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Paul's church yard, fpread to other facred vicinities; St. Dunstan's cemetary, in Fleet-ftr.; Black Friers, Grey Friers, St. Faith's, and, in the end, to Britain's Burfe, Cornhill, Poultry, Duck-lane, New Exchange,† Gaiter's-place, Barbican, &c. The law printers, bookfellers, and ftationers obtained fhops near the Temple, in Chancery-lane, and in Holborn; and the bookfellers and printers were, in confiderable numbers, fettled in Little-Britain, a very favourite place with them.
were generally then carried on by each perfon of the company, but thefe, as the members of the trade increafed, became feperate, and diftinct, though often united in the fame perfon, who had a capital equal to his withes.
As the riches of individuals would admit, they engaged in works of greater moment; but in Elizabeth's reign monopolies were pretty general; particular perfons obtained peculiar privilges,-privileges which feemed evidently to trench upon the charter granted by Philip and Mary. As head of the Anglican church, it was perhaps neceffary to fee that the fcriptures and fome other church books fhould be, as it were, under the royal eye, as well as proclamations. Cawood and Jugge had thefe departments; the Latin books for fchools were given to Marsh; the New Teftament and fome others were granted to Vautroller, a foreigner. The Seres or Sieres, had the printing of palters, primers, prayer-books, and fume other kind of books; the elder Seres having been fecretary Cecil's fervant, well accounts for this advantage. Flower, a gentleman, obtained leave to exclufively print a grammar, and fome other forts of books. Tothill had the law department. Byrde, a mutician, all books
At the commencement of Charles I.'s reign, much difcontent fhewed itself. The monarch, elegant, and a lover of learning and the arts, withed to be, in Britain, what the family of the Medici had been to Tufcany. Had prerogative and liberty then been duly defined, Britain would have regarded his majefty as
upon mufic. Day had catechifms the patron of both, as having given to us iflanders what we have fince, in happier days, received.
and the A B C bufinefs; and, laftly, > almanacks and prognoftications, much in vogue, were affigned to Roberts and Watkins. Thefe laft articles, as trenching upon the inferior members of the ftationer's company, were peculiar hardships.
Though there were fo many refrictions, yet the company gradually extended itself, and at the end of Elizabeth's long reign had been enlarged and enriched. The trades were generally in particular families, their connexions, or other, to whom, for a valuable confideration, they had been affigned.
The trades, firft fettled in St
I do not perceive that our British Solomon, an author himfelf, made any great change in matters of this kind; as fcience enlarged itself, learning fpread, and books were multiplied. The company of ftationers had expreffed to Elizabeth their hardfhips, in expending money in the purchase of manufcripts, and yet were forbidden to print and publish; but they rather asked for their rights, as favours, than demanded them,
Literature was amongst the first objects of Charles's care, for he was himfelf attentive to the style of his own proclamations, and other public papers, more than his enemies thought confiftent with the regal dignity; yet, as if profe and verfe altered the cafe, he reproved one of his courtiers for too much attention to the mufes. He loved the elegant mafque, but the bard, even a Milton,
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the regarded only as a poetizing fer- was twenty-one years ; and the rer
Francis Helyoak, * July 4, 1635 • To benefit his Englith universities, had a privy seal to print and publik he prohibited all Latin books, re- his Dictionarium Etymologicum La printed abroad, which had been fi:st tinum for fourteen years. Such css garinted at Oxtori or Cambridge; clufive privileges had been given i but to pievent mistakes, his majelty every reigu sice printing becam commandel, April 1, 1625, that well known, and the patent grante the matter and warden of the station. Aug. 18, 1635, to Will. Bari!
! er's company, in London, thould waite, reader and schoolmaster, fo have monthly certificates of the works printing and selling his books, cor the universities printed, figned by the
tainin vice-chance!lol's of those feininaries N 0 T E S. of learning
foon tired him. Joining Drake and Han
kins, he braved the ocean. Sick of ti I do not see any improper Nreich failor's life, he fought against the Spar of the prerogative in Charles; relative ards in the Netherlands. Learning to the stationer's company; he gave length won the palm. Landing in gre indeed a patent to George Sandys, distress in the west of England, he asim esq. on April, 24, 1626, to print the furname of Bayoral, the anagram
his own. and publin, exclutively, liis tranda- he was chliged to wander from village
His poverty was so great, th rion' of 'Ovid's Metainorphosis, for village, teaching the horn-book to the co fifteen years ; to Caleb Morley, a. tagais children for a precarious brea: m. a patent, dated March 9, 1627, At length at Martock in the county of S for twenty-one years, to publith his merfet, he gained a relpeciable schior
which, under hinry, Hour Med to muc invention, as an help to memory, to that it obtained the highest reputario ground scholars in English, Latin, Removing to Lonlon, he kept an acaden and other languages, if the fame in Goldsmith's, rents, behind Redcrof should be approved by the tellimony freet, where lie inftruétet, at one tim of twelve giammarians. To George and gentry. Cambridge gave him ti e de
about three rundreu fons of the nobili Rodolph Weekberlin, April 5,
gree of a. m. and Oxford Incorporated him 1631, to publith several of the Latin From peculiar reasons in 1636, he went claslics, for thirty-one years to liin Sevenoak, in Kent, where liis school iti and his assigns, with penalty
fourithing, he grew rich. The civil wa
, of forty tillings for every book fo fatal to learning, ruined him. Impr
foned by the parliamentarians, he w: which should be printed by any other some time in Newgate, and thence fento pc:fun infringing, upon his patent. board a vessel, and it was moved that h Some of the Latin ciallics were, by mould be transported to America, but : a grant, dated April 6, 1632, only died in confinement, June 11, 1647 afte
length he was sent to Ely-house, where t. to be published by the very learned he had been there about a year. Hi Thomas Farnaby, elq.* whole term semains repole in the chance of Sevenoa N T E.
church. Such was the sad face of the mol Mr. Farnaby's liisory is fo extraordi. celebrated grammarian, rhetorician, poet Dary, that I cannot bit sketch its outlines. Latinitt, and Grecian in the kingdom, ane His great-gralfather was an Italian mu, only because he had declared, when he de fician, his grandfather was mayor of True clinci taking the protestation, that it wa ro, in Coinwall, and his father a carpen- better to hare one king than five hundred ter in London, whicre he was born, in He had two wives ; one the daughter o 1575; from bence he went to Merton col- John Pierce, the other the daughter of ar Dogsin Oxferi; his pregnant abilities Howion, bishop of Durham. The grandgunel hu the love and friendship of the son of this marriage, Charles Farnaby, elu. learned mr. Frerich, one of the fellows, was firit knighted, and then created a barowho chote him his poi masier and servitor.
net, by George I. The family has taken Gaily volatile, he quirted Britain and pro- the naine of Radcliffe. testantism for Spain and propery. He found The family of Holyoak still remaia in an asylum amongti the jefuits. Refraint Warwick.hire.' I knew several of them,
taining an caly method to facilitate been surreptitiously printed. Sir Rilearning music, both by voice and chard Knightley, at Faulley, hadisinkrument, and his invention to ex- sued some, for which he had been press long and short fyllables in the brought before the far chamber. Greek and Latin languages, hy the Papers were now, in like manner, letters themselves, without the ac- issued against the church and the cents, to the great advantage of poe- crown. I mention the church first, try, oratory, and the graceful pro- because that was first attacked, and nunciation of those tongues, seemed a it was by defi roying the altar, that tribure due to him, whatever the in- the puritans only could hope to deftric merit was.
troy the throne. So early, however, The parliament had seized upon as 1629-30, a proclamation issued to she pulpits, and they determined to forbid the selling Appello Cæsarem. obtain the printing.prefies. With The chief obliquy was notwithstandout this vehicle, the “founding ing levelled at archbishop Laud. I boards' would be of little avail. No have seen many of the libels against book could be published by authori- that imprudent, superstitious, unforty, unless the bishop of London's tunate primate. The people, once chaplains had given it their fiat. breaking the bound of allegiance, The war which broke out had for went from one open act of treason to its pretence religion. The first no- another. The press, which had been dice relative to printing and publish- too much fettered, though I believe ing books was in 1629, when mr. innocently,* now knew no moderaSe den, in parliament, stated that the tion. John Wolf, a filhmonger, in printers and booksellers complained the reign of the imperious Elizabeth, that they were prohibited printing bad dared alike to defy her, and the and disposing of works againit pope- ftationer's company.
What then ry and arminianism. That gentle would not printers now do; solicited, man observed to the house of com- courted, bribed by the city, the para mons, that there was no law to pre
liament; and afterwards by the arvent printing any book in England, my? There was no libel, but what only a decree in the star chamber; he printers were found to print, nor therefore moved to make a law to re- booksellers to vend. So early as Nogulate printing ; because, otherwise, a vember, 1633, one Green came to man may be fined, imprisoned, and court; at St. James', with a great his goods taken fromlim, by virtue of sword by his fide, swearing the king a decree, the: gh it is an invasion upon fhould do him juflice againft the archi the liberty of the subject.* It would bishop, or he would take another have been well if the court had lif- courte with the prelate ; all the harm tened to this, and other reasonable says the metropolitan, that, I ever propositions, in the beginning ; it did to him, was, that being a poor woull have prevented, perhaps, those printer, ! procured hiin, of the coincoormilies which, in the end, were
pany fo fatal to the constitution, by the
O т E. parliament first, and by the army, printer, citizen, fifhmunger, and twora
John Day, the descendant of the great their employers, afterward.
broker of London, November 1, 1634, So early as the reign of Elizabeth, had a patent, for tomteen years, for printanti-religious and political tracts had ing, weekly, bills of the prices of all foN O T
reign commodities; if there was any parMr. Selden was wrongfully imprison- ticular impropriety in Charles I.'s govern. ed about a work written by another ; but ment, about printers, it was this ; yet, as so great was the respect paid him in con. Tworn broker, it might not be wrong ta finement, by the king, that it added to his give Day the patent, fame,
pany of ftationers, 51. during his life.ʼ This man was, as he ought, committed to Newgate. Succefs feems, with the victorious, to legalize crimes. The parliament, in February, 1648-9, appointed a commitee to punith the authors and publishers of a loyal pamphlet, and fuch other perfons as had preached, printed, or published, feditioufly, the proceedings again bringing the king to justice, and to prepare an act to rettrain the preaching and printing any thing against the houfe, and the high count of juftice!!! Such was republican liberty. They did, however, fome time after, to the confufion of the furvivors, find their acts brought forth to confront them. Thefe champions of ty had, in 1645, appointed a nutes to discover fcandalous mets, that they might, punith re thcors, printers, and publi Such were the ideas of thet G light of freedom refpecting the libery of the prefs; after the prefs had in general, executed their dirty work.
(To be concluded in our next.)
24. Mr. Chivers, of Clapham common, killed by his gardener. FEBRUARY.
23. A dreadful accident happened in the Old Bailey at the execution of Holloway and Haggerty for the murder of mr. Steele in Nov. 1802, and Elizabeth Godfrey for ftabbing Richard Prince; when, from the prodigious preffure of the crowd, 28 perfons loft their lives, and ftill greater nuinbers were dreadfully bruifed and wounded.
Chronological Table of Remarkable
1. NOTICE fent into the city by 17. The parliament prorogued. lord Howick, the fecretary of flate, 29 The proclamation of the diffothat the treaty of amity, navigation, lution of parliament figned by his maand commerce between England and jetty. the united states, had been figned the day preceding by the commiffioners 2. A duel was fought near Combe respectively appointed for that pur-Wood between fir Francis Burdett pote by both governments. and mr. Paull, when mr. Paull was feverely wounded in the leg, and fir Francis thot through the upper part of the thigh.
5. Breflau, in Silefia, furrendered to the French under Jerome Bona
6. The election for the city of London commenced, which was expreted to be very warmly contefled; but mr. alderman Hankey, the new candidate died the evening before the poll.
3. The battle of Eylau between the French und Ruffians fought: the flaughter was very great on both fides, and both clained the victory.
25-28. The unfuccefsful attempt on the Dardanelles and the city of Conftantinople made by the fquadron under J. T. Duckworth. MARCH.
6-11. The trial of fir Home Popham by a court martial, for quitting his ftation with the fquadron under his command, without orders or authority from his fuperiors; of which charge he was found guilty, and adjudged to be feverely reprimanded.
20. The city of Alexandria in Egypt furrendered to the Englich troops under major general Frazer.
25. The late miniftry refigned their offices by his majefty's command; when the duke of Portland was appointed fut lord of the teafury; and mr. Canning, fecretaries of ftate; lord Hawkesbury, lord Caftlereagh, and (on the 27th) mr. Percival chancellor of the exchequer
12. Intelligence received from lieutenant general Whitelocke that an attack made by the British troops on the town of Buenos Ayres having. completely failed, a convention had been entered into to evacuate South America within two months, on condition that all the prifoners fhould be restored.
18. The powder-mills at Feverf ham blew up, and fix men and three horfes were killed..
7. The election for Westminster commenced.
22. The town of Chudleigh, in Devonthire, deftroyed by fire.
23. The dection for Weftminfter ended, when fir Francis Burdett, and lord Cochrane were declared duly elected.
26. The election for Middlefex ended, when mr. Mellish and mr. Byng were returned.
5. The election for Yorkshire clofed, when mr. Wilberforce and lord Milton were declared duly elect
14. The decifive battle of Friedland fought between the French and Ruffians, in which the latter loft above 30,000 men, and 80 pieces of
22. An armistice concluded between Ruffia and France.
24. The conterence between Bonaparte and the emperor of Ruffia on a raft in the middle of the Niemen.
29. The return of fir Francis Burdett for the city of Weftminster celebrated, on which occafion fir Francis rode in a lofty car from his houfe to the crown and anchor tavern in the Strand.
7. The city of Copenhagen fur rendered after a bombardment of three nights, and the English fleet and army took poffeffion of the fleet and arfenals of Denmark, and of the city of Copenhagen.
7. The duchels of Brunfwick landed at Gravefend.
16. The emperor of Ruffia arrived at St. Petertburgh, after having concluded the peace of Tilfit.
26. Bonaparte arrived at St. Cloud, having returned from the atmy in Poland.
3. The first divifion of the English fleet employed in the expedition to Copenhagen arrived off the cattle of Cronberg in the Sound.
16. The English troops landed on the island of Zealand without oppofition.
29. Orders iffued to detain all Danith veffels, and fend in all thips of
2. A comet made its appearance. 15. A dreadful accident happened at Sadler's Wells, in confequence of a falfe aların of fire, when 18 perfons loft their lives.
30. The king of Spain publifhed a decree, accuting his fon, the prince of Aufturias, of a confpiracy against his life.
5. Another decree publiflred at Madrid, declaring the prince of Aufturias pardoned, he having con. feffed bis fault, and made known the authors of the plot. DECEMBER.
2. Intelligence received that the emperor of Ruffia had published a declaration announcing his determination to break off all communication with England, and recall his am baffador.
19. Lord Strangford arrived from Lifbon with intelligence that the court of Portugal had embarked, and failed for the Brazils on the 24th of November.
Fashionable Afternoon and full Dress.
DRESS of fine thin kerfeymere withant fleeves, and a fhort train;