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nearly the whole of the remainder of this period; the other states being generally identified with one or other of these as their respective allies. These competitions will be traced through the 3rd Messenian war, B. C. 465; the 1st Sacred war, B. C. 448; and the Corcyrian, B. C. 439 and 435; leading to the Peloponnesian war, B. C. 431; ending, after a contest of 27 years, in the subjugation of Athens by the Spartans, under Lysander, and the imposition of the Thirty Tyrants," B. C. 404; they are expelled by Thrasybulus, B. C. 401, who procures a peace with Sparta. The issue of the Peloponnesian war gave Sparta the ascendancy in Greece, and we are now to observe the war of Agesilaus with the Persians, undertaken for the purpose of restoring the Greek cities of Asia Minor to liberty, B. C. 396; the Corinthian war, B. C. 395; the efforts of the Thebans (assisted by the Athenians) to regain their liberty, B. C. 379; the massacre of the Orators at Argos, B. C. 370; and the rise of Jason, Tyrant of Phærea. The 2nd Sacred war, B. C. 357; the subjection of the principal part of Greece by Philip of Macedon, B. C. 338; the succession of Alexander the Great to the throne, B. C. 336; and the extinction of the Persian Empire by that monarch, B. C. 331. Of military and political characters in Greece, we remark during this period, in Athens,
HIPPIAS and HIPPARCHUS, the sons of Pisistratus, the latter put to death, 513, the former banished, 510, by HARMODIUS and ARISTOGITON.
During the Persian war we see
MILTIADES, who gained the battle of Marathon, 490; was accused, condemned, and died in prison, 489. ARISTIDES, (surnamed the Just) banished by the influence of Themistocles, 484; recalled, and defeated the Persians in the battle of Salamis, 480; and, conjointly with Pausanias, the Spartan General, in the battle of Plataa, 479. THEMISTOCLES, distinguished himself at the battle of Ma
rathon, 490; commanded the naval force, which he gave up to Eurybiades, and thereby caused the victories at Salamis and Artemisium, 480; he fortified Athens with walls, which giving umbrage to the Spartans, he proposes burning their fleet, which is opposed by Aristides; is accused of conspiring with Pausanias, and banished, 471; died, 449.
CIMON, (son of Miltiades) set up by Aristides as a counterpoise to the ambition of Themistocles; defeated the Persians by sea, near Cyprus, and their land army near the river Eurymedon, in Pamphylia, and forced them to a disgraceful peace, 470; banished at the instigation of Pericles, 460; is recalled, and renews the operations against Persia, 455; died, 449.
PERICLES first came into notice, 468; procured the banish
ment of Cimon, 460; and of Thucydides, 444; after which he remained sole administrator of public affairs at Athens; subdued Samos, 441; from a self-interested policy promoted the Peloponnesian war, 431; died of the plague, 429.
LEOCRATES, General in the war with the Corinthians about Megara, 468.
TOLMIDES defeated and killed by the Baotians during the 1st Sacred war, 447.
THUCYDIDES succeeded Cimon, 449; banished by means of Pericles, 444.
MELESANDER, General in the Peloponnesian war, 431. CHAREADES, General in Sicily, during the Peloponnesian war, 426.
DEMOSTHENES, succeeded Alcibiades as General in Sicily, 415; put to death by Hermocrates the Syracusan General, 413.
CLEON, succeeded to the supreme power upon the death of Pericles, 429; killed in the same battle with Brasidas the Spartan General, 422.
LAMACHUS, General in Sicily, 426; killed before Syracuse, 414.
ALCIBIADES, proposes a war in Sicily, and is sent there with Nicias and Lamachus, is recalled for trial the same year, and goes over to the Spartans, whom he instigates to succour the Syracusans, 415; being suspected by the Spartans he flies to Tissaphernes, the Persian General, and tries to persuade him to balance the power of the Athenians and Spartans, that they may weaken each other, 412; is recalled by the Athenians, and made Generalissimo of their armies, 407; being again suspected, he flies to Pharnabazus, the Persian General, and endeavours to persuade him to make war upon the Spartans; Lysander thereupon induces Pharnabazus to have him murdered, 404.
NICIAS, General in Sicily, 426; surrenders to Hermo
crates, the Syracusan General, and is put to death, 413. THERAMENES, made one of the thirty tyrants, but protests against their arbitrary proceedings; is accused by Critias, and put to death, 404.
THRASYBULUS, defeats Mindarus the Spartan General, 410; persuades the Athenians to recal Alcibiades, 407; expels the thirty tyrants, 401; is sent to quell the tumults
at Rhodes, and murdered there, 390.
CONON, commander of the fleet, which was destroyed by Lysander at Egospotamos, 405; he retired to Persia, and induced Artaxerxes Mnemon to excite the principal Grecian states against Sparta, which occasions the Corinthian war, 395; defeats Pisander in the sea fight off Cnidus, 394; rebuilds the walls of Athens; is falsely accused by the Spartans to Tiribazus, the Persian General, who puts him to death, 393.
IPHICRATES, successfully assists the Corinthians against Agesilaus, 393; is sent with an army of 20,000 men to assist Artaxerxes Mnemon against the Egyptians, 374. CHABRIAS, assisted the Thebans against Sparta, and defeated Pollis in the sea fight off Naxus, 377.
Of Spartans, we remark
King LEONIDAS, who with 300 followers opposed the immense army of Xerxes at Thermopyla, 840.
PAUSANIAS, conjointly with Aristides, the Athenian General, gained the battle of Platœa, 479; conspired against his country; took refuge in the Temple of Minerva, where he was starved to death, 471.
STHENELAIDES, the Ephor, urged his countrymen to declare war against Athens, 431.
CLEOMENES, General in the Peloponnesian war, uncle and Guardian to Pausanias the young king, 427. Brasidas, killed in the same battle, with Cleon, the Athenian General, 422.
GYLIPPUS, sent to assist the Syracusans against Athens, 414; defeats Nicias and Demosthenes, 413; accompanies Lysander in his expedition against Athens, 404; embezzles part of the plunder with which he was sent to Sparta, and banishes himself.
MINDARUS, commander of the fleet, defeated and killed by the Athenians, 410.
CALLICRATIDAS, succeeds Lysander in the command of the fleet; defeats Conon, but is sunk in the next engagement,
LYSANDER, made generalissimo of the Spartans, 407; gives up the command of the fleet to Callicratidas, 406; resumes it at his death; defeats Conon at Egospotamos, and destroys the Athenian fleet, 405; takes Athens, destroys the Piraeus, forces the Athenians to deliver up all their ships, except twelve, to recal their exiles, and submit in all respects to the Lacedemonians; changes the governmnet at Athens, and introduces the thirty tyrants, 404; is defeated, and killed in battle by the Thebans, in the Corinthian war, 394.
THIMBRO, appointed to the command of the army in Asia, against the Persians, 395.
DERCYLLIDAS, Succeeds Thimbro in the command of the Spartan army in Asia, 391.
PISANDER, commander of the fleet, 395; defeated and killed by Conon, in the sea fight off Cnidus, 394. ANTALCIDAS, sent to negotiate the disgraceful peace which is named after him, and by which the Greek cities in Asia were made tributary to Persia, 387. PHEBIDAS, sent to assist the Macedonians against Thrace; on his way, he treacherously seizes the Cadmea of Thebes, 381.
POLLIS, defeated in the sea-fight off Naxus, by Chabrias, the Athenian General, 377.
Of Thebans, we observe
EPAMINONDAS, (friend of Pelopidas) who defeated the Spartans in the battle of Leuctra, 371; was killed in the arms of victory in the battle of Mantinea, 363. PELOPIDAS, conjointly with Epaminondas, endeavours to liberate his country from the tyranny of Sparta; he was killed in a battle he gained over Alexander, Tyrant of Pheroa, 364.
PHILOMELUS, who plundered the temple of Delphi, in order to raise a mercenary army to oppose the Amphictyonic party in the 2d Sacred war, 357; killed, and succeeded by his brother,
ONOMARCHUS, 354, who the next year is defeated and killed in Thessaly, by Philip of Macedon, 353.
PHYALLUS, a third brother, succeeds, but is unsuccessful against Philip, who takes all the cities of the Phoceans, 348.
PARMENIO, his son PHILOTAS, and HEPHÆSTION, friends
and favourites of Alexander, the Great, who accompanied him on his Persian expedition; the two former were put to death by him, 331.