians, we observe during this period, HANNIBAL, Sen. defeated in Sicily by the Romans, and put to death by his own sailors, 260.

HANNO, defeated by Lutatius, 241.

AMILCAR, (surnamed Barcus) father of Hannibal the Great, General in Sicily during the 1st Punic war; he finishes the war with the Lybian mercenaries, 238; goes into Spain, 237, and carries on a successful war there for nine years, till his death, 228.

ADHERBAL, defeated the Romans in the sea fight of Drepanum, 249.

MATHO, General of the mercenaries, 240.

ASDRUBAL, defeated by Regulus, 257, and afterwards at Libybæum, 249.

ASDRUBAL, son-in-law of Amilcar, succeeds him in the command of the army in Spain, 228.

HANNIBAL THE GREAT, (son of Amilcar Barcus) succeeds Asdrubal in the command, 220; begins the 2nd Punic war 218; conducts it successfully for many years, but is at length defeated by Scipio, in the battle of Zama, 202; retires to the court of Antiochus the Great, and instigates him to a war with Rome, 195; takes refuge after the final defeat of Antiochus with Prusias, king of Bithynia, who is required to give him up to the Romans, to avoid which Hannibal poisons himself, 183. ASDRUBAL, brother of Hannibal defeated and killed by Claudius Nero in the battle of Metaurus, 207.

It was during this period that literature first began to be introduced amongst the Romans, and we remark

LIVIUS ANDRONICUS, their first Dramatic Poet, 240.
M. VAL. MESSALA, 1st Painter, 235.

FABIUS PICTOR, 1st Historian, 225.
PLAUTUS of Umbria, the Comic Poet, 220.
ARCAGATHUS, 1st Physician, 219.

Q. ENNIUS of Calabria, the Comic Poet, 205.
CAIUS LELIUS 1st Orator, 196.

CECILIUS STATIUS, the Comic Poet, 180.
C. S. GALLUS, 1st Astronomer, 168.
TERENCE of Carthage, the Comic Poet, 166.
POLYBIUS of Megalopolis, the Historian, 164.
M. PACUVIUS, the Tragic Poet, 163.

A Public Library, composed of the books brought from Macedon upon its conquest by Paulus Emilius, was erected at Rome, which was also enriched by those specimens of the Fine Arts which formed a part of the spoils of the Greek cities, Syracuse, &c.


Tenth Period of Ancient History, from the SUBJECJECTION OF GREECE by the ROMANS, to the BIRTH OF JESUS CHRIST, containing 146 years.

In Sacred History, it gives the two last years of the administration of Jonathan Maccabeus, his death, and the succession of his brother Simon, B. C. 144, who by assisting Demetrius II. king of Syria, against the usurper Tryphon, obtained from him a release from tribute, and an hereditary grant of Judea to his family, B. C. 143. The vicissitudes of the Syrian kingdom had a powerful influence in the Jewish affairs during this period, and the league with the Romans, (renewed by Simon Maccabeus, B. C. 141, and John Hyrcanus, B. C. 128,) although it protected them from the hostilities of all the Asiatic states then under the Roman dominion, materially contributed to the "departure of the sceptre from Judah.'

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The Jewish church was at this time divided into two


sects, that of the Sadducees,* and that of the Pharisees. To the latter belonged John Hyrcanus, the son and successor of Simon Maccabeus, B. C. 135; but being disgusted with some illiberal conduct in Eleazar, a principal man amongst the Pharisees, he quitted the sect, and went over to the Sadducees, B. C. 103; the Pharisees being the most popular and powerful party, the effects of this act of Hyrcanus were felt in the civil disturbances which caused so much bloodshed in the reign of Alexander Janneus, B. C.


Upon the death of the last mentioned monarch, his wife Alexandra succeeded to the throne by conciliating the Pha

*The Sadducees derived their name (according to some) from their founder, Sadoc, the pupil of Antigonus of Socho, who was the successor of Simon the Just, as president of the Sanhedrim, or national council of the Jews. Others derive their name from the word Zadikim, i. e. “ the righteous," because they affected a superior degree of rectitude and purity in their lives and conduct. Of the Scriptures, they received only the Pentateuch, and held, that in the observance of the written law alone, (for they rejected all tradition) they fulfilled all righteousness. In fact, they were Epicurean Deists. They allowed that God made the world by his power, and governed it by his providence, but denied the resurrection, and consequently a 'future state of rewards and punishments. They asserted, "that "God had made man absolute master of all his actions, with a full "freedom to do either good or evil, as he shall think fit to choose, "without assistance to him for the one, or any restraint upon him as "to the other; so that, whether a man doth good or evil, it is wholly "from himself, because he hath it absolutely in his own power, both "to do the one and avoid the other." The Pharisees derived their name (according to some) from the Hebrew word Pharas, which signifies to separate, because they separated, or distinguished themselves from others, by an affectation of superior holiness, or (according to to others) from another Hebrew word, signifying to explain, because they were expounders of the law. They received all the Scriptures, and superadded all the traditions of the Elders. They admitted the immortality of the soul, but it was a Pythagorean immortality, a transmigration of the soul into another body. See Prideaux's Con. vol. iii. Book v.

risees, B. C. 79; her son, Hyrcanus, adhering to the same party, his brother Aristobulus attached himself to the Sadducees, and thus were formed two powerful political factions, which, upon the death of Alexandra, burst out into a civil war between her sons, B. C. 70. Both the brothers referred the cause to Pompey the Roman Proconsul in Syria, who restored Hyrcanus to the throne, and sept Aristobulus and his sons prisoners to Rome. Upon the breaking out of the civil war between Cæsar and Pompey, the former released Aristobulus and sent him with an army into Judea, B. C. 49. We next observe the crafty policy of Antipater (or Antipas) the Edomite, and the introduction of himself and his sons into the government of Judea, B. C. 47, leading to the succession of Herod to the crown. The tumultuous reign of that impious Prince contributed all that was wanting to plunge the "land of promise" into that state of spiritual darkness which characterized the period that immediately preceded the rising of " the sun of righteousness,” in the birth of Jesus Christ, four years before the vulgar æra-the only scriptural record belonging to this period will be found in the 1st Book of the Maccabees from ch. xi. ver. 19; and extends only to the death of Simon Maccabeus.

The Roman state had at the commencement of this period attained to a degree of supremacy that rendered every other then in existence comparatively unimportant, except as being connected with the Roman affairs. Of the four kingdoms into which the empire of Alexander had been divided two only remained, and those were both tributary to Rome. In Syria, we shall see only the decline of the Selucidæ under the combined pressure of intestine wars, and the vices of its sovereigns until its final conquest, and reduction to a Roman province, B. C. 65. In Egypt, we notice the same causes, leading to the same effects, B. C. 30.

In tracing the Roman affairs during this important

period, we shall observe the Lusitanian war, B. C. 145, and the Numantine war, B. C. 141, in Spain; the former, finished by the death of Viriathus, B. C. 140, and the conquest of Lusitania by Dolabella, B. C. 99; and the latter, in the conquests and destruction of Numantia, by Scipio Africanus II., B. C., 152. In Asia, the kingdom of Pergamus being left to the Romans by Attalus III., B. C. 132, is usurped by Aristonicus, who is conquered by Perpenna, B. C. 130. It being proposed to divide the wealth of Pergamus by an agrarian law, the tumult was excited in which the Gracchi lost their lives, Tiberius, B. C. 132, and Caius, B. C. 121.

In Africa, the Jugurthine war begins, B. C. 111, and is ended, B. C. 106. The war with the Teutones and Cimbri, B. C. 109, employed the Roman arms in Gaul for eight years, and finished in the conquest of those northern enemies, B. C. 101. The Marsic war in Italy, B. C. 91, the Mithridatic war, B. C. 89, and the emulation of the rival generals, Sylla and Marius, leading to the civil war between them, B. C. 88. The factions growing out of the latter contest survived their authors, and we may trace them through the civil wars of Cæsar and Pompey, B. C. 50, and that of Octavius and Antony, B. C. 32; the latter, leading to the elevation of Octavius to the imperial power and dignity, and the end of the Roman republic, B. C. 30. A series of successes during the ensuing twenty-five years in all parts of the empire, terminated in that state of universal which characterized the epoch of the appearance on earth, of Jesus Christ" the Prince of Peace." In Europe, the Roman empire comprised Italia, Hispania, Gallia, Illyria, Thracia, Macedonia, and all Greece. In Asia, all the kingdoms of Asia Minor, Syria, and Judea. In Africa, Egypt, Lybia, Africa Propria, and Numidia. Augustus, considering the empire as sufficiently extensive, had proclaimed a general peace, and the Temple of Janus was shut, B. C. 5.


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