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THE RACES AND PEOPLES
HE picture opposite is an attempt to represent in meeting to ask William Wilberforce to accept the
one group the “nations and kindreds and people office; but he preferred being a Vice-President
among whom the Church Missionwith others, and the Presidency remained un
ary Society carries on its world-wide work. occupied until 1811, when Admiral Lord Gambier was appointed.
India naturally occupies the foreground, seeing He died in 1832, and for nearly three years the post was vacant. that it absorbs nearly one-half of the Society's men and means. Then the Earl of Chichester accepted it, and he has held it Its various types of inhabitants are seen in the centre and on the ever since.
left. The Hindu ladies seated in front we have been obliged to Lord Chichester has been emphatically a working President. bring forth from the seclusion of the Zenana for the occasion. He has only missed one Anniversary Meeting of the Society Certainly they have never been in the presence of so many men (in 1866) in the forty-seven years, and he has presided on every before !' And not less unwelcome to them would be the low-caste other occasion except twice,
or rather no-caste mother and in 1848 and 1869, when Arch
child just behind them, who bishops Sumner and Tait re
with the unkempt man bespectively took the chair, on
hind, represent the aboriginal the occasion of their attend
hill-tribes. The Hindu faquirs ing for the first time after
or devotees, also seated, are their elevation to the Primacy.
conspicuous with the marks He has also been a frequent
of their sects on their foreChairman at the meetings of
heads. Behind, we see famithe Committee, and also of
liar types of Indian life, inimportant Sub-Committees.
cluding a Brahmin with his He has not only again and
sacred cord, the symbol of again headed deputations
his caste, and a turbaned from the Society to the
Mohammedan of Agra or Government, but bas con
Lucknow, standing with his stantly conducted more pri
back to us. Behind
the women vate correspondence with the
stands a Parsee of Bombay Foreign and Colonial Minis
with his tall bat; and again ters and others. His counsel
behind, to the left, a Tamil of has been of great value on
Tinnevelly or Ceylon, and a many occasions of difficulty.
Singhalese from the latter In the prolonged Ceylon con
country, the latter wearing a troversy, for instance, he
comb. Towards the centre throughout took a leading
is a group of Afghans; behind part. We cannot better de
them, a Bedouin Arab from scribe our honoured chief
Palestine; and still more to than by extracting some sen
the right, a pair of Persians, tences from his speech at the
the man with a tall hat of a Annual Meeting last year.
different shape. Coming back Referring to the deaths of Mr.
into the foreground, on the Wright and others, he said :
right, we have a familiar group
from China, the mandarin “ These losses speak with a peculiar solemnity and warning
with his back to us, and the to old men like myself. I cannot
Buddhist priest beyond. The expect to be long amongst you,
priest, representing a religion but I do sincerely hope that
rather than a race, may stand there are many young men among you who will come forward to
THE EARL OF CHICHESTER,
for. Japan also ; and to his fill up these gaps, who will be President of the Church Missionary Society.
right we see the two very prepared to enlist in this great
opposite types belonging to service, and to become indeed and prominently soldiers of the Cross, that “land of the morning," the aboriginal Ainos in front, and fighting under Christ's glorious banner, and carrying on this most
the Japanese proper behind. important work of preaching the Gospel to the benighted heathen. And I would remark that missionary work has always been, and prob
Beyond all these rises prominently the typical Negro, heading ably will always be, more or less a 'sowing in tears.' There will always a large group of Africans of various races and tribes : the Yoruba be bereavements and losses ; there will always be a conflict between the priest with his square cap; the Foulah, with his curls; and world and the devil; there will always be difficulties, arising from our various figures from East and Central Africa, including Waganda own infirmities and from the perversity, perhaps, of some not very wise warriors with their shields. Beyond again, turning a corner, come persons in raising controversies which sometimes have a very deadening effect upon our zeal and love. But if we 'sow in tears' we shall also
some Maories of New Zealand; and then, in the distance, Red ' reap in joy.' We have God's promise that we shall do so; in His own
Indians of different North American tribes, with the Esquimaux good time we shall 'reap in joy,' that deep joy which consists in knowing last of all, emerging from a scene unmistakably Arctic. that, through the grace of God, we have been instrumental in bringing From all these varied races of men we hear the old Macedonian some souls—it may be only one soul- to Christ for salvation.” The Earldom of Chichester was created in 1801, the previous Church Missionary Society been privileged to bring souls to God.
cry, “Come over and help us "; and from almost all has the peers with that title being viscounts. The present Earl, Henry It may well say in the Master's own words, “Behold, I, and the Thomas Pelham, is the third. He was born in 1804.
children which Thou hast given me."
(Continued from page 43.) the money given to the Society had come from the rich and comparatively well-to-do people. By forming Associations, it was hoped, as has turned out to be the case, that the pence of the poor, as well as the pounds of the rich, might be obtained.
Ward.-Do you think that right? It always seems to me a shame to ask poor people for money.
Mr. Story. -Our Lord did not seem to think so when He commended the widow who gave the two mites, nor when He said, “It is more blessed to give than to receive”; nor did St. Paul, when he praises the Churches of Macedonia, because “in a great trial of affliction the abundance of their joy and their deep poverty abounded unto the riches of their liberality."
John.— My experience shows that as a rule the poor give more freely than the rich. But about the Associations ?
Mr. Story.-- The first Association was in Bristol; and year after year the Reports take note of the founding of new Associations.
John.-How was that work carried on?
Mr. Story.—The London Secretary and other lergymen and laymen visited the different places, and told the people the objects of the Society, and what it was doing. They preached sermons, attended meetings, called on clergymen to ask them to form Associations, stirred up as far as possible an interest in the work.
Ward.-Well, looking at the matter from a business point of view, it was a good plan.
MIr. Story--Certainly it was. But apart from the money raised, think how much good is done by the earnest addresses in pulpits and on platforms of men who have the cause of Missions at heart. I remember that the assembly room of the principal hotel at Penrith, in Cumberland, used to be given gratis by the landlady, because she said she had known so much good done to souls at missionary meetings. Many a thrilling story might be told of persons brought to the Saviour by means of sermons preached for C.M.S., and words spoken in private houses by the agents and friends of the Society.
Ward.-All this is very well if the work is worth doing at all. But what has been done to justify all this getting of money ?
Mr. Story.- What has been done? How can I tell you a hundredth part of what has been done?
Ward.- If I remember right, Sydney Smith said one reason why it was no use to send out missionaries was that they had no success.
Mr. Story. —Yes. In an article written in 1809 the reasons he gives against Missions in India are, (1) that they will endanger our position in India ; (2) that they are unsuccessful. It was rather early then to judge of their success.
Wilson.-Can you prove that Missions have been successful now?
Mr. Story.- Easily. Take New Zealand. When Bishop Selwyn first went out there forty years ago, he found the C.M S. missionaries had been so much blessed that, in his own words, he saw a whole nation of pagans converted to the faith.” Cannibalism has long since died out. I doubt much if Englishmen could ever bave colonised those islands unless missionaries had prepared the way. Again : from the recent census taken in Sierra Leone it appears that nearly the entire population of 43,000 is nominally Christian. The few heathen and Mohammedans to be found there are persons who have come to the colony for purposes of trade. You have mentioned Sydney Smith. He wrote au article on Sierra Leone in 1804, and does not even mention the subject of Missions, for the simple reason that nothing had then been done there.
Ward.—But in both these cases missionaries had to deal with savages. The case is very different when you come to India and China, where you come in contact with races held under the bondage of religions which have come down to them sanctified by the lapse of ages.
Mr. Story.-But in India there has been great success. Sir Richard Temple, in his recent book on India, says that there are not less than 400,000 Christians there.
Ward.-Yes, but what sort of men are they? I have been told that most of them have come over simply for the sake of gain.
John.--I should think that could not be said of all, or nearly all, with truth. . I have heard some thrilling anecdotes of men who have suffered much through becoming Christians.
Mr. Story.-Yes; I could tell you mary such. Amongst the two hundred and thirty Native clergy are to be found men like I mad-ud-din and many others, who have given up all for Christ.
l'ard. Two hundred and tbirty Native clergy! Do you mean to tell me that so many really are clergymen of our Church ?
Mr. Story.-Of course I do.- I wonder you did not know it. Take the Clergy List, and you will find most of their names. Look at the Diocese of Travancore, for instance, and you will find the Rev. Koshi Kosbi, the Rev. Oomen Mamen, the Rev. Kunevgberi Korata, the Rev. Pulinekanatha Wirghese, and many others. Turn to the Diocese of Mid-China, and you will see the names of the Rev. Wong Yiu-Kwong, the Rev. Dzipg Ts-Sing, and others.
Ward,-- But what sort of men are they?
thianadhan when he was in England. Such a fine man! Such a capital speaker!
Mr. Story. On the River Niger all the clergy are black men. At Sierra Leone, not ovly are the clergy black men, but they are supported by their own people.
Wilson.-Indeed! that is a good idea. I always fancied that the socalled converts depended on English subscriptions, not only for their teachers, but also for daily bread.
Mr. Story.—There could not be a greater mistake. No doubt there have been times when converts have had to be supported, because by leaving their own religion they have lost their means of livelihood ; but this is not so when there are a good number of converts. It certainly is not so in West Africa, nor is it so now in any part of India. Travellers through Tinnevelly tell us that they know a Christian from a heathen village by its outward prosperity. The Tinnevelly Christians might put many English Christians to shame by their liberality. In 1880, the Native Christians contributed to the local church funds £2,500; remember that they are mostly poor, and that wazes are very low, and you will see that this is a very large sum. The C.M.S. urges self-support in all its Missions, and not without effect. Indeed, were it not for the sums given by those who have become Christians, not half the work done could be accomplished.
Ward.-I think I should have more confidence in the work if I felt sure that the men sent out to do it were the right sort. I have always bad an idea that missionaries are, as I once read in the Times, " halfeducated, common place sort of men.'
Mr. Story.- Well, no doubt they are not all heaven-born geniuses, nor all men of remarkable character, nor all men of deep learning; but, taken as a body, they would compare well with the home clergy.
John.--I have heard speeches from some of them which I shall never forget.
Wilson.-So bave I; but I am afraid not quite as John means !
Mr. Story.---You cannot expect every missionary to be an orator. Do
Mr. Story.--89 came from the Basle Seminary; but of these 70 were for a time at the Islington College.
Ward.--The Islington College ?
Mr. Story.-Yes. In 1825 this College, or Institution as it was called, was founded. To it we owe many of our best missionaries. Altogether it has given us 350 men, besides the 70 mentioned above. It has also been very useful in giving special instruction to University men, many of whom bear grateful testimony to the value of the time spent within its walls.
Ward.-Still, we have not quite got to my point. What sort are the men ?
Mr. Story.- Well, shall we take time of service as our test? Archdeacon Cockran was forty years in N.W. America, and never once came home; Dr. Pfander, the famous missionary to the Mohammedans, was over forty years in the Mission field ; Rev. W. Smith, whose work should be much better known than it is, laboured forty-four and a half years ; Rev. C. B. Leupolt, his colleague at Benares, nearly forty-two years. He, thank God, still lives, and many in various parts of the country have heard him plead the cause of Missions. Rev. W. Oakley went out to Ceylon in 1835, is still at work, and has never once been home.
irilson. These are long spells of labour, and certainly seem to show that the men loved their work.
Mr. Story.--Yes, and there are others who have shown equal devotion. Rev. H. Townsend has given forty years to Africa ; Rev. Joseph Peet was nearly thirty-three years at work in Travancore. Peet began bis ministry in Mavelicara, the very focus of bigotry and opposition. There was not then one Protestant convert in the district. When the end came he was at the head of a noble band of Christians, 2,500 in number, the seals to his ministry, assembled in eleven substantial churches built by his exertions, and in numerous prayer-houses. Eight Native clergymen had been more or less under his training, and several of them were his spiritual children. He begged to be allowed to go back to India, whence he had returned home for medical treatment, to die amongst his people. His last days were spent in exhorting converts and workers to contend earnestly for the faith once delivered to the saints.
John.-I am thankful to hear that so many missionaries have been able to stay so long at their work.
Mr. Story.-It is a cause for gratitude. But don't for a moment suppose that these are more really devoted than others who have not been able to stay so long. Many a man longs to go back to his work, but tion of slaves. Here we find several more parishes with Native is forbidden. The Rev. S. Hasell, who was so well known as the Home clergy, and congregations that raise large sums for church and Secretary of the Society, offered again and again to return. There are missionaries in England now who would rejoice to return to their mis
mission purposes; and various Institutions similar to those at Sierra sionary work if the doctors would permit it. I know at this moment more Leone. Taking canoes along the lagoons that line the coast, or than one whose great cross it is that he is forbidden to resume his work. up the rivers, we come to town after town with congregation “ To wait” is often harder than “to labour.”
and Native clergyman-Ebute Meta, Badagry, Leke, Ode Ondo, John.-But, Mr. Story, there are many men who have done noble Abeokuta, Ibadan-6,000 or 7,000 Christians altogether. work, for a long time too, whom you have not mentioned. Mr. Story.--Of course there are-Bishops Sargent, Horden, Burdon,
Again steaming on eastward, we reach the mouths of the Moule, and a host of others, some of whom are dead, some still at work? Niger, and, transferring ourselves to the Mission steamer Henry The fact is, if we mentioned them all, our conversation would last till Venn we spend some weeks visiting the dozen stations estabto-morrow morning at least.
lished by Bishop Crowther, in the delta and 350 miles up the Ward.--Well, Mr. Story, I am bound to say that in some degree my doubts are set aside. It really does seem as if God had called England shake hands warmly with the two African Archdeacons, Henry
river-Bonny, Brass, Onitsha, Lokoja, &c.—not forgetting to and England's Church to do a great work for Him.
Mr. Story.—I am glad to hear you say that. Surely, now, you will try Johnson and Dandeson Crowther. We wonder at the Sunday to help on so great a work. Never was there a time when the call to send congregations, in two or three of the churches above 1,000 Missions to the heathen was so great. China, Africa, Japan, and India are open, all needing far more men than we can give. It is almost people ; and we do not wonder at the stories we hear of the heartbreaking to think of the earnest appeals for help which come to
devil's desperate efforts to mar the growing work. the C.M.S., and the many refusals which must be given to these appeals.
We should now much like to make up a caravan, and march Wilson. But what can we do? We have not much money ; we right away across the Dark Continent; but this is hardly feascan't go out ourselves; we seem very helpless.
ible yet, so we make the best of our course round the Cape of Mr. Story.-Remember the power of prayer. “ Pray ye the Lord of the
Good Hope, passing many flourishing Missions of other societies, harvest that He would send forth labourers into His harvest." Remember that “the silver and gold are His," that Ile can move the minds of and, sailing up the East Coast, cast anchor off Zanzibar. For men who possess wealth to give of their wealth. Remember, too, how want of the Henry Wright, not yet at her post, we must suffer St. Paul prays men to pray that “the Word of the Lord may have free the miseries of a dhow to get to Mombasa ; and there, close to course and be glorified.”
the spot where Krapf laid his wife to rest forty years ago, we are John.-Yes, we can pray; but I should like to do more than pray. Mr. Story.--So you can. One heart on fire can do great things. It is
astonished at the prosperous and peaceful village of Frere Town. astonishing how great is the effect of individual influence. If we could Here, too, Satan has been busy ; but here, too, the Stronger secure three young men in every parish in England with no more money than he has caught away from him many precious souls. After a and no more influence than you and Ward and Wilson possess, I will flying visit to Rabbai and Godoma, each with its little Christian undertake to say that an immense amount of money could be raised, age, and many men stimulated to go out into the Mission field, They land, begin our long march into the far interior.
community, we get back to Zanzibar, and crossing to the main
Mamboia and would know the facts, and teach others. They would feel the duty of doing something, and make others feel it too. The longer I live the Mpwapwa are reached in three or four weeks, and at each place an more I see that it is individual effort which does great things in the world. English lady welcomes us, who is winning the affection of all If you three young men will only retail what you have heard, and
around her. Then we press on to Uyui, 550 miles inland ; and still more, so read the publications of the Society that you get to know
then to the great Victoria Nyanza, across which we must sail for more and more of the deeply interesting facts which are daily coming to our notice from all parts of the field, not only we but many whom
200 miles to visit King Mtesa and bid God-speed to our brethren none of us will ever see in this life will have cause to bless God that we at his court. have had this talk about the origin and progress of the Church Mis- How we are to get back again may be a perplexity; but let us sionary Society.
suppose ourselves once more in the Mediterranean, being landed,
through the surf, at the ancient port of Jaffa. It is a delight, OUR MISSIONS IN 1882.
indeed, to take our horses and ride through the Holy Land, UCH has been said in this number of the GLEANER down to Gaza, and then up to Jerusalem, and then across the
respecting the early history of the Church Missionary Jordan to Salt, and then back to Nablous and Nazareth, and to Society. But while it is good to look back to the
see at all these places, and at many villages en route, how the Past, and remember all the way that the Lord our
Society is setting before the bigoted Moslems the truths of a God hath led us, it is with the Present, after all, that pure Christianity-which, alas ! the sadly-degraded Oriental we have most to do. Let us therefore take a rapid run round
churches make no attempt to do. We pass on to Persia, and the world, and view the Society's Missions as they are to-day.
find the infant Mission so bravely founded by Mr. Bruce holding We will first take the steamer from Liverpool to West Africa.
forth the light of the Gospel in the midst of dense darkness; In about a fortnight we are landed at Sierra Leone, where the
and then on to Bombay.
Now we are in India. How can we see all the work there? Society's first missionaries landed seventy-eight years ago. What do we see there? We see a peninsula about the size of the Isle of
Even if we miss the noble Missions of other societies, those of Wight inhabited by negroes of a hundred different tribes, the de- C.M.S. alone perplex us with their number and variety, and fill scendants of the slaves rescued in the early part of the century. Nasik, with its Christian village of Sharanpur, and to Malegam,
us with thankfulness for their success. From Bombay we go to of them population; and of these about half belong to the Church of Eng- and to Aurungabad, each with its Native clergyman. Then land. We find twelve parishes, with churches and schools, all the
we come back, and sail away to Kurrachee, the westernmost ministers of which are Africans ; and the only two white clergy- port of India, and up the Indus to Hydrabad, and find that men we meet are the Principal and Vice-Principal of the College in the great province of Sindh, as large and as populous as at Fourah Bay, where African students earn the Durham B.Å. Ceylon, the C.M.S. is entirely alone, with four missionaries. degree without coming to England for it. We pay a visit also to Taking the new railway we go on northward to the Punjab, and,
a the Grammar School, with its African Principal, which invests its
conducted perhaps by Bishop French and Robert Clark, visit profits in English funds; and to other institutions.
Lahore with its great Divinity College, and Amritsar with its Not stopping to visit the out-lying Missions in the Sherbro, many noble missionary institutions, and Mr. Bateman's Christian Bullom, Quiah, and Timneh countries, we go on by the steamer village of Clarkabad, and Mr. Baring and Miss Tucker at Batala,
eluch a thousand miles along the coast to Lagos, now a flourishing and Multàn, and the new Medical Mission on British possession, but formerly the great port for the embarka- frontier, and the older Medical Missions on the Afghan frontier
yea Talvation ,
From pain Land's Sey Mountains
an we, whose souls are lighted From India's zal trand
With wisdom from on high, where Afrie's , bunny fount sing
(antor to men benighted het dorr thur Goldu bares
The Lamps of Life deny? -
healing plain, The joyful daud proclamo,
Till each renolest nation
of wast ye winds the story
Till, like a sea of glory,
Till, ver our randonido Nature,
The Lamb for sinners stain,
FAC-SIMILE OF THE ORIGINAL MS. OF BISHOP HEBER'S MISSIONARY HYMN.