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"ter of Sion (q), Behold, thy King "cometh unto thee, meek, and sitting upon an ass, and a colt the "foal of an ass." 6. And the disciples went, and did as Jesus commanded them, 7. and brought the ass, and the colt, and put on them their clothes, and they set him thereon. 8. And a very great multitude (r) spread their garments in the way; others cut down branches from the trees, and strawed them in the way. 9. And the multitudes that went before, and that followed, cried, saying, "Hosannah to the Son (s) of "David! Blessed is he that "cometh in the Name of the "Lord; Hosannah in the High"est!" 10. And when he was come into Jerusalem, all the city was moved, saying, "Who is 11. And the multitude said, "This is Jesus (t) the prophet of Nazareth of Galilee." 12. And Jesus went into

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the temple of God, and cast out all them that sold and bought

in Zech. ix. 9. "Rejoice greatly, O "daughter of Zion: Shout, O daughter of "Jerusalem: Behold thy King cometh "unto thee: he is just, and having salva"tion: lowly, and riding upon an ass, and

upon a colt the foal of an ass: and I will "cut off the chariot from Ephraim, and "the horse from Jerusalem, and the battle "bow shall be cut off: and he shall speak "peace unto the heathen." This was calculated to shew that his was not to be a kingdom of worldly pomp or grandeur. (q) v. 5. "The daughter of Sion," i. e. "Jerusalem."

(r) v. 8. "A very great multitude." According to John xii. 1. Our Saviour had been the day before at Bethany, where Lazarus was, whom he had before raised from the dead: and it was for this cause that the people went forth to meet him, for that they had heard he had done this miracle. See John xii. 18.

in the temple, and overthrew the tables of the money-changers, and the seats of them that sold (u) doves; 13. and said unto them, "It is written, " My (a) house "shall be called the house of 66 prayer; but ye have made it a "den of thieves."

Second Sunday in Advent.
The Collect.

BLESSED Lord, who hast caused all holy Scriptures to be written for our learning; Grant that we may in such wise hear them, read, mark, learn, and inwardly digest them; that by patience, and comfort of thy holy Word, we may embrace and ever hold fast the blessed hope of everlasting life, which thou hast given us in our Saviour Jesus Christ. Amen.

The Epistle. Rom. xv. 4. (z) WHATSOEVER things were written aforetime were written for our

(s) v. 9. "Son of David," i. e. "the "Messiah."

(t) v. 11. "The Prophet," with the article, ὁ προφήτης.

(u) v. 12. "Doves," or "the doves," those the poor offered, what were in readiness for them. The article is in the original.

(x) v. 13. "My house." In Is. lvi. 7. God says, 66 My house shall be made a "house of prayer for all people;" and Jer. vii. 11. he asks, "Is this house, which "is called by my name, become a den of "robbers in your eyes?" The recollection of these passages might suggest the expression our Saviour used.

(z) Of the Converts at Rome, some thought themselves still bound to observe the Mosaical ordinances, and to make a difference in days and meats; others considered themselves freed from such re

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straints. Saint Paul's object is to prevent all dissensions between them upon such points, to take away from Jews and Gentiles all occasions of contest, and to induce both to unite cordially in glorifying God. He reminds them, that it was to confirm the promises made unto the Fathers, that Christ's ministry was amongst the Jews; and that it was of mere mercy to the Gentiles, and not of right, or even of promise, though foretold, that the benefit of our Saviour's coming was extended to the Gentiles. That neither Jew nor Gentile therefore was to overvalue himself or despise the other, inasmuch as it was not of right as from their own merit that either was admitted to the blessings of Christianity, and God, who best could judge, had thought each worthy to have the offer of those blessings.

(a) v. 5." Like-minded," i. e. " of one "mind, giving up to your neighbour in un"essential points to produce unanimity," "that they might with one mind and one "mouth glorify God." He had just been stating, that " they who were strong "should bear the infirmities of the weak, " and not please themselves;" that "each "should please his neighbour for his good "to edification;" and that " even Christ "Jesus pleased not himself." He here therefore proposes that they should follow this his example, and be as he was, studying to prevent dissensions, not seeking his own gratification. In Philipp. iv. 2. St. Paul beseeches Euodias and Syntyche to be

(m) There shall be a root of "Jesse, and he that shall rise "to reign over the Gentiles; in "him shall the Gentiles (n) trust. 13. Now the God of hope


of the "same mind in the Lord;" and Rom. xii. 16. he exhorts the converts to be of the same "mind one towards "another," i. e. to have "unanimity."

(b) v. 5." According to," i. e. " after the example of."

(c) v.6. "God, &c." or "the God and Father," him who stands in both those relations to Jesus Christ: 7ὸν Θεὸν καὶ Πατέρα. Hamm. in loco. Middl. 79.

(d) v. 7. "receive," i. e. "hold com"munion with," so that Jew and Gentile may with one mind and mouth glorify God.

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(e)" To the glory, &c." "making God's glory the object.'

(g) v.8. "Of the circumcision," i. e. "amongst those who practised circumci"sion, the Jews."

(h) v. 9. "His mercy," in graciously offering them the benefits of Christ's coming, though he had never promised it. (i) "For this cause, &c." This is transcribed from Ps. xviii. 49. relates to God's mercies, deliverances, and protection there mentioned.

The cause

(k) v. 10. "Rejoice." Deut. xxxii. 43. (2) v. 11. "Praise, &c." Ps. cxvii. 1. (m) v. 12. "There shall be, &c." Is. xi. 10.

(n) v. 13. "of hope," or "of this hope (or trust,)" from whom this hope (or trust) proceeds, 75 λdos, that ye may abound in "this hope or trust," Theλmid, "that trust "Isaiah foretold:" intimating that the hope or trust foretold and here referred to had

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(0) Part of our Saviour's account of what should precede the great event of his vengeance upon the opposers of his religion, at one of the times signified by "the coming," or "day of the Lord." According to Isaiah lxi. 2. the Messiah was to proclaim, not only "the acceptable year of the Lord," but also "the day of vengeance of our God." Joel ii. 1. to 11. speaks at large of the terrors of the day of the Lord, and of the strength of the people God should employ as instruments to inflict them. Zeph. i. 12. to 18. mentions the great day of the Lord as "day of wrath, a day of trouble and dis"tress, a day of wasteness and desolation, "a day of darkness and gloominess, a day "of clouds and thick darkness, a day of "the trumpet and alarm against the fenced "cities and against the high towers," and says, that "the whole land shall be de"voured by the fire of God's jealousy, for "he shall make even a speedy riddance "of all them that dwell in the land." In Zech. xiii. 8, 9. "It shall come to pass, "that in all the land, saith the Lord, "two parts therein shall be cut off and "die," and Malachi, besides the passage Mal. iii. 2. (post, 70.) says (c. iv. 1, 2.) Be"hold the day cometh that shall burn

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as an oven, and all the proud, yea, and "all that do wickedly shall be stubble; "and the day that cometh shall burn "them up, saith the Lord of Hosts, that "it shall leave them neither root nor "branch; but unto you that fear my name shall the Sun of Righteousness "arise, with healing in his wings." Lastly, John the Baptist describes our Saviour, (Matt. iii. 12.) as one "whose fan is in his hand, and he will thoroughly purge his

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"floor and gather his wheat into the garner; "but he will burn up the chaff with un

quenchable fire." See also Ps. ii. 9. and xxi. 8, 9. The character, therefore, of the day of the Lord, and the tremendous vengeance then to be executed, were strongly foretold; and it was natural the people should be desirous of knowing more particularly when this great event should take place, and what would be the marks of its approach. Our Saviour had told them, that the days should come in which there should not be left one stone upon another in their magnificent temple which should not be thrown down; and they took that occasion to ask him, "When should these "things be, and what sign would there be "when these things should come to pass ?" In answer to this question, he gives the account of which this day's Gospel is part. The destruction of Jerusalem accordingly occurred about 37 years after our Saviour's crucifixion; an immense number of Jews, 1,400,000, were slain there and in other parts of Judea, and the temple was so utterly destroyed, that its very foundations were dug up. A full account of the destruction of Jerusalem is to be met with in the Jewish writer, Josephus. See post, 76. note on Matt. xxiv. 31.

(p) v. 27. " coming in a cloud." When the high priest adjured our Saviour to say whether he was "the Christ, the Son of "God, Matt. xxvi. 63." our Saviour told him, that hereafter they should "see the "Son of Man sitting on the right hand of "Power, and coming in the clouds of hea"ven." Both passages probably refer to Dan. vii. 13. "I saw in the night visions; "and behold, one like the Son of Man "came with the clouds of heaven, and came "to the Antient of Days," (viz. God), and "there was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, "nations, and languages should serve him :

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"these things begin to come to pass, then look up, and lift up your heads; for your (q) redemption draweth nigh." 29. And he spake to them a parable; " Behold, the figtree, "and all the trees; 30. when "they now shoot forth, ye see "and know of your own selves "that summer is now nigh at hand. 31. So likewise ye, when ye see these things come to pass, know ye that the kingdom (r) of God is nigh at hand.



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"his dominion is an everlasting dominion, "which shall not pass away, and his king"dom that which shall not be destroyed." The meaning in both passages may be, that what then occurs shall be decisive proof from God that Jesus Christ was the true Messiah. See post, 76. note on Matt. xxiv. 30.

(q) v. 28. "Your redemption." The destruction of their enemies and persecutors, the Jews, would of itself make a material difference in their condition. See note on the word "Salvation," Rom. xiii. 11. ante, p. 28.

(r) v. 31. "The kingdom of God," "i.e." that kingdom, which (accord"ing to Dan. ii. 44.) the God of hea"ven should set up, and which (according "to the vision in Dan. vii. 14.) was to be "given to one like the Son of Man, that all "people, nations, and languages, should "serve him: a kingdom which, (accord"ing to Luke xvii. 20, 21.) "cometh not "with observation," (i. e. is not matter of "sight,) "but is within us :" a kingdom, as "our Saviour says, (John xviii. 36.)" not of "this world,”—a spiritual, not a temporal kingdom. These prophecies of Daniel have been fulfilling for the last 1700 years, and are still fulfilling; and if they referred to the establishment of the spiritual kingdom of Christ, (and to what else could they refer?) the establishment and continuance of that kingdom is the work of God; and, as our Saviour foretold of his church, (Matt. xvi. 18.) "the gates (or "councils) of hell shall not prevail against "it." For an explanation of these prophecies, see Chandler's Defence of Christianity, 119 to 132.

(8) v. 32.

"This generation, &c." A

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O LORD Jesu Christ, who at thy first coming didst send thy messenger to prepare thy way before thee; Grant that the minis

pledge which in a limited time would bring our Saviour's pretensions to a decisive test. He claimed to be the Messiah ; and as one proof of it, took upon himself repeatedly to say, that before the generation of men then living should be removed from the earth, this great event of his coming should occur. In Matt. x. 23. he assures his apostles, "that they shall not "have gone over the cities of Israel till "the Son of Man shall come." In Matt. xvi. 28. he says, "there be some standing

"here, which shall not taste of death, till "they see the Son of Man coming in his "kingdom." According to Mark ix. 1. he said unto them, "Verily I say unto you, "that there be some of them that stand "here which shall not taste of death, till "they have seen the kingdom of God come "with power." In speaking of St. John, (John xxi. 22.) our Saviour says, "If I will that "he tarry till I come, what is that to thee?" St. John accordingly survived that coming of our Lord, which was fulfilled in the destruction of Jerusalem: and in Matt. xxiv. 34. where that Apostle gives his account of what our Saviour said as to the signs of his coming, the language is the same as here, "This generation shall not pass, till all "these things be fulfilled." St. Matthew and St. John, from being constant attendants on our Saviour, were not likely to be deceived as to his words; and Matthew's Gospel was published before the destruction of Jerusalem, and so were St. Mark's and St. Luke's, which contain similar passages. Mark xiii. 30.- Luke ix. 27. The accomplishment therefore of this vengeance within the period our Saviour specified, is an attestation by God himself that our Saviour really was what he pre


ters and stewards of thy mysteries may likewise so prepare and make ready thy way, by turning the hearts of the disobedient to the wisdom of the just; that at thy second coming to judge the world, we may be found an acceptable people in thy sight, who livest and reignest with the Father and the Holy Spirit, ever one God, world without end. Amen.

The Epistle. 1 Cor. iv. 1. (t) LET a man so account of us, as of the (u) ministers of Christ, and stewards of the mysteries of God. 2. Moreover, it is required in

tended to be. It is of use to advert to the proofs of the truth of our religion, because it enables us to give a reason for the hope that is in us; and where such abundant proof is supplied, God has shewn that he expects belief. The signal vengeance he took upon those who did not attend to the proofs he gave, or opposed the progress of the religion he sanctioned, should teach us what we may expect if we reject this religion, or act in defiance of its precepts. God, who is the same yesterday, to-day, and for ever, will probably in his own time, and in his own way, punish as severely the unbelievers and opposers of other times. Bishop Porteus's Lectures on the parallel Prophecy in St. Matthew are well worth consulting. See Lectures 19. and 20.

(t) St. Paul had blamed the Corinthian converts in the preceding chapter for ranking themselves under different teachers, one saying, "I am of Paul; another, I "am of Apollos; a third, I am of Cephas, "or Peter," and so on; and he therefore desires them to think of the apostles, not as persons seeking their own glory, and wishing to have sects after their own names, but as ministers and subordinate officers, looking to the glory of God and Jesus Christ only, and wishing to unite all the converts under Christ alone. And he intimates to them the fallibility of man's judgment, the correctness and infallibility of Christ's. He therefore disregards all man's judgment; he does not even depend upon his own; for though he knows nothing against himself,

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stewards, that a man be found (v) faithful. 3. But with me it is a very small thing that I should be judged (w) of you, or of man's judgement; yea, I judge not mine own self: 4. for I know nothing (a) by myself; yet am i not hereby justified but he that judgeth me is the (y) Lord. 5. Therefore (2) judge nothing before the time, until (a) the (b) Lord come, who both will bring to light the hidden things of darkness, and will make manifest (c) the counsels of the hearts: and then shall every (d) man have (e) praise of (g) God.

he durst not conclude that he is blameless. He is not the proper judge the Lord (Christ) only is. Man therefore was to wait for Christ's judgment, when he should come, not to presume in the interim to judge for himself.

(u) v. 1. "Ministers," i. e. "only as mi"nisters and stewards," acting for another master, even Christ.

(v) v. 2. "Faithful," and therefore not to take to themselves what belongs to their


(w) v. 3." Judged," i. e. perhaps, "esti"mated, valued, weighed."

(x) v. 4. "By myself," rather, "against "myself." Hamm. on N. T. 519. 1 Clarke's Attrib. 258. The meaning perhaps is, though I know nothing against myself, that is not a ground on which I can consider myself justified; for I must be judged by God, who, according to 1 John iii. 21. "is greater than our hearts, and knoweth "all things."

(y) "The Lord," i. e. Christ. Kupios. (2) v. 5. "Judge nothing." See post,note on Luke vi. 37.

(a) "Until the Lord come." See ante, p. 33. on Luke xxi. 32.

(b) "The Lord," ixupios, with the article. (c) "Manifest," so that he must have omniscience. Vaill. 24.

(d) "Every man," or "each of us," Paul, Appollos, and Cephas: xasw.

(e) "Praise," or "the praise," the proper praise, what is really due. The original has the article.

(g) "Of God," who alone knows how to estimate.

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