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three are one.
8. And there earth, the Spirit, and the water, are three that bear witness in and the blood : and these three
the fathers who wrote upon the Arian con- v. 7. to the same word in v.8. and that troversy; not in Jerome or Chrysostom ; this mistake caused the omission in suband though Novatian seven times refers to sequent copies. This is the opinion of the “ Ego et Pater unum sumus," he Maldonate and Dr. Hammond. Supposnever refers to this text. From a passage ing, however, the verse genuine, does it in St. Augustine, contra Maximinum, lib. in any material degree, if it all, support iii. c. 22. which is subjoined, it probably the doctrine of the Trinity; and if not, is was not in the copy he used. It is not in it of advantage to lay any stress upon what the King's MSS. and that gives v. 8. thus : may be doubted or questioned? That “ There are three that bear witness, the doctrine is not here in question. The point “ Spirit, the water, and the blood,” omit- under consideration is, what foundation is ting" in the earth;" and " and these three there for the belief, that Jesus is the Son " agree in one.” Dr. Benson thinks it was of God: and the apostle says, there are first written as a comment in the margin, three who attest it in heaven, the Father," and from thence introduced into the text. the Son, and the Holy Ghost: and three It is, however, in the Vulgate and Complu- who attest it on earth, the water, the Spi. tensian editions, in the Latin version used rit, and the blood. Of the three former, by the African church; and in the fifth he says, they are one; of the latter, that century, the African prelates, near 450, in they agree in one. But what is meant by their assembly, at Carthage, A. D. 484.
the expression, they are one ? Is more appear to refer to it. Fulgentius, a father meant than that they agree
are unani. of the sixth century, cites it ; and in the
of one mind ? The former exninth century, Walafrid Strabo writes a pression is, “ or Ipeãs in eion,” the latter "ó. comment upon it, and imputes its omis- 7peīs sis To ty luon;" and the “ 7ofy," with the sion to unfaithful translators or tran- definite article, implies that the latter may scribers. Cyprian, who wrote in the third be called one, in the sense in which the century, (earlier than any MSS. extant) former are.
The word, “," is certainly has two passages (subjoined) which imply used in other passages, where nothing that it was in his copy ; and there is a more can be meant than unanimity, or passage in Tertullian, (also subjoined,) unity of object or design, not unity or which implies that it was in his also. Dr. identity of nature. In John xvii. 11. our Hammond thinks it genuine, and there Saviour is described as praying to the are some internal arguments in its favour. Father, “ that they whom God had given The 6th ver, mentions the Spirit, 7è Ilveõpá, him might be one, (év) as we.” So John a neutral noun, as bearing witness; and xvii. 22. “ that they may be one, as we then the 7th and 8th refer to three, as « are one,” ένα ώσιν εν, καθώς ήμεϊς εν εσμεν. bearing record in heaven, and three in And in 1 Cor. iii. 8. he that soweth, and earth; and the word three is in each he that watereth, though different persons, instance expressed in the masculine gen- are said to be one (év), because each has der, “Ipsis tisu." The transition from the the same object and design. See very full Deuter to the masculine is natural, if per
discussions upon the genuineness of this sons were to be spoken of, not things ; passage, 2 Hale's Trinity, 132. to 226. and and if
persons were spoken of in v. 7. it Bp. Burgess's Tract. The passage, John x. would lead to personify things in v. 8. and 30. “I and the Father are one," sya xai to speak of them, though neuters, in ο Πατήρ εν εσμεν, seems stronger than this the inasculine gender. The witnesses on to prove the Son's divinity: the pluearth too, though they might be extended ral verb applicable to the plurality of perto thirty, are confined to three, to corre- sons, the neuter adjective, pointing out the spond in number with the witnesses in unity of nature. “ One," (says Cyril of heaven; and the “ To ły," with the article Jerusalem,) “ because of the dignity as to in v. 8. (if genuine) would be improper, “ the Godhead, since God begat God :" had not the ey occurred before. 'And if εν δια το καλά την θειόληλα αξίωμα, επειδή θεός 3.7. be omitted, how can the masculine Segy enyérynoey. Cat. 11. Oxford ed. 142. iptie be accounted for in v. 8.? It is not “One," says Maldonate, “ in nature and improbable that some very early tran
power; for the argument is this: No scriber passed from the " paplapeoles," in one can take them out of my hands :
agree (1) in one.
9. If (m) we witness of God is greater: for this receive the witness of men, the is the witness of God, which
“ my Father, who
them me, is greater “ Sanctum. Quis dubitat Petram et Aquam “ than all ; and no one can take them out “ diversas esse naturas : sed quia Christus " of his hands. But I and my Father are " et Spiritus Sanctus unius sunt ejusdem“ one ; so that if no one can take them
que naturæ, ideo cum dicitur “ Petra et “ from him, no one can take them from
Aqua unum sunt,” ex eâ parte recte “me. Why? Because I have the same accipi potest, quia istæ duæ res quarum “ nature, the same divinity, the same in- “ est diversa natura, aliarum quoque signa “ vincible power he has. And the Jews “ sunt rerum, quarum est una natura. “ treated it in this light, for they took up “ Tria itaque novimus de corpore Do
stones to stone him, for that he being a “ mini exisse cum penderet in ligno: pri“ man made himself God.” So August- “mo spiritum, unde scriptum est, “ Et ine: “Vis ire in alteram partem, et dicas, “ inclinato capite tradidit Spiritum.” De“ aliud est Pater, aliud Filius-alius est, “inde quando latus ejus Lancea perfora“ recte dicis, aliud non recte; alius enim “ tum est, sanguinem et aquam. Quæ tria, si “est Filius, quia non est ipse qui Pater-et «
per seipsa intuemur, diversas habent sin. " alius Pater, quia non est ipse qui Filius : gula quæque substantias : ac per hoc non
non tamen aliud, sed hoc ipsum et Pater " sunt unum: si vero ea, quæ his signifi" et Filius. Cum dicit Filius“ Ego et "cata sunt, velimus inquirere, non ab“ Pater unum sumus,"
utrumque audi, “ surde occurrit ipsa Trinitas, quæ unus unum et sumus. Si unum, non ergo di- “ solus verus summus Deus est, Pater et “ versum : si sumus, ergo et Pater et “ Filius, et Spiritus Sanctus, de quibus ve“ Filius : sumus enim, non diceret de uno “ rissime dici potuit, “ Tres sunt Testes,
- unum non diceret de diversis.” 9 Aug. et tres unum sunt," ut nomine Spiritus Tract. 36. p. 115. So again, 9 Aug. “significatum accipiamus patrem Deum: Tract. 37. “ Cum audit sumus" abscedat " de ipso quippe adorando loquitur Domiconfusus Sabellianus : cum audit “unum,"
nus, ubi ait, Spiritus est Deus: Nomi“ Arrianus.” So de Trin. vol. iv. lib. l. ne autem sanguinis filium, quia verbum “ Ego et Pater unum sumus : scilicet na- “ caro factum est : et nomine Aqua Spi“ turâ ; non persona.” Idacius also says, " ritum Sanctum. “ sumus," to shew they are two persons ;
Cypr. Tr. 109. (A.D. 251.) “ Dicit Do“ unum," to shew they have only one minus, Ego et Pater unum sumus. Et nature. See also Cyprian, Tr. 109. Chrys. “ iterum de Patre et Filio et Spiritu Sancto de Fide in Christo. (Basil ed.) vol. iii. “scriptum est, “ Et hi tres unum sunt." p. 422. — 3 August. de Trin. lib. iv. c. 8, Cypr. Epist. 203. (A. D. 256.) In speak 9. p. 124. et lib. vi. c. 2. - 4 August. I de ing of the effect of baptism upon heretics, Trin. lib. i. - 9 August. in Johannem. 96, he says, “ Si templum Dei factus est, 37. 71.
quæro, cujus Dei ? Si creatoris, non The passages in St. Augustine, Cyprian, “ potuit qui in eum non credidit. Si and Tertullian, are as follow : (Contra “ Christi, nec hujus fieri potest Templum, Maximinum, lib. iii. c. 22.) “ Sane falli te “ qui negat Deum Christum. Si Spiritus “nolo in Epistola Joannis Apostoli, ubi “ Sancti, cum tres unum sint, quomodo “ ait “ Tres sunt Testes, Spiritus, aqua, et Spiritus Sanctus placatus esse ei potest, " sanguis – et tres unum sunt: ne forte “ qui aut Patris aut Filii inimicus est." “ dicas spiritum, et aquam et sanguinem Tertullian (adversus Praxeam, c. 25.) “ diversas esse substantias, et tamen dic- “ Cæterum de meo sumet (inquit Jesus) “ tum esse, tres unum sunt. Propter hoc “ sicut ipse de Patris. Ita connexus Patris “ admonui, ne fallaris. Hæc enim sacra- “ in Filio, et Filii in Paracleto, tres efficit “ menta sunt, in quibus non quid sint, “ cohærentes, alterum ex altero. Qui tres " sed quid ostendant, semper attenditur : “ unum sunt ; non unus, quo modo dictum “ quoniam signa sunt rerum, aliud exis- est, Ego et Pater unum sumus : ad sub" tentia, aliud significantia. Si ergo illa “stantiæ unitatem, non ad numeri singu“ quæ his significantur, intelliguntur, ipsa " laritatem." “ invenientur unius esse substantiæ. (!) v. 8. “ Agree in one," i. e. “esta“ Tanquam si dicamus, “ Petra et Aqua “blish the same point." “ unum sunt," “ Volentes per Petram, sig- (m) v. 9. “If, &c." i.e.“ if in ordinary unificare Christum, per Aquam, Spiritum
cases we rely on human testimony, how
he hath testified of his Son. 10. He “ as my father has sent me, even that believeth on the Son of God “so (y) send I you.” 22. And hath the (n) witness (0) in him when he had said this, he breathed self: he that believeth not God, on them, and saith unto them, hath made () him a liar; because “ Receive ye the (z) Holy Ghost. . he believeth not the (9) record “ 23. Whose soever sins ye remit, that God gave of his Son. 11. And they are remitted unto them; this () is the (9) record, that “ and whose soever sins ye retain, , God hath given to us eternal life,
they are retained.” and this life is in his Son. 12. He that hath (r) the Son, hath life; and he that hath not the Son of
Second Sunday after Easter.
The Collect. God, hath not life.
Almighty God, who hast given The Gospel. John xx. 19. The same (s) day at evening,
thine only Son to be unto us both
a sacrifice for sin, and also an being the first day of the week, when the (t) doors were shut: example of godly life; Give us where the disciples were assembled, thankfully receive that his inesti
grace, that we may always most for fear of the Jews, came Jesus, mable benefit, and also daily enand stood in the midst, and saith
deavour ourselves to follow the unto them, “ Peace be unto you. blessed steps of his most holy life, 20. And when he had so said, he through the same Jesus Christ our shewed unto them his (u) hands
Lord. Amen. and his (u) side. Then were the disciples glad when they saw the The Epistle. 1 Pet. ii. 19. (*) Lord. 21. Then said Jesus to This is thank-worthy, if a man them again, “Peace be unto you: for conscience (a) toward God
" can we resist this, the testimony of
(n) v. 10. “ The witness in himself.” From the extraordinary influences conferred by the Holy Spirit. (0) “Witness," viz. (of God.) The King's MS. reads uapluplay 18 Ocē.
(p)“ Made him a liar," i. e. 6 treats "bim as one, by not believing him.”
(9) v. 11. “ This is the record, &c.” i. e. " this attestation of God to our Saviour's " pretensions and religion, is the proof " that he hath given us eternal life.”
() . 12. “ Hath the Son," i. e. “ be" lieves in him, professes his religion, and "follows his commandments.”
(s) v. 19. “ The same day;" the day of his resurrection. This is the same appearance as that mentioned, Luke xxiv.
(1) “ The doors, &c.” or “the doors " where the disciples were assembled, were "shut for fear, &c.”
Not to have assembled, would have been neglect of duty,
sin: not to have shut the doors, neglect of caution, rashness. Our Saviour set the example of avoiding unnecessary danger: 7ών θυρών κεκλεισμένων δπε ήσαν οι μαθηται συνηγμένοι δια τον φόβον, &c.”
(u) v. 20." His hands,” through which the nails had been driven ; and “his side," which the soldiers pierced. See ante, 133. John xix. 34.
(x) v. 21. “ The Lord :” Tày Kúpsov.
holy influence." No article in the ori-
as matter of duty, for the sake of “ religion.”
36. (ante, 142.)
endure grief, suffering wrong- an example, that ye should follow fully. (6) 20. For what glory is his steps : 22. who did (e) no sin, it, if
, when ye be buffeted for your neither was guile found in his faults, ye shall take it patiently ? mouth: 23. who when he was rebut if, when ye do well, and suf- viled, reviled not again ; when he fer for it, ye take it patiently, suffered, he threatened not; but this_is acceptable with God. committed (s) himself to him that 21. For even hereunto were ye judgeth righteously ; 24. who his (c) called: because Christ also own self (h) bare our sins in his suffered for (d) us, leaving us (d) own body on the tree, that we,
(6) “Wrongfully," i.e. "without cause.” “ quod essent soliti stato die ante lucem The contrast is between suffering when it is “ convenire, carmenque Christo quasi Deo deserved, and suffering when it is not. In “ dicere secum invicem : seque sacramento the latter case, patience, as matter of duty, “ non in scelus aliquod obstringere, sed ne has great merit.
“ furta, ne latrocinia, ne adulteria com(c) v. 21. “ Called." One of the ob- “ mitterent, ne fidem fallerent, ne deposijects of Christianity was to try the con- "tum appellati abnegarent. Quibus perstancy of its followers: they were to be « actis morem discedendi fuisse, rursusque tried as gold is tried. Zech. xiij. 9. See “ coeundi ad capiendum cibum, promisante, 28. note on Rom. xiii. 11. The re. “cuum tamen, et innoxium. Sed nihil peated and pressing exhortations to perse- “ aliud inveni, quam superstitionem praverance and constancy contained in the “ vam et immodicam, ideoque dilatâ cogniepistles, imply pretty strongly, that the “ tione ad consulendum te decucurri. Visa first preachers and professors of Christ- “ est enim mihi res digna consultatione, ianity met with considerable opposition “ maxime propter periclitantium numeand difficulties : courage would not be re- “ rum; multi enim omnis ætatis, omnis oro commended were there nothing to put it “ dinis, utriusque sexus etiam vocantur in to the test. The prevalence of Christianity, “ periculum, et vocabuntur. Neque enim the persecution of the early converts, and “ civitates tantum, sed vicos etiam atque the blameable nature of their lives, are no- agros superstitionis istius contagio ticed by Tacitus and the younger Pliny. pervagata est." Trajan's answer was, “ Abolendo Rumori (of having himself com- Conquirendi non sunt : si deferantur et “ manded the burning of Rome) Nero sub- “ arguantur, puniendi sunt. Pliny Epist. “ didit reos, et quæsitissimis pænis adfecit, “ lib. x. ep. 97.” “ quos per flagitia invisos, vulgus Christ. (d) “Us," “bis," or "you:" öpssy andiuar. “ianos appellabat. Auctor nominis ejus, (e) v. 22. “ Who did no sin.” See note Christus, Tiberio imperitante, per Pro- on verse 24. curatorem Pontium Pilatum, supplicio (g) v. 23. “ Threatened not, but comadfectus erat. Repressaque in præ- “ mitted himself, &c." St. Peter perhaps “ sens exitiabilis superstitio, rursus erum- referred to the two expressions of our Sa“pebat, non modo per Judeam, originem viour whilst upon the cross, recorded by “ ejus njali, sed per urbem etiam. Igitur St. Luke: “Father, forgive them, for “primo correpti qui fatebantur, deinde “ they know what they do, Luke xxiii. " indicio eorum multitudo ingens, haud “ 34. ;" and, “ Father, into thy hands I “ perinde in crimine incendii, quam odio “ commend my spirit, Luke xxiii. 46." “ humani generis convicti sunt. Et per- (h) v. 24. “ Bare our sins, &c." St. Pe" euntibus addita ludibria, ut ferarum ter evidently had in view that prophetic “ tergis contecti, laniatu canum interirent : chapter, (Isaiah liii.) according to which, “ aut crucibus affixi, aut flammandi, atque the Messiah was to be one of whom it “ ubi defecisset dies, in usum nocturni lu- might be affirmed, that “ he had done no “minis urerentur. Tac. lib. xv. C. 44.” In “ violence, neither was any deceit in his a letter from the younger Pliny to Trajan, “ mouth ;" it was to be true of him, that for advice how to act against the Christians, “ he was oppressed, and he was afflicted, after noticing that many of them had re- “ yet he opened not his mouth ;" that canted, he says, “ Affirmabant autem, hanc “he is brought as a lamb to the slaughter, s fuisse summam vel culpæ suæ, vel erroris, “and as a sheep before his shearers is
being dead to sins, should live lay down my life for the sheep. unto righteousness : by whose “ 16. And other (m) sheep I have, stripes ye were healed. 25. For ye 66 which are not of this fold: them were as sheep going astray ; but “ also I must bring, and they are now returned unto the Shep- “ shall hear my voice; and there herd and Bishop of your souls. “ shall be one fold, and one The Gospel. John X. 11.
shepherd.” Jesus said, “I am the good shepherd (i): the good shep
Saint Mark's Day. "herd giveth his life for the
The Collect. sheep. 12. But he that is an
hireling, and not the shepherd, O Almighty God, who hast in“whose own the sheep are not, structed thy holy Church with the " seeth the wolf coming, and heavenly doctrine of thy Evange" leaveth the sheep, and fleeth : list Saint Mark; Give us grace, “and the wolf catcheth them, and that being not like children car“scattereth the sheep. 13. The ried away with every blast of vain
hireling fleeth, because he is an doctrine, we may be established in
hireling, and careth not for the the truth of thy holy Gospel, " sheep. 14. I am the good shep-through Jesus Christ our Lord. “herd, and know my sheep, and Amen. " am known of mine. 15. As the “ Father knoweth me, even so (k)
The Epistle. Ephes. iv. 7. (n) “ know I the Father: and I Ó Unto every one of us is given " dumb, so he openeth not his mouth ;" vai tà od fuá ;“ Holy Father, keep, through and that “ he was wounded for our trans- “ thine own name, those whom thou hast "gressions, he was bruised for our iniqui- given me, that they may be one as we are. “ties, the chastisement of our peace was “ įy xalasquers. John xvii. 10.11." Vaill. 29. " upon him, and with his stripes we are (1) "I lay down, &c." A prediction “ healed : all we like sheep have gone astray, therefore that he should lay down his life " and the Lord hath lain on him the ini. for his followers; and an intimation also, "quity of us all, and he bare the sins of that the laying it down was his own act ; many. Isaiah liji. 7. 9. 12."
and he so explains it in the words follow(i) v. 11. “ Shepherd.” Under which ing: “ Therefore doth my Father love character the Messiah is often spoken of “me, because I lay down my life, that I in the prophets. See ante, 58. note on “ might take it again. No man (ddels)
“ taketh it from me, but I lay it down of (k) v. 15. “ Even so, &c." And is not “ myself: I have power to lay it down, and the claim of this high knowledge some “ I have power to take it again. This proof of Christ's divinity ? “The things of commandment have I received of my "God knoweth no one, but the Spirit of “ Father.” See ante, 143. note on Luke "God, 1 Cor. ii. 11." And who of an in- xxiv. 46. ferior nature can know God himself?
(m) v. 16. “ Other sheep," i. e. There are other passages in St. John in « Gentiles." See note on Ps. lxxii. 8. which our Saviour identifies himself with (n) The object of St. Paul in this porthe Father in a way for which, if he were tion of Scripture is to prevent any from not God, we could not account.
overvaluing those persons on whom the " in the Father, and the Father in me,' higher gifts of the Spirit were conferred, "John xiv. 11." • He that hath seen me
or undervaluing those who had only the " hath seen the Father, John xiv. 9. & lower gifts, the gifts not being acquired by "John xii. 45.” “ And all mine are thine, the merit of the person on whom they " and thine are mine.” là iuà Tárta oà loti, were conferred, but bestowed as might best
Matt. ii. 5.
6 I am