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A challenge fhould only be fentfrom two caufes a fear of fhame, which is a laudable quality, and deli cacy of principle, which is founded on virtue; where these two do not exift, the parties can have no other ftimulus to fight, than that of withing to appear notorious. In the awarding of a penalty, agreeable to the law made to punith duellifts, magiftrates very properly difcriminate the motives which inftigated the challenge, and act, with more or lefs feverity, as the offenders are poffeffed of thefe qualities.




For my own part, I am convinced

that it is the reafonableness of the
custom which has given it a perma-
nency, that all the power of laws has
neither been able to fufpend nor fup-
prefs, that it gives ftability and con-
fidence, that it curbs licentioufnefs,
and that its abolition (an event,
which never will happen, without
a combination of circumftances that
human judgment cannot expect)
would be a step towards imbruting
our species.
J. S.

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Mr. Beatfon makes no mention of the title of baron Balgar, conferred on the Cavenagh family; of Gerald Rochfort, conftable of Ferns cattle, I who was fummoned as a baron to the parliament held in Dublin in 1339: nor of William Wellefley, who fat, 14 in the fame parliament as a baron of the realm.

7 Y.A

It was kodi Hut sebu In the Irish memoirs and hiftories occur the titles of Nangle, lord Navan; Marward, baron of Skrine; Purcell, baron of Loughmore; Wellefley, baron of Norragh: no ac count of whom is given by mr. Beat-g fon.

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I remember meeting in an old hif tory of Ireland, with an account of the then exifting nobility, to which the author annexed a lift of barons who had no feat in parliament; though ftyled barons, and who, he adds thould be rather called baronett (this was before the inftitution" of that order). In this lift, I think," were included the names of Huffey, baron of Galtrim; and Wellesley, baron of Norragh.

Can any of your correfpondents inform me of the fucceffion of the earls of Tyrone of the O'Neil family, until its attainder in 1612? Con O'Neil, on furrendering his principality to Henry VIII. was created carl of Tyrone; and his fon Mat thew, at the fame time, made baron of Dungannon. The fecond earl of Tyrone was, I prefume, John or Shane, celebrated for his long refiftance to the English arms, and whe refufed to acknowledge his brother the baron of Dungannon, conceiving him to be illegitimate. The laft earl of Tyrone was Hugh O'Neil, attainted in 1612, with his fon Hugh, lord Dungannon.Query, was he defcended from Matthew, baron of Dungannon ? or from John, eart of Tyrone?RA


Irish Peerage.

IN looking over the new edition of mr. Beatfon's Political Index (a moft ufeful and valuable publication), I obfèrve fome omiffions in his catalogue of the peers of Ireland; viz. The title of De Morris, or Morres, lord de Monte Marifcoe, created by king Edward II. (fee Archdale, vol. V. p. 289.) Dillon, lord Dromvany, a barony in fee (fee Archdale, vol. IV. p. 136, 172, where it is ftated that William Dillon, a Dominican friar, was lord baron of Dromvany, by the antient tenure cap. per baroni am, being the lineal male defcendant of fir Henry Dillon, baron of Dromvany, in the reign of Henry II.).


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For the Hibernian Magazine.

"On Winter.

In Winter awful,Thou! with clouds and forms

Around thee thrown-tempeft o'er tempeft

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Majeflic darkness li on the whirlwind's

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Riding fublime, thou bidd't the world adore,

And humble nature with thy northern

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though more able to bear the cola, yet feel the inclement blafts, and fleedi to the fheltering hedges; whilft ind England the husbandman befrews for the bleating sheep. The produce the ground with hays or ivy leaves of the cow experiences the direful change, and the milk is food con gealed with the frott. Our region, it is true, is different from the very northern, where ice binds the waters in one folid mafs, during the long and IT is, no doubt, more pleasant to, dreary months of winter, where all cant on the beauties of nature, as verdure. is deftroyed; where vegetaplayed in fpring and fummer, yet ion is apparently come to an end, autumn and winter are worthy of our and the face of nature is no more to frous regard, as they pourtray the undergo a change. Happy is it for asful glories of the Almighty for us, that we live in more temperate Heideth on the whirlwind and the climes. Our winter is comparativeform. So that though the pleafing tv mild, and its feverity is foon over. Feafons of the year attract the atten- This land is in a peculiar manner fation of mankind, yet the more fevere voured; for we fometimes are exare truly worthy of their attention. empted from froft and fnow. The If we look back on the, paft middle of winter has the appearance onths, we regret the departure of of fpring, as the verdure of the mea fing and fummer, when gladdened dows is not altered. Though this is rejoiced all around. It is now not always the cafe, we have no re eful to animadvert on the wintry fon to complain; for the Almighty fafon. Who could conceive the is mindful of this land, and we par change which has paffed on univerfal take of his goodness in an abundant rature, which has come on as it meafure. It is true that our coafts were imperceptibly, if they had not do feel the direful effects of forms n accuftomed in our country to and tempefts; but yet God, in the e revolving feafons All creation midft of judgment, remembers mercy, felt the change: we behold the as the number of fhipwrecks compa tes divefied of their leafy follage-ratively are very few; and when the thefnow defcends in flakes like wool harbour of Howth is completed, we the froft gives the meadow's a hope that the number will be far lefs. beutiful drefs of white, whilft it We fhall not then dread the bar of congeals the ftagnant water. The Dublin bay. Who can defcribe pealant feels the change of weather, what the poor failors do experience and returns from the field to his little in the ocean at this inclement season? cabin, thivering with the cold. Indeed it is impoffible to defcribe it. Children run to their parents to expe- Falconer, in his inimitable poem, ence their foftering care. The mo- does great juttice to the fubject, bayther hugs the infant to her breast, and ing experienced it himself. appears defirous to preserve it from the chilly air. Even the little birds fem fentible of the change, and feek 10 man for his friendly care. The in red-breaft hops on the cold ground, and pecks the crumbs as they te from the table. The cattle,




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High o'er the poop th' audacious feas afpire,
Uproll'd by hills of fluctuating fire.
As fome felt conqueror, frantic with fuc

Sheds o'er the nations ruin and diftrefs;


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As ice diffolves beneath the noon-tide ray.
The kies, afunder torn, a deluge pour ;
Th'impetuous hail defcends in whirling

High on the mafts, with pale and livid rays,
Amid the gloom portentous meteors blaze.
Th' etherial dome, in mournful pomp ar

Now lurks behind impenetrable fhade,
Now, flowing round intolerable light,
Redoubles all the terrors of the night.

Such terrors Sinai's quaking hell o'erspread
When Heaven's loud trumpet founded o'er
his head!

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Cure for the Head-Ache
Mr. Editor,

I HAVE lately been greatly entertained, and I truft effentially benefit ed by the perufal of a valuable wark code of health and longevity,' comrecently publifhed, intituled, The piled and written by that truly great character, fir John Sinclair, baronet; man who, though highly exalted by his talents, title, and fortune, is infinitely more fa by his virtues, public fpirit, and genuine philanthropy; and the work here mentioned, independent of his other writings, is fufficient



We indeed little know what mari ners do experience on the boisterous The fpace between us and England is fcarce worthy of notice; fo that it has been called jocofely the herring-pond; and when the equi

come. In a note at the foot of

noctial winds are departed, we feel a of itfelf to entitle its author to the pleafure to take a fhort voyage over grateful thanks, not only of his conSt. George's channel. Though our view of this feafon temporaries, but of pofterity for ages may be dreary, let us look forward page 645 of the firft volume of that to approaching fpring, not doubting work, are the following interefting of the Almighty's goodness, whole particulars refpecting the virtues of tender regard is over all his works. cold water: We expect the renovation of nature -the bleak winds and heavy rains


will be known no more.

and he rides upon the ftorm, yet he
will bring his people through every
tribulation to his heavenly kingdom.'
2. How ought we to feel for the
mifery of others? The rich at this
feafon ought to impart of their abun
dance. All of us may do fome good
and if we drop not the fympathetic
tear; let us pray for all that travel by
land and by water, that God would
preferve them, and bring them to their
defired haven.
T. M.

Fethard, Jan. 5, 1808.

A few moral reflections may not be improper to clofe this effay.

In the firft place, let us adore the judgments of the Almighty; for though clouds of darknets furround him, yet righteoufnefs and judgment

are the habitations of his throne.'-Though he ftrike all our comforts dead, let us not defpair but he will yet be generous. Behind a frowning Providence he hides a fmiling face. Though his way is in the fea,

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It is recorded of a Scotch clergyman, that he preferved his health to a very advanced period of life, much owing to a cuftom of bathing his head in cold water from a rivulet that ran below his garden; and this he practifed in winter as well as fummer, breaking the ice if neceffary; and perfevered in it for about forty-five.

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bafon of water, and in this manner twice fince the commencement of my bathe the head. The flesh-brush ablutions, and then but in a very abforbs as much water as makes a flight degree. The method I take is plentiful ablution and the effect of this: after dreffing myfelf in the the cold water is inuch improved by morning, to immerfe the top part of the friction of the flesh brush after the head, nearly to the ears, in the wards. There is no practise fo like- wafhhand bafon, and afterwards, tə ly to be ufeful to thofe who are apt to rub the head with a rough napkin or catch cold, or are troubled with head- towel for fome time, which answers aches; and if they once begin it, the purpose of a flesh brush; and, afthey may, like the worthy clergy- ter a little practice, it becomes exman, be able to continue it for forty tremely pleafant and refreshing. years.


Sir John fays, the practice of washing the head is only calculated for those who wear wigs, or are much cropped indeed.-I, however, wear my own hair, cut according to the prefent fashion, and have conftantly ufed powder, but without finding much inconvenience on that account; as by the time the breakfaft cloth is removed the hair is fuffie' ciently dry to come under the hands of the frizeur, and the powder renders it completely dry and comfortable. If thefe obfervations, fhould tend to the relief of but one of my fellowcreatures from that diftreffing complaint an habitual head-ache it will afford fincere pleasure to


It is only calculated, however, for those who wear wigs, or whofe natural hair is very much cropped indeed.

As a farther proof of the efficacy of cold water in the cure of the headache, I beg to trouble you with the following cafe I had from very early youth, even from infancy, been much afflicted with a nervous headache: I may aloft call it hereditary, as my mother alfo was fubject to that complaint from her childhood. As much of my time has been employed in writing, reading, and fedentary Occupations, my head-aches had thereby been increafed to fo violent a degree, as to render life almost a bur. then. It attacked me about once a month, fometimes oftener; and for

many hours I was nearly in a state of The French Opinion of British Cour

age, and The Courage of other Nations.

delirium; and after its violence had abated, it left me extremely languid for feveral days, I had the advice of feveral eminent gentlemen of the THE French, in their allowances faculty, and tried the effect of nu- of merit to the English nation, raise merous receipts given me by my it by a ftudied gradation above the friends, but all to no purpose. level of all others, and just to a single About two years ago it came to my degree below their own: an inftance pind that washing the head in cold of this, among many, is that of miwater might be of fervice, and I re- litary courage, which, in their opifolved to try the experiment, and have nion, they poffefs in the most emincontinued the practice two or three ent degree. times a week, and fometimes oftener, ever fince both in winter and fummer; and have experienced wonderful be nefit from it, as I have not been afficted with the head-ache but once or

They have defined and appreciated it with that peculiar nicety, which characterifes the various judgments they form of their neighbours. In the Germans it is rather an abfence of

of fear, or a heavy infenfibility of and able writer, is not lefs guilty o

danger. In the Spaniards, a perfeverance and fleadiness of resolution in purfuing what they have begun. In the Italians, a fertility of genius in difcovering the weak fide of an enemy, and concealing their own; and in improving every opportunity by artifice and ftratagem. In the English, an intrepidity of foul that fees and encounters all difficulties. But in themselves, a fpirit of determined valour, acting by rule, and equally diftant from rafhnefs and timidity.

prejudice ia his elegant hiftory of Lewis the Eleventh of France. H begins it by faying the victory at Poi tiers was won by English defperation over the French valour, ou là valeus Françoife ceda aux defefpoir des An gleis: words that fully prove he had not fufficiently confidered the beha viour of the English, and the conduct of their illuftrious commander on that memorable day; wherein the cool generalfhip of the one, and the amazing refolution of the other, are obvious to all impartial readers.

Their notions of courage, as appears by fome of their writers, are The only French author who feema not, however, quite uniform. Some- to have truly understood and describtimes it is a ferocity of nature, like ed that fpecies of bravery belonging that of carnivorous animals who de- to our countrymen is father Orleans, light in fcenes of blood. Thus Fle- the jefuit. Treating of our civil wars chier reprefents it, in his celebrated in the reign of Charles the first, he funeral oration on marshal Turenne. has these remarkable words, la guerre Speaking of the victory he obtained fefit vivement felon le genio de la naover the Spanish army near Dunkirk, through the affiftance of the Englith, he fays of thefe qu'une ferocité na turelle acharnoit fur les vaincus; we have no word in our languuage of adequate energy with acharnoit, which the orator has felected to defcribe the favage eagerness with which our native ferocity prompted us to deal deftruction among the vanquilhed.

Voltaire, in his poem on the battle of Fontenoi, confers the fame epithet on English courage, in that well known line la ferocité le cedcá la vertu, ferocity yields to virtue.' But, as if he was confcious of a mifrepresentation, and yet averfe totally to retract his words, he politely adds a note in the margin, excepting from the imputation of ferocity the whole corps of English officers, who, fays he, font auffi genereux que les notres, are as generous (humane is the meanig) as ours.' The poor foldiers it feems were not fo much worth

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his attention.

Monlieur Duclos, an ingenious

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tion, brufque, impetueuse, donnant peu á l'art et decidant tout par des batailles, ou l'on fait plus de cas du nombre et de la vigueur des combattans que de la fcience des capitaines : the war was waged with the vigorous spirit peculiar to that nation; whofe bold, impetuous difpofition pays but little regard to military artifice, and decides all by fet battles, where the number and courage of the men are more valued than the skill of the commanders.'

As war is a department wherein the French efteem theinfelves the infructors of all nations, it was thought neceffary to expatiate on that quality which is the foundation of all mili tary glory, perfonal valour. In the fcience of exerting it with propriety, they imagine no people are comparable to thein: with how much justice they challenge this fupremacy let others determine. Suffice it here, that their pretenfions have been ftated, together with the respective ideas they entertain of the feveral European nations in this matter.


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