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its length we could not form any accurate opiniou, because its southern extremity, winding behiod distant mountains, was concealed from our view ; but we inclined rather to the statement of Hegesippus, as applied by Reland* to the text of Josephus ; this makes it one hundred and forty stadia, or seventeen miles and a balf. Josephus speaks of the sweetuess of its water, I of its pebbly bottom, and, above all, of the salubrity of the surrounding atmosphere. He says the water is so cold, that its temperature is not affected by its being exposed to the sun during the hottest season of the year. A most curious circumstånce concerning this lake is mentioned by Hasselquist : * I thought it remarkable," observes this celebrated naturalist,l! " that the same kind of fish should here be met with as in the Nile; Charmuth; Silurus, Bonni, Mulsil, aud Sparus Galilæus." This explains the observations of certaiu travellers, who speak of the lake as possessing fishes peculiar to itself; not being perhaps acquainted with the produce of the Nile. Josephus considers the Lake Genpesareth as having fishes of a pe. culiar nature ;** and yet it is very worthy of notice, that, in speaking of the fountain of Capernaum, his remarks tend to confirm the observation made by Hasselquist. “ Some consider it, says he, it was a vein of the Nile, because it briligs forth fishes resembling the Coracinus of the Alexandrian lake.”

This lake was the scene of a most bloody naval engagement between the Romaus under Vespasian, and the Jewirs who had revolted during the administratiou of Agrippa. The account of the action, as given by Josephus, proves that the vessels of the country, as at this day, were nothing more than mere boats: even those of the Romans, expressly built for that occasion, and described as larger than the ships used by the Jews, consisted of small craft, rapidly constructed, and for the building of wbich, it is said, they had abundance both of artificers and materials.ff Titus and Trajan were present in that engage

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* Palaest. Illust. lib. 1. c 39. tom. I. p. 259 Traj, ad. Rhen. 1714.

†" Namque lacus ipsius, velut quodam mare sinuts amplissimus, in longitudinem centum quadraginta extenditur stadia, latitudine quadraginta diffunditur.” pus de Ercid Urb. Hiero. lib. jii. c. 26. vol. VII. p. 492. Bib. Pat. Par. 1654.

| The waters of this lake are thus extolled by Quaresmius: "Non cænosa, palıdosae,

vel amarae, sed clarae, dulces, potabiles, et fecundæ.” Quaresmii Elucid. Teri. Sanc. lib. vii. c. 3. p. 882. tom. II. Antverp. 1639.

Joseph. lib. iii. de Bell Jud. c. 18. i Hasselquist's Voy. and Trav. in the Levant, p. 157. Lond. 1768. ** Lib. iii. cap 18 de Bell, ή; Ταύτην φλέβα το Νείλο τινές έδoξαν, επεί γεννά τα κατά την Αλεξανδρέων λίμνην Κορακι να παραπλήσιν. Joseph. lib. iii. de Bell. Jud. tom. II, p 258. ed. S. Havere. Amst. &c. 1720. The same kind of fish is mentioned in Athenaeus. (p. 227. C. Hav.) See also Gesñer de Aquatilibus." 11 Ibid. cap. 17.

ment; and Vespasian was himself on board the Roman ficet, The rebel army coosisted of an immense multitude of seditious people, from all the towns of the country, and especially from those borderiog upon the lake, who, as fugitives alier the capture of Tarichæa* by Titus, had souglı trefuge upon the water. The victory gained by the Romans was followed by such a terrible slaughter of the Jews, that nothing was to be seen, either upon the lake or along its shores, except blood, and the mangled corpses of the insurgents : their dead bodies infected the air to such a degree, that the victors, as well as the vapquished, u ere sufferers upon the occasion : the number of the slain, after the two actions, (that of Tarichwa and the naval engagement which followed,) amounted to six thousand five hundred persons. Neither was the slaughter less memorable of the prisoners, who were marched to Tiberias as soon as the victory had been obtained. Vespasian caused them all to be sliut sip in the amphitheatre; where twelve hundred of them were put to death, being unable or unfit to bear arms. This amphitheatre, according to the account given by Josephus, was large enough to containt thirty-seven thousand six bundred persons, (beside, a vast number: of others who were given as slaves by Vespasian to Agrippa, as well as of the inhabitants of Trachonitis Gaulon, Hippos, | and Gadara :** the sum to!al whereof he has not mentioned,) all of whom were mountaineers of Anti Libanus and Hermon, or restless tribes of freebooters from eastern Syria; upable, as Josephus describes them, to sustain a life of peace, and exhibiting, eighteen hun

* Tarichaea was situated beyond the baths of Emmaus, at the southern extremity of the Lake of Gennesareth, three miles and three quarters distant from Tiberias; or thirty stadia, according to Josephus. Between these two cities Vespasian's ariny was often encamped, and generally at the bat.As of Emmaus. Pliny, speaking of T'arichæa, says, that, by some, the lake was called after the name of this city. " A meridie

Tarichea quo nomine aliqui et lacum appellant.” (Plin. Hist. Nat. lib. v. eap. 15. L. Bat. 1635. tom. I. p. 262.) In the same manner, the Lake of Geneva is by some called Lake of Lausanne; and especially by Gibbou, who was offended at being censured for it. The author once heard him express an intention of proving this last to be the only correct appellation.

+ Future travellers will perhaps discover the remains of a building of this magnitude.

Trachonitis was the country near Damascus, to the east of Hermon and AntiLibanus.

Gaulon gave its name to the district called Gaulonitis, beyond Jordan, on the eastern side of the Lake of Gennesareth. D'Anville has not placed it in his map of Pa. læstine. It was one of the six cities of refuge.

|| A city opposite to Tiberias, upon the Lake Gennesareth, at the southwestern extremity of a ridge of mountains bearing the same name, and being a branch of the chain of Hermon.

** A city beyond Jordan, distant seven miles and a half from the Lake Gennesareth. Like Hippos, it gave its name to a small province. The hot baths of Gadara are mentioned by Epiphanius. Gadara, according to Polybius, was one of the strongest cities of the country,

THE KING OF THE FLEAS HOLDS

dred years ago, the same state of society which now characterizes the inhabitants of that country.

Afier reluctantly retiring from this crystal floor, we returned to the castle. Here, within the spacious and airy apartment prepared for our reception, we mutually expressed our hopes of passing at least one night free from the attacks of vermin; but, to our dismay, the sheik, being informed of our conversation, burst into laughter, and said, that, according to a saying current in Galilee, HIS COURT IN TIBERIAS." Some of the party, provided with hammocks, słuvg them from the walls, so as to lie suspended above the floor; yet even these did not escape persecution : and, for the rest of us, who lay on the bare plauks, we continued, as usual, tormented and restless during the night, listening to the noise made by the jackals. Being well aware what we had to expect, we resolved to devote as many hours as possible, hefore daybreak, to conversation with the people of the country, to our supper, and to the business of writing our journals. They brought us a plentiful repast, consisting of three sorts of fried fishes from the lake: one of these, a species of mullet, was, according to their tradition, the favourite food of Jesus Christ. The French, during the time their army remained under Buonaparte in the Holy Land, constructed two very large ovens in this castle. Two years had elapsed, at the time of our arrival, since they had set fire to their granary; and it was considered a miracle by the inhabitants of Tiberias, that the combustiou was not yet extinguished. We visited the place, and perceived that, whenever the ashes of the burned corn were stirred by thrusting a stick among them, sparks were even theo glowing throughout the heap; and a piece of wood, being left there, became charred. The heat in those vaulted chambers, where the corn had been destroyed, was still very great.

The next morning we arose as soon as light appeared, in order 10 bathe once more, and take a last survey of the town. Although, from several circumstances, we were convinced that the ancient city stood upon the site of the modern, it is very probable that it occupied a greater extent of territory*, particularly toward the south, where there are remains of buildings. Some authors mention a temple,

* Quaresmius mentions a gate of black and white marble on its western side : describing the city as of a square form, sa ying of it, " Non mullum antiqua est, et veteri Tiberiade multo minor : hanc enim longè majorem istâ fuisse circumjacentes magnæ rui. Tile, et marimè procedendo ad duo milliaria meridiem versus, non obscure demonstrant." Elucid Terr. Sanct. lib. vii. cap. 4. tom. II. p. 861. Ant. 1639.

called*

ΔΩΔΕΚΑΘΡΟΝΟΝ, erected upon the spot where it was believed our Saviour miraculously fed the multitude: and other edifices, whereof ne trace is now remaining. The most singular circumstance con. cerning Tiberias is nientioned by Boniface :t he describes the city as not being habitable, on account of the multitude of serpentsi This has not been stated by any other author; neither did any observation made by us upon the spot, conceruing the natural history of the country, serve to explain the origin of this representation; the more remarkable, as it is affirmed by one who resided in the Holy Land, and whose writings are frequently quoted by author's toward the end of the sixteenth and the begiuning of the seventeenth centuries. Tiberias at present is much inhabited; principally by Jews, who are said to be descendants of families resident there, in the time of our Saviour; they are perhaps a remnant of refugees who fled hither after the capture of Jerusalem by the Romans. The Christian inhabitants of this town are, however, also numerous : of this we were convinced, by the multitude we saw coming from the morning service of the church.

Nicephorus, lib. viji. cap. 30, &c. † Bonifacius de Perenni Cultu Terra, Sanctæ lib. ii.

* Tiberias civitas omninò inhabilabilis est, propter serpentum multitudinem." Ib.

He was superior of a monastery at Mount Sion in Jerusalem, and afterward ad Tanced to an episcopal sea in Italy. Vid. Quaresm. Eluc. tom. I. lib. 5. 6. 13.

CHAP. XV.

THE HOLY LAND-TIBERIAS TO NAPOLOSE.

Departure from Tiberias-Effect of the Climate-Production

of the DesertLubin State of the Country-Mount Thabor-Change of Roule-Narron Escape of the Author Camp of Djessar's Cavalry-Wars of the Arabs-Their Manner and Disposition - Address of an Arab to his Mare-SIMMOOM, or Wind of the Desert-Bread baked in the Sun's Rays-Emir of the Mountains-Plain of Esdrae

lon--Encampments-Jennin-Effect produced by Change of · Government -Santorri- Ancient Castle-Napolose or Si

CHEM-Reception by the Governor Aspect and State of the City--Its various Appellations-Circumstances connected with its ancient History--Tomb of Joseph-Tomb of Joshua -Nature of those Reliques--Samaritans-Jacob's Well.

SUD,

We were on horseback by six o'clock, on Monday morn. ing, July the sixth, notwithstanding our excursion, and con. tinued our route. Leaving Tiberias, we took a different road from that by which we came, and crossed an extensive valley, hoping to visit Mount Thabor. In this valley, three hundred French cavalry defeated an army of ten thousand Turks; an event so astonishing, even to the Turks themselves, that they considered the victory as oblained by magic; au art which they believe many of the Frauks to possess.

All the pleasure of travelling, at this season of the year, in the Holy Land, is suspended by the excessive heat of the

A traveller, wearied and spiritless, is often more subdued at the beginning than at the end of his day's journey. Many rare plants and curious minerals invite his notice, as he passes slowly along, with depressed looks fixed upon the ground; but these it is impossible for him to obtain. It appears to him to be an act of unjustifiable cruelty to ask a servant, · or even one of the attending Arabs, to descend from his horse, for the purpose of collecting either the one or the other. All pature seems to droop ; every animal seeks for shade, which it is extremely difficult to find. But the chamæleon, the lizard, the serpent, aud all sorts of beetles, basking, even at noon, upon rocks and in sandy places, exposed to the most

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