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judice in the hearer, as if he that spoke knew not what he said, or was afraid to have it understood.
The way to obtain this, is to read such books as are allowed to be writ with the greatest clearness and propriety, in the language that a man uses. An author excellent in this faculty, as well as several others, is Dr. Tillotson, late archbishop of Canterbury, in all that is published of his. I have chosen rather to propose this pattern, for the attainment of the art of speaking clearly, than those who give rules about it; since we are more apt to learn by example than by direction. But if any one hath a mind to consult the masters in the art of speaking and writing, he may find in Tully De Oratore, and another treatise of his called, Orator; and in Quintilian's Institutions, and Boileau's Traité du Sublime *, instructions concerning this and the other parts of speaking well.
Besides perspicuity, there must be also right reasoning; without which, perspicuity serves but to expose the speaker. And for the attaining of this, I should propose the constant reading of Chillingworth, who, by his example, will teach both perspicuity, and the way of right reasoning, better than any book that I know; and therefore will deserve to be read upon that account over and over again; not to say any thing of his argument.
Besides these books in English, Tully, Terence, Virgil, Livy, and Cæsar's Commentaries, may be read to form one's mind to a relish of a right way ing and writing:
The books I have hitherto mentioned have been in order only to writing and speaking well ; not but that they will deserve to be read upon
other accounts. . : The study of morality I have above mentioned as that that becomes a gentleman; not barely as a man, but in order to his business as a gentleman. Of this there are books enough writ both by ancient and
* That treatise is a translation from Longinus.
modern philosophers; but the morality of the gospel doth so exceed them all, that, to give a man a full knowledge of true morality, I shall send him to no other book but the New Testament. But if he hath a mind to see how far the heathen world carried that science, and whereon they bottomed their ethics, he will be_delightfully and profitably entertained in Tully's Treatises De Officiis.
Politics contains two parts, very different the one from the other. The one, containing the original of societies, and the rise and extent of political power ; the other, the art of governing men in society.
The first of these hath been so bandied amongst us for these sixty years backward, that one can hardly miss books of this kind. Those which I think are most talked of in English, are the first book of Mr. Hooker's Ecclesiastical Polity, and Mr. Algernon Sydney's Discourses concerning Government. The latter of these I never read. Let me here add, Two Treatises of Government, printed in 1690 *; and a Treatise of Civil Polity, printed this year t. To these one may add, Puffendorf De Officio Hominis et Civis, and De Jure Naturali et Gentium; which last is the best book of that kind.
As to the other part of politics, which concerns the art of government; that, I think, is best to be learned by experience and history, especially that of a man's own country. And therefore I think an English gentleman should be well versed in the history of England, taking his rise as far back as there are records of it; joining with it the laws that were made in the several ages, as he goes along in his history; that he may observe from thence the several turns of state, and how they have been produced. In Mr. Tyrrel's History of England he will find all along those several authors which have treated of our affairs,
* These two treatises are written by Mr. Locke himself.
+ Civil Polity. A Treatise concerning the Nature of Government, &c. London, 1703, in 8vo. Written by Peter Paxton, M. D.
and which he may have recourse to, concerning any point which either his curiosity or judgment shall lead him to inquire into.
With the history, he may also do well to read the ancient lawyers; such as Bracton, Fleta, Henningham, Mirror of Justice, my Lord Coke's Second Institutes, and the Modus tenendi Parliamentum; and others of that kind which he may find quoted in the late controversies between Mr. Petit, Mr. Tyrrel, Mr. Atwood, &c. with Dr. Brady; as also, I suppose, in Sedler's Treatise of Rights of the Kingdom, and Customs of our Ancestors, whereof the first edition is the best; wherein he will find the ancient constitution of the government of England.
There are two volumes of State Tracts printed since the Revolution, in which there are many things relating to the government of England *.
As for general history, Sir Walter Raleigh and Dr. Howel are books to be had. He, who hath a mind to launch farther into that ocean, may consult Whear's Methodus legendi Historias, of the last edition, which will direct him to the authors he is to read, and the method wherein he is to read them.
To the reading of history, chronology and geography are absolutely necessary.
In geography, we have two general ones in English, Heylin and Moll; which is the best of them I know not, having not been much conversant in either of them. But the last I should think to be of most use; because of the new discoveries that are made every day,
* We have now two collections of State Tracts; one in two volumes in folio, printed in 1689 and 1692, contains Several Treatises relating to the Government from the Year 1660 to 1689; and the other, in three volumes in folio, printed in 1705, 1706, and 1707, is a Collection of Tracts, published on Occasion of the late Revolution in 1688, and during the Reign of K. William III. These collections might have been made more complete and more convenient; especially the first, which is extremely defective and incorrect.
tending to the perfection of that science. Though, I believe, that the countries, which Heylin mentions, are better treated of by him, bating what new discoveries since his time have added.
These two books contain geography in general; but whether an English gentleman would think it worth his time to bestow much pains upon that, though without it he cannot well understand a Gazette, it is certain he cannot well be without Camden's Britannia, which is much enlarged in the last English edition. A good collection of maps is also necessary.
To geography, books of travels may be added. In that kind, the collections made by our countrymen, Hackluyt and Purchas, are very good. There is also a very good collection made by Thevenot in folio, in French; and by Ramuzio, in Italian; whether translated into English or no, I know not. There are also several good books of travels of Englishmen published, as Sandys, Roe, Brown, Gage, and Dampier.
There are also several voyages in French, which are very good, as Pyrard *, Bergeron †, Sagard I, Bernier , &c. : whether all of them are translated into English, I know not.
There is at present a very good Collection of Voyages and Travels, never before in English, and such as are out of print; now printing by Mr. Churchill ||
There are besides these a vast number of other travels; a sort of books that have a very good mixture
* Voyage de François Pyrard de Laval. Contenant sa Navigation aux Indes Orientales, Maldives, Moluques, Brésil. Paris, 1619, 8vo. 3d edit.
+ Relation des Voyages en Tartarie, &c. Le tout recueilli par Pierre Bergeron. Paris, 1634, 8vo.
Le Grand Voyage des Hurons, situés en l'Amerique, &c. par F. Gab. Sagard Theodat. Paris, 1632, 8vo.
& Memoires de l'Empire du Grand Mogol, &c. par François Bernier. Paris, 1670 et 1671, 3 vols. in 12mo.
That collection of voyages and travels was published an. 1704, in vols. in fol.
of delight and usefulness. To set them down all would take up too much time and room. Those I have mentioned are enough to begin with.
As to chronology, I think Helvicus the best for common use; which is not a book to be read, but to lie by, and be consulted upon occasion. He that hath a mind to look farther into chronology, may get Tallent's Tables, and Strauchius's Breviarium Temporum, and may to those add Scaliger De Emendatione Temporum, and Petavius, if he hath a mind to engage deeper in that study.
Those, who are accounted to have writ best particular parts of our English history, are Bacon, of Henry VII; and Herbert of Henry VIII. Daniel also is commended; and Burnets History of the Reformation.
Mariana's History of Spain, and Thuanus's History of his Own Time, and Philip de Comines, are of great and deserved reputation.
There are also several French and English memoirs and collections, such as La Rochefoucault, Melvil, Rushworth, &c. which give a great light to those who have a mind to look into what hath passed in Europe
this last age.
To fit a gentleman for the conduct of himself, whether as a private man, or as interested in the government of his country, nothing can be more necessary than the knowledge of men; which, though it be to be had chiefly from experience, and, next to that, from a judicious reading of history; yet there are books that of purpose treat of human nature, which help to give an insight into it. Such are those treating of the passions, and how they are moved; whereof Aristotle in his second book of Rhetoric hath admirably discoursed, and that in a little compass. I think this Rhetoric is translated into English; if not, it may be had in Greek and Latin together.
La Bruyere's Characters are also an admirable piece of painting; I think it is also translated out of French into English.