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founding all the churches from east to west, and so, .by being fathers, deriving their authority from the nature of the thing; their appointing rulers in every church; their synodal decrees" de suffocato et sanguine,” and letters missive to the churches of Syria and Cilicia; their excommunications of Hymeneus and Alexander, and the incestuous Corinthian; their commanding and requiring obedience of their people in all things, as St. Paul did of his subjects of Corinth, and the Hebrews, by precept apostolical; their threatening the pastoral rod; their calling synods and public assemblies; their ordering sites and ceremonies; composing a symbol as the tessera of Christianity; their public reprehension of delinquents; and, indeed, the whole execution of their apostolate, is one continued argument of their superintendency and superiority of jurisdiction.
With a Power of joining others, and appointing Successors
in the Apostolate.
This power, so delegated, was not to expire with their persons; for when the great Shepherd had reduced his wandering sheep into a fold, he would not leave them without “guides to govern” them, so long as the wolf might possibly prey upon then, and that is, till the last separation of the sheep from the goats. And this Christ intimates in that promise,“ Ero vobiscum (apostolis) usque ad consummationem seculi.” “ Vobiscum ;” not with your persons, for they died long ago; but“ vobiscum et vestri similibus,” with apostles to the end of the world. And, therefore, that the apostolate might be successive and perpetual, Christ gave them a power of ordination, that, by imposing hands on others, they might impart that power which they received from Christ. For in the apostles there was something extraordinary, something ordinary. Whatsoever was extraordinary, as • immediate mission, unlimited jurisdiction, and miraculous operations,' that was not necessary to the perpetual regiment of the church, for then the church should fail, when these privileges extraordinary did cease.
nob, therefore, in extraordinary powers and privileges that Christ promised his perpetual assistance ; not in speaking of tongues, not in doing miracles, whether in materia censuræ,' as delivering to Satan; or in materia misericordiæ,' as healing sick people : or in re naturali, as in resisting the venom of vipers, and quenching the violence of flames; in these Christ did not promise perpetual assistance, for then it had been done, and still these signs should have followed them that believe. But we see they do not. It follows, then, that in all the ordinary parts of power and office, Christ did promise to be with them to the end of the world, and, therefore, there must remain a power of giving faculty and capacity to persons successively, for the execution of that, in which Christ promised perpetual assistance. For since this perpetual assistance could not be meant of abiding with their persons, who, in few years, were to forsake the world, it must needs be understood of their function, which either it must be succeeded to, or else it was as temporary as their persons. But, in the extraordinary privileges of the apostles, they had no successors; therefore, of necessity, must be constituted in the ordinary office of apostolate. Now what is this ordinary office? Most certainly since the extraordinary, as is evident, was only a help for the founding and beginning, the other are such as are necessary for the perpetuating of a church. Now, in clear evidence of sense, these offices and powers are preaching, baptizing, consecrating, ordaining, and governing. For these were necessary for the perpetuating of a church, unless men could be Christians that were never christened, nourished up to life without the eucharist, become priests without calling of God and ordination, have their sins pardoned without absolution, be members, and parts, and sons of a church, whereof there is no coadunation, no authority, no governor. These the apostles had without all question; and whatsoever they had, they had from Christ, and these were eternally necessary; these, then, were the offices of the apostolate, which Christ promised to assist for ever, and this is that which we now call the order and office of episcopacy.
The Succession into the ordinary Office of Apostolate is made
For although deacons and priests have part of these offices, and therefore, though in a very limited sense, they may be called 'successores apostolorum,' to wit, in the power of baptizing, consecrating the eucharist, and preaching (an excellent example whereof, though we have none in Scripture, yet, if I mistake him not, we have in Ignatius, calling the college of presbyters σύνδεσμος Αποστόλων, « a combination of apostles;') yet the apostolate and episcopacy, which did communicate in all the power and offices which are ordinary and perpetual, are, in Scripture, clearly all one in ordinary ministration, and their names are often used in common, to signify exactly the same ordinary function.
1. The name was borrowed from the prophet David, in the prediction of the apostasy of Judas, and surrogation of St. Matthias ; Και την Επισκοπήν αυτού λάβοι έτερος bishoprick,” that is, his apostolate “, “ let another take.” The same word, according to the translation of the Seventy, is used by the prophet Isaiah, in an evangelical prediction, Και δώσω τους άρχοντάς σου εν ειρήνη, και τους Επισκόπους σου εν dinciorúm “ I will give thy princes in peace, and thy bishops in righteousness.”—“ Principes ecclesiæ vocat futuros episcopos," saith St. Jerome , herein admiring God's majesty in the destination of such ministers, whom himself calls princes. And to this issue it is cited by St. Clement, in his famous epistle to the Corinthians. But this is no way unusual in Scripture: for,
2. St. James, the brother of our Lord, is called 'an apostle,' and yet he was not in the number of the twelve, but he was bishop of Jerusalem. First: That St. James was called
an apostle,' appears by the testimony of St. Paul : “ But other apostles saw I none, save James, the Lord's brother C.” Secondly: That he was none of the twelve appears also,
• For the apostle and the bishop are all one in name and person.
c Gal. i. 19.
because among the twelve apostles there were but two Jameses, the son of Alpheus, and James, the son of Zebedee, the brother of John. But neither of these was the James, whom St. Paul calls the Lord's brother.' And this St. Paul intimates, in making a distinct enumeration of all the appearances which Christ made after the resurrection d: “ First to Cephas, then to the twelve, then to the five hundred brethren, then to James, then to all the apostles.” So that here St. James is reckoned distinctly from the twelve, and they from the whole college of the apostles; for there were, it seems, more of that dignity than the twelve. But this will also safely rely upon the concurrent testimony of Hegesippus, Clement, Eusebius, Epiphanius, St. Ambrose, and St. Jeromeo, Thirdly: That St. James was bishop of Jerusalem, and, therefore, called an apostle,' appears by the often commemoration of bis presidency, and singular eminency in holy Scripture. Priority of order is mentioned, Gal. ii., even before St. Peter, who yet was primus apostolorum, naturâ unus homo, gratiâ unus Christianus, abundantiore gratiâ · unus idemque primus apostolus," as St. Augustin; yet in his own diocese, St. James had priority of order before him, verse 9. And then, 1. James, 2. Cephas, and 3. John, &c. First, James before Cephas and St. Peter. St. James, also, was president of that synod, which the apostles convocated at Jerusalem about the question of circumcision; as is to be seen, Acts, xv.'; to him St. Paul made his address, Acts, xxi.; to him the brethren carried him, where he was found sitting in his college of presbyters, there he was always resident, and his seat fixed; and that he lived bishop of Jerusalem for many years together, is clearly testified by all the faith of the primitive fathers and historians. But of this hereafter.
3. Epaphroditus is called the apostle of the Philippianse.' “ I have sent unto you Epaphroditus,” ouvegyòv na ovompatiáτην μου, υμών δε απόστολον, « my compeer and your apostle.” “ Gradum apostolatus recepit Epaphroditus,” saith Prima
d 1 Cor. xv.
« Vide Carol. Bovium in Constit. Apost. Schol. Hieron, de Script. Eccl. in Jacobo, et in Galat. i. Epiphan. Hæres. 78, 79. Tract. 124, in Johan.
| Vide Pap.
sius; and what that is, we are told by Theodoret; " dictus Philippensium apostolus à S. Paulo, quid hoc aliud nisi episcopus ?" “ Because he also had received the office of being an apostle among them,” saith St. Jerome upon the same place; and it is very observable, that those apostles to whom our blessed Saviour gave immediate substitution, are called árboTOOL’Ingol Xplotoû, “apostles of Jesus Christ;" but those other men, which were bishops of churches, and called apostles by Scripture, are called ámóctonoL’Enxano sūv, “apostles of churches,” or sometimes ó apostles' alone, but never are entitled of Jesus Christ.” “Other of the apostles saw I none, but James, the Lord's brother,” Gal. i. There St. James, the bishop of Jerusalem, is called an 'apostle’ indefinitely. But St. Paul calls himself often “ the apostle of Jesus Christ, not of man, neither by man, but by Jesus Christ.” So Peter, an 'apostle of Jesus Christ;' but St. James, in his epistle to the Jews of the dispersion, writes not himself the apostle of Jesus Christ, but δούλος Θεού και Ιησού Χριστού, " James, the servant of God, and of the Lord Jesus Christ.”
Further yet: St. Paul, although as having an immediate calling from Christ to the office of apostolate, at large calls himself the apostle of Jesus Christ; yet when he was sent to preach to the Gentiles, by the particular direction indeed of the Holy Ghost, but by human constitution, and imposition of hands b; in relation to that part of his office, and his cure of the uncircumcision, he limits his apostolate to his diocese, and calls himself, 'ATÓCTONOV &Svæv, “ the apostle of the Gentiles';" as St. Peter, for the same reason, and in the same modification, is called 'AnbotoMOS Tepitouñs, that is, “ the apostle of those who were of the circumcisionk.” And thus Epaphroditus is called 'the apostle of the Philippians,' who clearly was their bishop (as I shall show in the sequel), that is, he had an apostolate limited to the diocese of Philippi. “ Paulatim verd tempore procedente, et alii ab his quos Dominus elegerat, ordinati sunt apostoli, sicut ille ad Philippenses sermo declarat, dicens, Necessarium autem existimo Epaphroditum,” &c. so St. Jerome'; “ In process of time, others, besides those whom the Lord had chosen, were
1 Acts, xiii. 2, 3.
i Rom. xi. 13.