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29 For he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh
damnation to himself, not discerning the Lord's body.
PARAPHRASE. 99 that f, let him eat of this bread, and drink of this cup. For he,
who eats and drinks after an unworthy manner, without a due
respect had to the Lord's body, in a discriminating & and purely • sacramental use of the bread and wine, that represent it, draws
NOTES. ticularly remarks to them, that this eating and drinking was no part of common eating and drinking for hunger and thirst, but was instituted in a very solemn manner, after they had supped, and for another end, viz. to represent Christ's body and blood, and to be eaten and drunk in remembrance of him; or, as St. Paul expounds it, to show forth his death. Another thing, which they might observe in the institution, was, that this'was done by all who were present, united together in one company, at the same time. All which, put together, shows us what the examination here proposed is. For the design of the apostle here, being to reform what he found fault with, in their celebrating the Lord's supper, it is, by that alone, we must understand the directions he gives them about it, if we will suppose he talked pertinently to this captious and touchy people, whom he was very desirous to reduce from the irregularities they were run into, in this matter, as well as several others. And if the account of Christ's institution be not for their examining their carriage by it, and adjusting it to it, to what purpose is it, here? The examination, therefore, proposed, was no other but an examination of their manner of eating the Lord's supper, by Christ's institution, to see how their behaviour herein comported with the institution, and the end, for which it was instituted. Which farther appears to be so, by the punishment annexed to their miscarriages herein, which was infirmities, sickness, and temporal death, with which God chastened them, that they might not be condemned with the unbelieving world, ver. 30, 31. For if the unworthiness, here spoken of, were either unbelief, or any of those sins, which are usually made the matter of examination, it is to be presumed the apostle would not wholly have passed them over in silence: this, at least, is certain, that the punishment of these sins is infinitely greater than that, which God here inflicts on unworthy receivers, whether they, who are guilty of them, received the sacrament, or no. Kai cürws. These words, as to the letter, are rightly translated, “ and so.” But that translation, I imagine, leaves generally a wrong sense of the place, in the mind of an English reader. For in ordinary speaking, these words, a man examine, and so let him eat,” are understood to import the same with these, “ Let a man examine, and then let him eat;" as if they signified no more, but that examination should precede, and eating follow; which I take to be quite different from the meaning of the apostle here, whose sense the whole design of the context shows to be this : “ I here set before you the institution of Christ : by that let a man examine his carriage, xad oŰtws, and according to that let
him eat: let him conform the manver of his eating to that.” 29 8 Mit diaxçivwv, “not discriminating,” uot putting a difference between the sacra.
mental bread and wine (which St. Paul, with our Saviour, calls Christ's body) and other bread and wine, in the solemn and seperate use of them. The Corinthians, as has been remarked, eat the Lord's supper in and with their own ordinary supper; whereby it came not to be sufficieutly distinguished (as became a religious and Christian observance, so solemulyinstituted) from common eating VOL. VIII.
TEXT. 30 For this cause, many are weak and sickly among you, and many
sleep 31 For if we would judge ourselves, we should not be judged. 32 But when we are judged, we are chastened of the Lord, that we
should not be condemned with the world. 33 Wherefore, my brethren, when ye come together to eat, tarry one
for another. 34 And if any man hunger, let him eat at home; that ye come not to
gether unto condemnation. And the rest will I set in order when I come.
PARAPHRASE. 30 punishment" on himself, by so doing. And hence it is, that.
many among you are weak and sick, and a good number are 31 gone to their graves. But if we would discriminate ourselves,
i. e. by our discriminating use of the Lord's supper, we should 32 not be judged, i. e. i punished by God. But, being punished
by the Lord, we are corrected", that we may not be con33 demned' hereafter, with the unbelieving world. Wherefore,
my brethren, when you have a meeting for celebrating the Lord's supper, stay for one another, that you may eat it all
together, as partakers, all in common, of the Lord's table, 34 without division, or distinction. But if any one be hungry,
let him eat at home to satisfy his hunger, that so the disorder in these meetings may not draw on you the punishment abovementioned. What else remains to be rectified in this matter I will set in order when I come.
NOTES. for bodily refreshment, nor from the Jewish paschal supper, and the bread broken, and the cup of blessing used in that: nor did it, in this way of eating it in separate companies, as it were in private families, show forth the Loru's death, as it was designed to do, by the concurrence and communion of the whole assembly of Christians, jointly united in the partaking of bread and wine, in a way peculiar to them, with reference solely to Jesus Christ. This was that, as appears by this place, which St. Paul, as we have already explained, calls eating
unworthily. 29 h " Damnation," which our translation renders upiux, is vulgarly taken for
eternal damnation, in the other world ; whereas xpīuo here signifies punishment
of another nature, as appears by ver. 30, 32. 31 i Araxçizery does nowhere, that I know, signify to judge, as it is here translated,
but always signifies “ to distinguish,” or “ discriminate," and in this place has the same signification, and means the same thing, that it does, ver. 29. He is little versed in St. Paul's writings, who has not observed how apt he is to repeat the same word, he had used before, to the same purpose, though in a different, and sometimes a pretty hard construction; as here he applies Scarşive to the persons discriminating, as in the 29th verse to the thing to be discriminated,
though in both places it be put to denote the same action. 32 k Mardevó me @ce properly signifies to be corrected, as scholars are by their master,
for their good.
CHAPTER XII. 1–XIV. 40.
The Corinthians seem to have inquired of St. Paul, “ What order of precedency and preference men were to have, in their assemblies, in regard of their spiritual gifts ?” Nay, if we may guess by his answer, the question they seem more particularly to have proposed was, " Whether those, who had the gift of tongues, ought not to take place, and speak first, and be first heard in their meetings?” Concerning this there seems to have been some strife, maligning, and disorder among them, as may be collected from chap. xii. 21—25, and xiii. 4, 5, and xiv. 40.
To this St. Paul answers in these three chapters, as followeth :
1. That they had all been heathen idolaters, and so being deniers of Christ, were in that state none of them spiritual: but that now, being Christians, and owning Jesus to be the Lord (which could not be done without the Spirit of God) they were all nyevu alıxo, spiritual, and so there was no reason for one to un ervalue another, as if he were not spiritual, as well as himself, chap. xii. 143.
2. That though there be diversity of gifts, yet they are all by the same Spirit, from the same Lord, and the same God, working them all in every one, according to his good pleasure. So that, in this respect also, there is no difference or precedency; no occasion for any one's being puffed up, or affecting priority, upon account of his gifts, chap. xii. 4—11.
3. That the diversity of gifts is for the use and benefit of the church, which is Christ's body, wherein the members (as in the natural body) of meaner functions are as much parts, and as necessary in their use to the good of the whole, and therefore to be honoured, as much as any other. The union they have, as members in the same body, makes them all equally share in one another's good and evil, gives them a mutual esteem and concern one for another, and leaves no room for contests or divisions amongst them, about their gifts, or the honour and place due to them, upon that account, chap. xii. 12–31.
4. That though gifts have their excellency and use, and those, who have them, may be zealous in the use of them; yet the true and sure way for a man to get an excellency and preference above others, is the enlarging himself in charity, and excelling in that, without which a Christian, with all his spiritual gifts, is nothing, chap. xiii. 1–13.
5. In the comparison of spiritual gifts, he gives those the precedency, which edify most; and, in particular, prefers prophesying to tongues, chap. xiv. 1–40.
SECTION IX. NO. 1.
CHAPTER XII. 1-3.
TEXT. 1 Now concerning spiritual gifts, brethren, I would not have you ig
norant. 2 Ye know that ye were Gentiles, carried away unto these dumb idols,
even as ye were led. 3 Wherefore I give you to understand, that no man, speaking by the
Spirit of God, calleth Jesus accursed: and that no man can say, that Jesus is the Lord, but by the Holy Ghost.
PARAPHRASE. 1 As to spiritual men, or men assisted and acted by the Spirita,
I shall inform you; for I would not have you be ignorant. 2 You yourselves know, that you were heathens, engaged in the
worship of stocks and stones, dumb, senseless idols, by those, 3 who were then your leaders. Whereupon let me tell you,
that no one, who opposes Jesus Christ, or his religion, has the Spirit of God b. And whoever is brought to own Jesus to be the Messiah, the Lord', does it by the Holy Ghost.
NOTES. 1 * Ilyeuplexūv, “ spiritual.” We are warranted, by a like use of the word, in
several places of St. Paul's epistles, as chap. ii. 15, and xiv. 37, of this epistle, and Gal. vi. I, to take it here in the masculine gender, standing for persons, and not gifts. And the context obliges us to understand it so. For if we will have it stand for gifts, and not persons, the sense and coherence of these three first verses will be very hard to be made out. Besides, there is evidence enough, in several parts of it, that the subject of St. Paul's discourse here is wreuuzloze, persons endowed with spiritual gifts, contending for precedency, in consideration of their gifts. See ver. 13, &c. of this chapter; and to what purpose else, says he, chap. xiv. 5, Greater is he that prophesieth, than he that speaketh with
tongues ? 3 b This is spoken against the Jews, who pretended to the Holy Ghost, and yet
spoke against Jesus Christ, and depied that the Holy Ghost was ever given to the Gentiles : vid. Acts x. 45. Whether their Judaizing false apostle were at all glanced at in this, may be considered.
Lord. What is meant by Lord, see note, chap. viii. 5.
And, therefore, upon account of having the Spirit, you can none of you lay any claim to superiority; or have any pretence to slight any of your brethren, as not having the Spirit of God,
For all, that own our Lord Jesus Christ, and believe in him, do it by the Spirit of God, i.e. can do it upon no other ground, but revelation, coming from the Spirit of God.
as well as you.
SECTION IX. No. 2.
CHAPTER XII. 4-11.
CONTENTS. ANOTHER consideration, which St. Paul offers, against any contention for superiority, or pretence to precedency, upon account of any spiritual gift, is, that those distinct gifts are all of one and the same Spirit, by the same Lord; wrought in every one, by God alone, and all for the profit of the church.
TEXT. 4 Now there are diversities of gifts, but the same Spirit. 5 And there are differences of administrations, but the same Lord. 6 And there are diversities of operations, but it is the same God which
worketh all in all.
PARAPHRASE. 4 Be not mistaken, by the diversity of gifts; for, though there be
diversity of gifts among Christians, yet there is no diversity of 5 spirits; they all come from one and the same Spirit. Though
there be diversities of offices a in the church, yet all the officers 6 have but one Lord. And though there be various influxes,
whereby Christians are enabled to do extraordinary things yet it is the same God, that works o all these extraordinary gifts,
NOTES. 5 a These different offices are reckoned up, ver. 28, &c. 6 . What these évepyhrala were, see ver. 8–11.
• They were very properly called évepynuclam" in-workings;” because they were above all human power : men, of themselves, could do nothing of them at all; but it was God, as the apostle tells us here, who, in these extraordinary gifts of the Holy Ghost, did all that was done; it was the effect of his immc