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the Adverfaries of God lefs fervent in the following Chapter, (Ixiv. 1, 2.) Oh that thou wouldst rend the Heavens, that thou wouldst come down, that the Mountains might flow down at thy Prefence; as when the melting Fire burneth it causeth the Water to boil; and many other terrible and unexpected things follow, all which lead us to the Expectation of fome fignal Slaughter of the Enemies of God, and Reftauration of Ifrael before the End of the World. I fhall only add, that according to the Chaldee Paraphraft, there is in these Chapters mention often made of the Return of the Schechinah to Ifrael, which had disappeared for a confiderable time. (See c. lxiii. 17, and c. lxiv. 3, 6.

The fixty fifth Chapter follows. In which it is principally worthy of Remark, that here is first of all mention exprefly made of the new Heavens, and the new Earth. I fay exprefly, for in the foregoing Prophecies God had promifed to restore (c. li. 3.) Paradife, together with all thofe Bleffings which accompanies that State, fuch as Plenty of all good things, abundance of Pleasure, where the Beasts fhould lose their Fiercenefs, and everlasting Peace be established; without any Sickness, Grief, or Moleftation. These things, I fay, are often pro mised, as we have before obferved, in going gradually over the Sermons of this Prophet. (See the abovementioned Places, c. ii. 4. xi. 5, 6, 8, 9, xxv. 8. xxx. 23, 24, 25, 26. xxxv. throughout. li. 16.)

Having premised this, let us attend to what the Prophet adds in this Chapter. He Prophecies concerning the Reftitution of Ifrael, (v. 8, 9.) yet he does not thereby mean the whole Body of that People, but a Remnant only like Seed. For as the Apoftle fays, they are not all Ifrael, which are of If rael. (Rom. ix. 6.) As for others who were dege



nerate, and imitated the Manners of the Heathens, he denounces severe Threatnings against them, (v. 11, 12.) and affures them, that they shall be an Abharring unto others, and leave their Names for a Curfe. And lastly, the true Worship of God being again established, and the Condition of Things changed, God promises that all former Troubles fhall be forgotten by his People. (v. 16, 17, 18, 19.) For behold (fays God) I create new Heavens, and a new Earth: and the former shall not be remembred, nor come into Mind. But be you glad and rejoice for ever in that which I create: for behold I create ferufalem a Rejoicing, and her People a Joy. And I will rejoice in Jerufalem, and joy in my People, and the Voice of Weeping fhall be no more heard in her, nor the Voice of Crying.

Here are two things foretold by God, a Creation of a new World; and farther he fays, that he will rejoice over that new World, and his People at Jerufalem; and that no Weeping or Lamentation fhall be heard there any more. (Compare Ifciah xxv. 8. XXX. 19. with Jer. xxxi. 12.)

I know there are many Controverfies raised about this new World; efpecially whether thefe Prophecies are to be understood concerning the natural as well as the moral World, or only with regard to the latter, there being no Change or Alteration made in Nature. This Controverfy is to be decided from diverse Sorts of Arguments; firft from the Use and Signification of the Words themselves. Then from the Marks and Characters of this new World, by which it is diftinguished from the former or prefent; and laftly, from the Explications of other Prophets, who treat about the fame Subject.

As to the first of thefe, it is well known that the Jews under the Name of the Heavens and Earth, always understood the Natural World, according to


the manifeft Signification of the Words, nor could they properly exprefs it by one fingle Word. As to the fecond, there are many Marks and Characters in this Defcription of the new World, which do not agree to the prefent one. Here is no perpetual Joy, nor are Weeping and Lamentation abfent; here is no fuch Longevity, nor quiet Dwelling, nor Spontaneous Fruitfulness of the Soil; nor laftly fuch Gentleness, nor innocent Behaviour of the Beafts. These are the Ornaments and Privileges of the new World, which are entirely different from the Properties of the prefent one. We meet with many of these things feparately in other Prophecies, which are here heaped together. (See Hofea ii. 18. Amos ix. 13. Joel ii. 18, 19, &c. Mic. iv. 3, &c.) And thus much may fuffice, as to the Characters of the new World. As for what concerns the third Head of Arguments, St. Peter and St. John, two facred Writers in the New Teftament, repeat and renew this prophetic Doctrine. The latter faw this Prophecy fulfilled in a Vision of the New Jerufalem. (Rev. xxi. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.) And I saw a new Heaven and a new Earth, for the first Heaven and the first Earth were paffed away; and there was no more Sea. And I John Saw the holy City, new Ferusalem coming down from God, out of Heaven, prepared as a Bride adorned for her Husband. And I heard a great Voice out of Heaven, saying, &c. And God ball wipe away all Tears, &c. And he that fate upon the Throne faid, behold I make all things new.

Ifaiah and St. John fpeak about the very fame things, as will foon appear by comparing their Dif courfes together; they have the fame New Jerufalem in their Eye, full of Joy, and free from all Calamity. Ifaiah fays, that the former Heavens and Earth fhall be no more remembred; and St. John affirms that all former things are paffed away; thefe Defcriptions

Defcriptions answer as exactly to each other, as two Pictures of the fame Face, or two Representations of the fame State of Nature, not drawn indeed by the fame Hand, but by Pencils of a like Nature.

Nor does St. Peter lefs regard this Place of Isaiah, when he admonishes us (2 Pet. iii. 13.) to look for new Heavens and a new Earth, according to the Promife of God. Now where has God promifed this new Creation fo clearly and fully as in the Prophecy of Ifaiah? And if we thus refer it, we have the Apoftle expounding the Prophet; both of them being divinely inspired. Now the Apostle interprets this Prophecy of Ifaiah, concerning the natural and material World; for he fays that the prefent Heavens and Earth, which are material, being confumed, the World shall be renewed, and different Heavens and Earth appear of a better Form indeed, but no lefs material. Which, I think, I have unanswerably demonstrated in the foregoing Treatife. (c. x.) But to return again to Ifaiah.

Here the Holy Spirit, in this and the following Chapter, feems firft to have opened the Mystery of the new World, and the Prophecies which concern it. As often as Ifaiah and other Prophets had foretold a Time when all wild Beafts fhould become gentle, and the Earth bring forth Corn without Labour; when a univerfal Peace and Tranquillity of Life should be established: Laftly, when the Face of the first Paradife fhould be renewed, and the Golden Age as it were reftored. All thefe Accounts were Riddles before the Discovery of this new World: Nor as yet have they had any Places, nor can they have in this prefent World. But now if after the Deftruction of this World, by the laft Conflagration a new one will revive at the fecond coming of the Meffiah, what hinders but that the new Creation fhould be according to the Model of


the primeval or paradifaical World? And this being granted there will arife together with the Sun of Righteousness a new State of Things, and that Appearance and Conftitution of Nature which anfwer to the Phænomena that were foretold, how wonderful foever. Now after what manner they do fo, and from what Caufes they arife, having already fhewed to the utmost of our Capacity in another Place, we fhall treat no farther on thefe Heads here.

And thus much with Reference to the new Heavens and the new Earth, and the Phænomena of them. The Prophet in the laft Chapter (lxvi.) purfues the fame Path which he had so often trodden before, and farther adds, (v. 7, 8.) that the Reftauration of Ifrael would be very fudden, like the furprise of a Woman in Travail. But God affords her his Succour while fhe is in Labour, and after fhe has brought forth, all pious Men will rejoice, (v. 10.) who fhall be fatisfied with the Breafts of her Confolations. In the mean time God is no lefs wrath with his Enemies, and appears against them in Whirlwinds, (v. 15.) Fury, and Flames of Fire; and in the last Event of things, the Seed of Ifrael fhall always remain, as the new Heavens and the new Earth; the impious Enemies of God being for ever deftroyed.

And thus I have, as briefly as I could, confidered what Ifaiah has fpoken concerning the Restauration of the Jews.

Concerning the Prophet Jeremiah.

Tis generally agreed by All, that the Prophecy of Jeremiah chiefly regards the Babylonifh times; and treats about the Caufes and Continuance of that CapTheory of the Earth, Book II. D


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