« السابقةمتابعة »
SKETCHES OF THE PUNJAB
THE BLACK FOREST," &c.
to the Sikhs as Benares is
basin of water, in the middle of which stands the Golden Temple, their chief place of worship. Marble terraces, fringed with fragrant orange-trees, lead to it from four sides through the clear waters of this Fountain of Life, from which the city takes its name, and by immersion in which the Sikhs believe themselves to become regenerate. Morning and evening it may be seen surrounded by bathers of all
ages and both sexes, the women, however, keeping apart in some secluded nook overshadowed by shrubs and trees.
The temple is a blaze of gold externally, its gilded domes glittering in the
rays of an Indian sun. The interior, which we were permitted to explore, after having allowed our impious cowhide-soled boots to be encased in silken slippers, is gorgeous with painting and gilding. It contains no images or idols of any kind, and new as we were to the people and the place, we inquired with some surprise, “What do they worship ? This was soon explained, for at the time of our visit they were performing their daily devotions. In a square hall in the body of the temple sat, cross-legged on the floor, a venerable white-bearded priestthe guru. Before him lay the Grunth, the sacred book, reverently covered with a richly embroidered cloth, on which reposed garlands of fresh, sweet flowers. The priest, too, was garlanded.
In a monotonous strain he repeated passages from the holy volume, to which a choir of minstrels and singers chanted responses. Meanwhile worshippers came and went, each bringing and casting down before the book, on a white sheet, spread in the centre of the floor, their offerings of rice,
cowries, flowers, sugar, or small coins, doing reverence and then to the Mission compound, where they might lodge quietly for the retiring.
night, at least, in the catechist's house. St. Paul wrote to the We watched all with curious interest. Perhaps it was mis- converts at Corinth, “If any brother hath a wife that believeth taken for something more, for presently one of the officials came not, and she be pleased to dwell with him, let him not put her forward, begging permission to garland us, at the same time away.
away. . . . The unbelieving wife is sanctified by the husband." offering us crystallised sugar on a dish of chased metal.
Thus it afterwards turned out in this case. But we will not “Do not accept it, Mem Sahib,” whispered the native cate- forestall. chist, who was our guide on the occasion, " or they will pretend That evening, while we were at tea with our friends, Mr. and that you are a devotee, and have taken part in their worship.” Mrs. Keene, talking over the events of the afternoon, a figure in
Nothing could have been further from our desire. We were white tapped at the verandah window, and on lifting the “chik" glad not to have committed ourselves, as an acquaintance, a we recognised Masih Dyal, the new convert. Mr. Keene let him stranger to the country and its manners, a short time afterwards in, and inquired whether anything was the matter. He seemed did. Coming to our bungalow direct from a visit to the Golden much agitated. What he could do, he said, he knew not, for his Temple, he appeared at tiffin with his neck and arms hung about wife was calling for her children and would not be comforted with wreaths and his hands full of sweetmeats, which he glee- because the relations had kept them back from her. Mr. Keene fully exhibited as signs of the people's kindly feeling, but which reassured him by promising that they should be looked after our servants in attendance construed otherwise.
early on the morrow, and sent him away with an injunction to We had not been long at the station when considerable excite- hold fast by his own faith in prayer, and to pacify his wife as ment was created in the populous native town, containing far as possible that night. 90,000 inhabitants, by the public baptism of a convert, a man By and by a note came from Mrs. Strawbridge to say that her who had become an inquirer at the very commencement of the husband had just obtained one of the children—the youngest. Mission in 1852, and who in the subsequent years had several The others were not forthcoming. She added that there had been times come forward as a candidate for baptism, but as often, great commotion and excitement when Mr. Strawbridge took the when it came to the point, allowed himself to be dissuaded by police with him to claim the children ; that thousands of heathen his friends from taking the final step. For this reason the mis- natives had collected round the house, he had received a blow sionaries had thought well that he should make his confession of on the head himself, and some of the young scholars from the faith publicly in the boys' school in the city, instead of within mission school, who had accompanied him, had been beaten, but the precincts of the Mission compound, in the orphan girls' that all was tolerably quiet now. school-room, which at that time was serving the double purpose The two elder children were never restored to their parents. of chapel, where it would have been witnessed by few besides The marriage of both was hastened on by the heathen relatives, the mission circle and the Native Christians. As it was, an im- and they were lost sight of. The youngest child was baptized at mense crowd assembled round the school-house, and numbers his father's desire, and with his mother's consent. Mrs. Keene took up their station within, all in a state of agitated expecta- was his godmother, and gave him the name of Binyamine tion.
(Benjamin). Praemi, the woman, became an intelligent inquirer, As we drove up to the building a few minutes before the hour and after careful instruction by Mrs. Keene and Susan, the appointed for the ceremony, we perceived, standing at a well not catechist's wife, she too was received into the visible Church of far off, a group of persons composed chiefly of the convert's Christ, greatly to her husband's satisfaction and gladness. relatives, some of whom appeared to be angrily discussing the subject of his approaching baptism, while others lamented
with “ loud allew.” Conspicuous among the latter was a woman
CUMBERLAND MISSION, RIVER SASKATCHEWAN. advanced in years, with bared breast and dishevelled hair.
By Mrs. BOMPAS, OF ATHABASCA. Wildly screaming, she beat herself with the palms of her hands, [In our January number appeared a letter from Mrs. Bompas, wife of while tears streamed down her furrowed cheeks. Poor creature ! the Bishop of Athabasca, describing her long journey of 1,000 miles from she knew not what she was doing—sorrowing where she ought Lake Athabasca to Red River. On her way she visited Cumberland to have rejoiced. She was the young man's mother.
station, on the River Saskatchewan, and the following interesting account During the baptismal service the great doors of the school
of it has been sent us by the Rev. R. Young, at whose request Mrs.
Bompas wrote it.] house were left open, and the crowd pressed in, every now and then becoming loud in its murmurs and excitement; but the
OU asked me to send you some account of Cumberland
Mission, and I am glad to be able to do so, more especially native catechists managed to keep pretty good order. At the
as I have very pleasing recollections of my visit there, it conclusion of the ceremony we all shook hands with the new
having formed one of the most refreshing points in my long convert, gladly receiving him as a brother in Christ. He seemed
journey from Athabasca. much moved, and his manner was subdued and very serious.
As you are aware, Cumberland is a recently formed
Mission station. The Indians there had hitherto been only visited occaWhen he was taken into an adjoining room that the register sionally by the Rev. H. Cochrane, from the Pas (Devon). They struck might be written, some of the heathen bystanders cried out that me as above the average in activity and intelligence, and the number of he was gone“ to eat food with the Christians," supposing that
neatly built log-houses by the side of the lake, most of them with small he was thus to show that he had broken caste. The matter was,
potato-ground and barley-field attached, gave an air of comfort to the of course, explained to them.
little colony which it was pleasing to contemplate. The Indian treaty has
certainly done good work among these Indians; it has raised their selfBut the painful part of the scene was now to follow. The respect, besides increasing their resources; it has also, if I mistake not, wife came forward, desirous of remaining with her husband, made the work of the missionary more acceptable, and perhaps more easy, which is not always a matter of course in such a case, and her
among them, relations, indeed his also, followed, exhorting her not to go with
The Rev. B. McKenzie was appointed to Cumberland just fourteen him, and when she would not heed them, but clung to him, her
months previous to my visit there. He is a middle-aged man, with a
large family. He was born and educated in the country, and was formerly own brother attempted to drag her away by force. This, how- a Wesleyan; and the story, told in his own simple, earnest way, of how ever, he was not allowed to do. The excitement was increasing,
he was led to join the Church, and afterwards to become a candidate for and becoming somewhat alarming. The missionaries interfered.
holy orders, was one of the first things to arouse my interest in him. It was decided that, since the man and his wife were of one
When he reached Cumberland, Mr. McKenzie had to decide on a fitting
spot for the Mission buildings. A little colony of Indians was already accord in their desire of remaining together, both should be taken settled on the opposite side of the lake, and this, and one or two other
considerations, made him resolve to begin building near them, rather One other incident of the Cumberland Mission I must tell you, as it than on the same side as the Hudson's Bay Company's Fort, although Mr. shows one that Mr. McKenzie's value is felt and his worth appreciated by Belanger, the Hudson's Bay officer in charge, has always been a kind friend the Indians themselves. For some cause or other, which I did not quite to the English Mission.
understand, last winter the fish supply, which is their principal means of To build a parsonage-house, a church, and school, with no other materials life in that district, fell far short of the average. As the gentleman who for work than the few implements he had brought with him-no helpers was telling me of the circumstance observed : “ The McKenzies thembut his own three boys (the eldest about twelve or thirteen years of age), selves were sometimes nearly starving.” The Indians, fearing lest the and occasional assistance from three or four Indians; this was the task same thing should occur again this winter, raised a small subscription which Mr. McKenzie set himself to accomplish, and which, with untiring among themselves and presented it to Mr. McKenzie, to his great surprise zeal and energy, he did accomplish in little more than fourteen months and, I need hardly add, gratification. It amounted to £20. from his first arrival at the station. First of his labours came the cutting down of the tall forest trees which grew as thick as possible on the ground he had selected; then, having effected a clearing, the trees themselves
AN AFGHAN CHANT FROM BUNNOO. must be cut and planed, and seasoned for building purposes. On this ground, too, huge stones had to be uplifted from the earth, which, with
UNNOO, or Banu, is a frontier town on the extreme norththe help of all the hands they could collect and his team of dogs, were
west of British India, between the Indus and the mountainconveyed to some impromptu kilns and burnt for lime, which proved in
wall which separates our dominions from Afghanistan. valuable in the course of their operations. Thus a portion of the ground
Here is stationed the Rev. T. J. Lee Mayer, a most was soon prepared for their garden, and sown with barley, potatoes, and
zealous missionary, in the midst of a fierce and bigoted Indian corn-yes, and with many other things besides which one would
Mussulman population. The work is most trying and difficult. In never have thought could grow on the bleak, desolate shores of Lake Cumberland; there were tomatoes, full-sized and red, such as I used to
June, 1875, Mr. Mayer wrote, "The Mohammedans are getting fearfully gather years since at Naples; there were beans and cauliflowers, beetroot, savage because we will persist in preaching the Gospel. They say they carrots, and turnips; nasturtiums, too, for present beauty and future will never believe; that their religion is of iron, and they will never pickling, and dainty little herb beds, and a small flower-garden with listen to us. They have threatened to stab us all—told Jelaluddin (the fragrant mignonette and shining China asters, heart's ease, &c., &o.
Native catechist) so to his face. I hope they won't succeed. Pray for Then came the building of their house, step by step, as weather served and other circumstances permitted, for our friend was not unmindful of
us.” Notwithstanding this threat, Mr. Mayer is still alive, and preaching his clerical functions in the midst of his other labours, and not unfre- and teaching as vigorously as ever. In his last annual letter, dated Novemquently he had to throw down pickaxe or hammer and hasten off to ber 15th, Mr. Mayer says, “I must say, after my few years' work amongst minister to a sick neighbour or prepare for his Sunday duties. But the Islamism, that I have great hopes of it.” There are 19 Native Christians, building progressed satisfactorily, and the large family were put under
of whom six are communicants; and 171 scholars in the schools. shelter before the winter had quite closed in. The ground floor of the house was left unpartitioned, to enable them to have service there until
Mr. Mayer has been translating the Psalms into Pathân, the Afghan the little church should be built.
language, and setting Native chants or tunes to them. He has sent us a It was in that room that I had the comfort and refreshment of the dear specimen, with the following letter :Church services on the morning and afternoon of Sunday, September 2nd,
BUNNOO, November 17th, 1877. after being deprived of them for nearly three months! It was a clear, I enclose the music of the Psalm VI. as a specimen of Afghan music hot, cloudless day, the lake calm and still, so there was no difficulty in and of our work here. The Pathâns are beautiful players on the guitar, getting myself paddled over in a canoe from the Fort, where I was staying. and their execution on their three main strings, out of which they get As soon as I had started, a number of other canoes appeared in sight, filled
fifteen notes, is magnificent. Generally their music is a trifle more minor with Indians, all making for the Mission. All was so peaceful and Sunday
But they use our scale as well. If once we can get them to like; and when we walked up to the house, it was pleasant to see the exchange the words of David in place of their love songs and war ballads, crowd of Indians gathering round and waiting the little bell to summon them to service. Everything was so nice and real, and yet so quaint and primitive. Our friends at home, I fancy, would hardly be able to under
TUNE—“BUNNOO.”—Psalm vi. stand or appreciate the extreme simplicity with which these commence- To the Chief Musicians of England upon Stringed Instruments. ments of mission work have to be conducted. There was but one Prayerbook among them ! and that in a room so crowded, that I kept wondering when the tide of incomers would cease; and yet the responses were most hearty, and appeared to me almost universal. But the good man had found means to teach his flock thus much of their Prayer-book, and they had evidently responded pretty readily to his instructions. In the hymn singing, too, the difficulty had been the same, and had been met with the same all-mastering spirit. “My daughters undertake the choir-training, and write out a few of the hymns for those who can read. We have but one hymn-book, but I hope to get others in the course of time, and in the meantime the people have learnt a good many hymns by heart, so that our singing is pretty fair on the whole." These were Mr. McKenzie's own words to me, and I could fully corroborate his verdict on the matter of their hymn singing. “Not all melodious was the song, but 'twas a hearty note and strong;” and I do not know that Keble's Evening Hymn ever sounded sweeter to me than when sung in Cree by the Indians of Lake Cumberland. That Sunday, for the first time, Mr. McKenzie read the I am sure it would be productive of very much good. I deeply regret lessons in the Syllabic characters, which I thought he accomplished with not having known this before I came out. Had I done so I should have remarkable ease and fluency. Most of the service was conducted in Cree; taken lessons and brought out a good instrument with me. As it is, I the sermon he gave through an interpreter, but he hopes soon to be suffi- make shift with one of my own manufacture, and a set or two of banjo ciently master of Cree to be able to address his people in that language. strings I got from England. The tone is very fine, being a piece of
We must just take one look in at the little church before bidding fare- hollowed-out mulberry with a goat-skin stretched over it tightly; I have well to Cumberland Mission. It is rough-looking enough now-only a ten strings, but it lacks that power of stringing up that an English or small building, with not even the floor put down as yet; "but we shall Italian instrument would have, as the wooden bearings and pegs will not get through that this week, and hope soon to get it to look neat and stand the strain, and the strings get a good deal cut. The Cabul instruchurch-like.” And Mr. McKenzie's " hopes” are as good as most people's ments are very good, but nothing like a civilised instrument made in “resolves”—I have at least learnt thus much in my acquaintance with England by first-class hands. When we get further on with the Psalms, our energetic friend. But one longs to help him to furnish his church. and have funds to get together all the poets and bards from different There is no communion-cloth or communion-linen; and yet when the parts, I must get you to try and persuade some good creature to give me Rev. Mr. Cochrane visited the Mission a short time since, and administered a book or two on the guitar and stringed instruments, and send me a good Holy Communion, seventy communicants partook of the Sacrament. We instrument for one's own work. We are only beginning, yet I send you want, too, to provide him with a large Bible and Prayer-book. A bell this little specimen in case you may like to print it and show English is another thing which we must try and get him, and it should be a good folk at home what Pathân music is like. The three notes at the end, sized one, which could be heard across the lake, as the Indians have prolonged by these fellows in their wild hills among the echoes, are very neither clocks nor watches to tell them when it is time for service. characteristic of Pathân song.
A NIGHT ALARM IN TRAVANCORE.
the wild Pandarams, who can only be reached by men who live amongst
the Arrians. ETWEEN Tinnevelly and Travancore, at the south Jan. 20th,– Reached Nelakel a little after four o'clock in the afterend of India, there runs a chain of mountains
Nelakel is a very interesting place, owing to its historical called the Southern Ghauts. These mountains are
associations. It is said that when the apostle St. Thomas visited inhabited by some wild hill-tribes, of which the
Travancore he founded seven churches, one of which was at Nelakel.
For some time, it is said, there was a Syrian Church at Nelakel, but that, Arrians are the most important; and from among owing to the fearful depredations of wild beasts, the place was entirely the Arrians a goodly number have been brought into the Church abandoned. We looked about to see if we could find any inscriptions or of Christ, chiefly through the ministry of the Rev. Henry Baker. traces of Syrian occupation, but saw nothing except the heathen shrines. Another part of the mountain district, hitherto unevangelised, would require a day or two to explore it properly, whereas we had only a
The place, however, is covered with such dense jungle that a person was visited in January, 1877, by the Rev. J. Caley. We give short time in the evening, and that after a day's journey. "The garden an extract from his journal to illustrate the above picture, of wild beasts” is the name some of the natives give to Nelakel, and engraved from a sketch kindly sent by him :
from what I could see of it I should think it a very comfortable garden
for them. Jan. 19th.—Arrived at an Arrian settlement called Karemala. As no European had ever been to Karemala before, it was quite natural for
In the part where we stayed there is a large tank of water covering
about two or three acres, and from the footprints about it there is no the people to go through the curious process of violent staring. When
doubt it is often frequented. In a tree close by this water there were & they had had a real good look at me they set themselves to get us all we wanted and became quite communicative. They are a fine, strong, large enough to contain a mattress. I was told that the Prince of
few strong stakes laid from bough to bough which formed a platform manly-looking people, and although they are afraid of Sircar peons [Government police), they have plenty of courage to attack wild beasts
Pandalam slept there a few days before, during his pilgrimage to in the jungles. I asked one of them if there were any tigers about. He
Chouramala. We were seventeen in number, one Native pastor (the said, "Yes, there are several, but by the favour of Sashtèwa (deity of the
Rev. Joseph Pothen, of Puthapalli), ten Syrians, four Arrians, one hill) they do us no harm.” He afterwards gave me the tooth of a great pilgrim's cot, it was by general consent consigned to me.
Chogan, and myself; but as there was only room for one person in the
About 8.30 tiger that they had killed, which is five inches long and three inches in circumference. Nearly three inches had been in the jaw, but when that
P.M. I retired to rest, having water on one side of me, and on the is deducted it leaves a formidable weapon of more than two inches in
opposite side Mr. Joseph and the men, with fires at the far side of them
to keep wild beasts away. We had two dogs with us, one of which, my length for purposes of destruction. We had a great deal of conversation with the people, during which
constant and faithful companion, “Jago,” lay at the root of the tree in they showed themselves anxious for me to appoint a person amongst them which I slept, and the other with the men near the fires. who would teach their children. I told them that I was not only
Once in the night, as I turned over in my comical bed, the stakes upon willing to teach their children, but that I was anxious to teach them
which I lay made a little noise. No sooner did the dogs hear that than about the true God. They did not object to this, still they did not say
they began to bark fiercely, and the men, being suddenly waked out of that they were willing to place themselves under Christian instruction.
sleep by the dogs, and thinking that an elephant or tiger was upon them, The step was too great to be hastily taken, and I am not the less hopeful literally rang with their shouts. After they had subsided I heard some
began to shout and scream dreadfully. The woods, in the dead of the night, because they did not at once comply. They said that if I would send a person they would provide a house for him, and try their best to make
of them asking if I was awake. If any one could have said that I was him comfortable. I agreed to send one, and I am thankful to say that I
not awake he might have also added that I was dead, for it would have have secured a good and earnest man, who has already commenced work. noise they made.
been impossible for any living man to sleep through the tremendous He will have real angelistic work to do, teaching not only the children and the people as occasion serves, but will be able to go with them to visit other settlements. In addition to this he will be able to preach to
beyond description. Every new Psalm or portion of one opens to them BISHOP CROWTHER: HIS LIFE AND WORK.
a new treasure.” The Prayer-book also was greatly valued. The
heathen were greatly struck by its petitions. “Ha! ha! ha!” exclaimed V.-LIFE AND WORK AT ABEOKUTA.
the chiefs ; so they pray to Olorun (God] for everything, for all people, OR twelve years Samuel Crowther was connected with the for their enemies even ; we never heard the like before.” In this con
Yoruba Mission, and the greater part of this period was nection a passage in Mr. Crowther's journal of September, 1849, is worth
When I was spending a few days with a pious officer in the army at
Woolwich, in 1843, I came in contact with a gentleman of the Plymouth the leader of the Mission for many years after his removal to the Niger. When he found that he could not succeed, he gave me this one solemn advice With these brethren he laboured on equal terms. Englishman, German, -not to make use of the Liturgy among my country-people. In reply, I African, divided the work amongst them, and knew no rivalry except begged him to consider for a moment the propriety of the conduct of a son that of zeal in making known their common God and Saviour. Crowther's who has been cared for, nursed up, and taught to pray upon the lap by his kind journals and reports, teeming with
mother from his infancy, till he at
tained the years of discretion; and interesting information and inci
then, because the prayers of the dent, and brimful of both earnest
mother did not suit his fancy, to kick ness and common sense, occupied a
against them. How ungrateful! I prominent place in the Society's
have considered the Church as my publications of that day, and em
mother, which has taught me to pray, body a vivid history of the brightest
as it were, upon her lap by the period of the Abeokuta Mission.
Prayer-book, when I knew not how Wbat East and Central Africa
to utter a word. After having been
thus taught to express my wants, are to us now in regard to pre
shall I now kick against it ? eminence of interest, that Yoruba
My attachment to the use of the was to the friends of the C.M.S.
Liturgy has not in the least abated then. No Mission since the So
since that time; but, on the contrary, ciety was established had been
since I have been sifting various begun with more promise; in
portions in translating them into my none did the reaping follow so
native tongue, I have found its beauty closely on the sowing. On August
sparkles brighter and brighter; scrip
tural in its language, and very well 3rd, 1849, Crowther's journal observes, “ This Mission is to-day
adapted for public service, and I can
find no substitute for my countrymen, three years old. What has God wrought during this short interval
In 1848, the Egba chiefs sponof conflict between light and dark
taneously took occasion, by a visit ness! We have 500 constant
of Mr. Townsend to England, to attendants on the means of grace,
send a letter to the Queen, thankabout 80 communicants, and nearly
ing her for having rescued so many 200 candidates for baptism. A
of their countrymen from slavery, great number of heathen have
and begging that further measures ceased worshipping their country
might be taken to put an end to gods; others have cast theirs away
the slave-trade and open Yoruba to altogether, and are not far from
lawful commerce. “We have seen enlisting under the banner of
your servants the missionaries,” Christ." In the sixth year of the
the letter added ; “what they have Mission, out of four Cambridge
done is agreeable to us. They have honour men who offered themselves
built a house of God. They have to the Society in that year (1852),
taught the people the Word of one (R. C. Paley) was allotted to
God, and our children beside. We Abeokuta to train Native agents
begin to understand them.” A a most significant proof of the im
gracious reply was returned by portance attached to the station,
Her Majesty through the Earl of considering the claims always ad
Chichester, which was delivered at vanced by India for the University
a great gathering of chiefs and men.
elders, on May 23rd, 1849, accomCrowther's work at Abeokuta
panied by two splendid Bibles, was by no means confined to preach
English and Arabic, and a steel ing the Gospel. His journals bear
corn-mill from Prince Albert. It abundant witness to the variety of
fell to Samuel Crowther to read the the methods adopted to influence
royal letter, translating it parathe people. Schools were a pro
graph by paragraph. minent agency from the first; and
“The Queen," it said, “and people of involved not merely teaching, but
England are very glad to know that the preparation of school-books, in
Sagbua and the chiefs think as they which, as well as in the translation
do upon the subject of compierce. of the Bible and Prayer-book into
“But commerce alone will not make Yoruba, he had a very large share. Efforts were made to improve the a nation great and happy, like England, England has become great and happy agriculture of the country, and to establish a trade in cotton. And again by the knowledge of the true God and Jesus Christ. and again we find Mr. Crowther joining with the English missionaries in
“The Queen is therefore very glad to hear that Sagbua and
the chiefs have so appealing, not always unsuccessfully, to the chiefs to modify or even kindly received the missionaries, who carry with them the Word of God, and abolish inhuman and barbarous social customs.
that so many of the people are willing to hear it.” The records of his translational labours are particularly interesting. Crowther describes how he impressed the lesson of these sentences Year by year he sent home fresh portions of Scripture in Yoruba to be upon the chiefs. “I proved it to them,” he writes, "while holding the printed ; and the delight of the people when the printed copies reached two splendid Bibles in my hand—the prosperous reigns of King David, Abeokuta is again and again referred to. With their newly acquired Jehoshaphat, Hezekiah, Josiah, who feared God,” &c., &c. "After this, power to read, each book, as it was put into their hands, seemed a fresh he goes on, " the mill was fixed; some Indian corn, having been got revelation of the goodness of God. The Psalms were not among the ready, was put into the funnel before them, and, to their great astonishparts first printed, but several were taught to the Christians by heart; ment, came out in fine flour by merely turning the handle of the and Crowther, writing in July, 1850, refers to the 1st, 2nd, 23rd, 37th, machine." 46th, 58rd, 67th, 90th, 91st, 95th, 100th, 115th, and 139th, which had The request of the chiefs with regard to the slave-trade was not made been translated, as "meeting the feelings and state of the converts in vain. Two or three years later (1851) a British force dethroned the
NATIVES OF ABEOKUTA.