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sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt. and those (v. 2) who enter it after their resurrection. Cf. Is. iv. 3, where those who are worthy to survive the approaching judgement are described as 'written down unto life [i.e. a glorified, but still earthly life] in Jerusalem.' The same figure occurs in Enoch xlvii. 3 ('the books of the living were opened before Him'), cviii. 3 (the names of the wicked will be blotted out of the book of life, and out of the books of the holy ones'); and, applied in a Christian sense, in Phil. iv. 3, Rev. iii. 5, xiii. 8, xvii. 8, xx. 12, 15, xxi. 27; cf. Luke x. 20, Heb. xii. 23, Enoch civ. I (your names written before the glory of the Great One').


2. The resurrection. The doctrine of a future life is not fully developed in the O.T.; it is nascent; and the stages in its growth are clearly distinguishable. The idea of a resurrection appears first, though in a national, not in an individual sense, in Hos. vi. 2: it appears next, also in a national sense (see Davidson's note, p. 267), in Ezekiel's famous vision of the Valley of dry bones (xxxvii. 1-14): the resurrection of individuals appears first in the postexilic prophecy of Is. xxiv.-xxvii., viz. xxvi. 19 (see Skinner's note), though, as in Ezek. (xxxvii. 11), it is still expressly limited to Israel (it is denied, v. 14, of Israel's foes): in the present passage, a resurrection of the wicked, as well as of the righteous, is taught for the first time, and the doctrine of a different future reserved for each is also for the first time enunciated. See further the Introd. p. xcii.

many] The resurrection is still limited implicitly to Israel. It is not said who are to compose the 'many': perhaps the author thinks in particular of the martyrs, and apostates, respectively, who, on the one side or the other, had been prominent during the reign of Antiochus. sleep] in death: cf. Jer. li. 39, 57; 1 Thess. iv. 14, V. 10.

in the dusty ground] lit. the ground of dust. The expression is peculiar, and occurs only here. Dust' is often said of the grave, as to 'lie down upon the dust' (Job xx. 11, xxi. 26), and 'they that go down to the dust' (Ps. xxii. 29).

shall awake] cf., in the same sense, Is. xxvi. 19; also (where it is denied) Job xiv. 12, and (of the Babylonians) Jer. lí. 39, 57.

some to everlasting life] The expression occurs only here in the O.T., but it is frequent in post-Biblical Jewish writings: e.g. in Enoch (xxxvii. 4, xl. 9, lviii. 3, lxii. 14); Psalms of Sol. iii. 16 (cf. xiii. 9);

Macc. xv. 3 (cf. 2 Macc. vii. 9, 36); and in the Targums (in which passages of the O.T. relating really to the present life are often interpreted as referring to a future life)1. A more common synonym is the life of the age to come' ( hyn “n), Aboth ii. 7, &c. (Dalman, Die Worte Jesu, p. 129).

some to reproaches (Ps. lxix. 9, 10 [Heb.]) and everlasting abhorrence] the last word (only once besides) from Is. lxvi. 24 And they

1 See examples in the writer's Sermons on the O.T. (1892), pp. 83, 88–91; Dalman, Die Worte Jesu, p. 128.

3 And they that be wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament; and they that turn many to righteousness as the stars for ever and ever. But thou, O Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book, even to the time of the end: many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be in



[the carcases of the transgressors, slain outside Jerusalem] shall be an abhorring unto all flesh.' Cf. in the N.T., Matt. xxv. 46; John v. 29. 3. Those who in the time of trial had by example and precept preserved many in righteousness and faith, will then receive their reward.

they that be wise] The words do not mean the 'wise' generally, but those mentioned in xi. 33, 35 (the word being the same which is there used), men like Mattathias (1 Macc. ii.), the staunch and firm leaders of the loyal Jews, during Antiochus' persecutions. These "are distinguished from the rest of the faithful Israelites--they not only live for ever, but are eternally glorified" (Bevan). Cf. Enoch civ. 2 (' Be hopeful for aforetime ye were put to shame through ills and affliction; but soon ye will shine as the stars of heaven, ye will shine and ye will be seen, and the portals of heaven will be opened to you'); Matt. xiii. 43.

as the brightness of the firmament] cf. Ex. xxiv. 10.

and they that make the many righteous] The expression, as Is. liii. 11, by his knowledge shall my righteous servant make the many righteous.' In neither case is the verb to be understood in the later technical sense of 'justify': the meaning, in both cases, is to lead to righteousness by teaching-in Is. liii. by instruction in the ways and will of God (by his knowledge'), here by warning, exhortation, and example of constancy (cf. xi. 33 'shall make the many to understand'). 4. The closing injunction to Daniel.

shut up, &c.] The injunction is similar to that in viii, 26. until the time of the end] i.e. (viii. 17) the time of Antiochus' persecution, regarded from the standpoint of Daniel himself. The words are meant to explain why the visions in the book, though communicated to Daniel, were not made generally known until the time of the persecution. Cf. on viii. 26; and contrast Rev. xxii. 10.

many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be increased] A famous passage, prefixed by Bacon in its Latin form (Multi pertransibunt, et multiplex erit scientia) to the first edition of his Novum Organum, and interpreted by him (1. 93) as signifying that the complete exploration of the world (pertransitus mundi), which seemed to him to be then on the point of accomplishment, would coincide with great discoveries in science (augmenta scientiarum). This explanation of the words is, however, unhappily, too foreign to their context to be probable. But it must be admitted that the words are enigmatic. The verb rendered run to and fro occurs elsewhere, Jer. v. 1, Am. viii. 12 (of literal movement hither and thither); Zech. iv. 10, 2 Ch. xvi. 9 (of Jehovah's eyes, present in every part of the earth);

Then I Daniel looked, and behold, there stood other 5 two, the one on this side of the bank of the river, and the other on that side of the bank of the river. And one said 6 to the man clothed in linen, which was upon the waters of the river, How long shall it be to the end of these wonders? And I heard the man clothed in linen, which was upon the waters of the river, when he held up his

and the sense generally given to the passage is that many will then run to and fro in the book, i.e. diligently explore and study it, and so the knowledge of God's providential purposes, to be obtained from it, -how, for instance, He tries, but at the same time rewards, His own faithful servants, and how the course of human history leads ultimately to the establishment of His kingdom,—will be increased.

The text, it must be owned, is open to suspicion. Prof. Bevan making a slight change (nyn for ny), in a sense suggested by the LXX., obtains the rendering 'many shall run to and fro (viz. in distraction), and evils (calamities) shall be increased,' i.e. the revelation is to remain concealed, because there is to ensue a long period of commotion and distress. For the thought of the emended clause, he compares I Macc. i. 9 (of the wars and other troubles brought upon the world by the Seleucidae and the Ptolemies) 'and they multiplied evils in the earth.' 3. xii. 5-13. Conclusion. The revelation (xi. 2—xii. 4) is ended; but nothing has been said about the duration of the troubles foretold in it. And yet, to those living in the midst of them, this was a question of vital interest. Daniel accordingly asks, and receives, specific information on this point (v. 6 ff.).

5. other twoli.e. (as we should now say) two others, in addition, viz. to the glorious being, whom Daniel saw (x. 5, 6), and who had been speaking to him since (x. 11-14, 19, x. 20-xii. 4).

river (twice)] Heb. y'or, an Egyptian word, elsewhere in the O.T. the regular name of the Nile (Ex. ii. 3, &c.), but here and in vv. 6, 7, denoting the Tigris (see x. 4). The proper force of the word must have been forgotten; and it must be used in the general sense of stream.

6. And one] i.e. one of the angels just mentioned, whom Daniel hears speaking (cf. viii. 13).

the man clothed in linen] The glorious figure described more fully in x. 5, 6.

upon] above, i.e. hovering in the air, above the stream; cf. viii. 16. the wonders] or extraordinary things, viz. the extraordinary trials and sufferings described in xi. 31-36 (cf. the same expression, with regard to the deeds, or words, of Antiochus, in viii. 24 and xi. 36).

7. The answer to the inquiry, given with solemn emphasis, and overheard by Daniel.

upon] above, as v. 6.

and he lifted up, &c.] The lifting up of the (right) hand implied an appeal to heaven, and is frequently mentioned as a gesture accompanying an oath: Gen. xiv. 22; and (with another Heb. word


right hand and his left hand unto heaven, and sware by him that liveth for ever that it shall be for a time, times, and a half; and when he shall have accomplished to scatter the power of the holy people, all these things shall 8 be finished. And I heard, but I understood not: then said I, O my lord, what shall be the end of these things? 9 And he said, Go thy way, Daniel: for the words are closed

for lift up) Ex. vi. 8, Deut. xxxii. 40, Ez. xx. 5 al. Of an angel, as here, Rev. x. 5.

and his left hand] both hands, as the more complete guarantee of the truth of what is about to be affirmed.



by him that liveth for ever] cf. Rev. x. 6. The usual form of oath in the O.T. is (As) Jehovah liveth' (e.g. Jud. viii. 19), or (in God's mouth) (As) I live,' -once (Deut. xxxii. 40) '(As) I live for The formula here used seems to be based upon the lastcited passage: comp. also 'him that liveth for ever' in Dan. iv. 34. for a time, times, and a half] i.e. 3 years, to be reckoned, probably, as was explained on vii. 25 (where the same expression occurs), from the mission of Apollonius in the middle of B.C. 168 to the re-dedication of the Temple in Dec. 165.

and as they finish shattering (Ps. ii. 9, Jer. li. 20-23 [A.V. 'dash or break in pieces']) the power of the holy people] alluding to the persecution of Antiochus.

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'Power' is lit. hand, figurative of power to act, strength: cf. Deut. xxxii. 36, for he saw that power (lit. hand) was gone'; Is. xxxvii. 27, 'their inhabitants were of small power' (lit. short of hand), &c. To shatter the hand is an obvious figure for reducing to helplessness.

all these things shall be finished] The end of what has been foretold (vv. 31-36) will coincide with the end of the persecution.

The Heb. of the last clause but one is however unusual: and the definition given of the end of the persecution seems almost tautologous. Hence Bevan and Marti, transposing two words, and changing the punctuation, read, and as the power of the shatterer of the holy people cometh to an end [or, 'as the hand (cf. vii. 25)...faileth (Ps. lxxi. 9)'], all these things shall be finished,' i.e. Antiochus is to be the last oppressor of all, when his power has ceased, the sufferings of the holy people will be ended for ever.

8-13. The answer was far from explicit, so that Daniel did not understand it he accordingly asked for more definite particulars. 8. O my lord] x. 16.

what shall be the closing stage of these things?] i.e. what will be the closing stage of the 'wonders,' or extraordinary sufferings, of v. 6, which may serve as a sign that the actual 'end' is not far off? End' here is in the Heb. ', a different word from 'end' in v. 6 (PP), and means not the absolute close of a thing, but the closing or latter part of it: see Job viii. 7, xlii. 12 ('latter end').

9. Go, Daniel, &c.] i.e. do not inquire further: for the words are

up and sealed till the time of the end. Many shall be ro purified, and made white, and tried; but the wicked shall do wickedly and none of the wicked shall understand; but the wise shall understand. And from the time that 11 the daily sacrifice shall be taken away, and the abomination that maketh desolate set up, there shall be a thousand two hundred and ninety days. Blessed is he that waiteth, and 12 cometh to the thousand three hundred and five and thirty

shut up and sealed (v. 4) till the time of the end: if Daniel does not understand them, it does not signify; they are not intended for him, but for readers in a distant future, viz. in the age of Antiochus Epiphanes, when they will first be divulged.

10. The time of the end' characterized it will be an age of trial and probation, in which many will come out purified and ennobled, while others will only have their wickedness confirmed.

Many shall cleanse themselves, and make themselves white, and be refined] by their sufferings, and their constancy under temptation, their characters will be ennobled and refined (cf. xi. 35). The two reflexives are not to be pressed unduly; but they imply that the martyrs, by their deliberate acceptance of suffering, are, to a certain degree, the agents in the purification of their characters.

but the wicked shall do wickedly] The trial will have no effect upon them, beyond giving them further opportunities of doing wickedly, and so confirming them in their wickedness.

none of the wicked shall understand-i.e. act with understandingbut they that be wise shall understand] shall act with understanding. The wicked act blindly, not perceiving the consequences of their wickedness; the 'wise,' the religious teachers of the nation (the same word as in v. 3, xi. 33, 35), shew insight into the ways and providence of God. For 'understand,' cf. Ps. xlix. 20, lxxxii. 5, Hos. iv. 14. 11, 12. The duration of the persecution defined.

that the continual (burnt-offering) shall be taken away] as xi. 31; cf. viii. II.

and the abomination that appalleth set up] also as xi. 31 (cf. viii. 13, ix. 27): see the notes on these passages.

a thousand two hundred and ninety days] the terminus a quo is 15 Chisleu [Dec.], B.C. 168 (1 Macc. i. 54); and 1290 days, reckoned from this date, would end in June-according to Cornill, Siebzig Wochen, p. 29, on June 6-B.C. 164. The death of Antiochus took place in the course of B.C. 164: the exact date of it is not known; but it is not improbable that it is pictured by the writer as synchronizing with the end of the 1290 days.

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12. Happy is he that waiteth, and attaineth to a thousand three hundred and five and thirty days] Happy is he who waits (cf. Is. xxx. 18, happy are all they that wait for him,' lxiv. 4), not giving up his trust in Jehovah, for 45 days (=1 month) beyond the 1290 days mentioned in v. 11. Why this further limit is assigned, it is

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