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of the people are engaged, fighting for their liberties and independence against a nation which they never liked, and from which they have lately received the deepet injuries. Nothing can prevent their fuccefs but di union among themfelves, and again this the labours of the wifeft mun have been directed how far their counfels will be attended to time muft fhew; but the annals of history have fcarcely ever prefented to the world to grand a fubject for contemplation. When the Americans were fighting for their liberty and independence, principies were divulged and maintained which hook the throne of ancient prejudice; and with great bravery, and skill, and patriotitm, they formed the excellent government which they now poflefs: but the circumitances of the people of America and Spain are very different, and modes of government are various. Spain may form an admirable government, totally different from that of America, or thofe now exifting in Europe and it fhould always be rememhered, that the form is not of fo much im. portance as the establishment of the civil rights of each individual, and particularly of that grand right, to which every man is entitled, and of which he cannot be deprived but by fraud or unjust force, that of worthipping his matter according to the dictates of his own confcience.
rer, which with all its defects, was far izm ter than that by which they have ever been governed, it is to be prefumed, they will not prefent to Spain a work tem: they have the example of cur an que country before them, and therefore ap to avoid our errors. One fingle pin Fren being established,—namely, that the Com fhall meet every year, be elected area, a and every man be incapable of holding place or penfion under government, or at poft whatever in the kingdom, will ferve them from infinite mischief. T kingdom can always prefent a number of fuch men, from whom to form a felection: and without this proviso, their country mi prelent the ufual contemptible inftances of tak corruption, intrigue, and faction.
In Spain every thing looks well.—F: t turn our eyes towards Portugal:-er thing looked well in Portugal. An army of Englishmen, well appointed, meet t French, and beat them in two battles. Th news arrives, and fills every heart wa joy. This army receives reinforcem outnumbers the French almoft doe News does not arrive for fome time.-T winds occafion a delay; but no doubt is entertained, that the British colours wat over the walls of Lisbon, and the fhips d Ruffia. At laft an expreis reaches town -the park and tour guns are fired: the news is fpread abroad, that the Fresca, have capitulated, and the Ruffian feet s furrendered. We rejoice in the tervis rendered to the Portugnele; in that king. dom being rescued from French thrald; and in to many French foldiers being re dered incapable of doing farther injury dur ing the war.
How are all countenances changed on tis next morning, when the gazette appear! with the difpatches from our general a fr How Dalrymple. It announces, that, ter the fecond defeat of the French, an ca cer from their army arrives to propofe a cel fation of arms, with a view to a convention, and the evacuation of Portugal by the French. Sir Arthur Wellesley is appoin ed to meet this general, and to lay doss the basis of this convention: he fettles with the French general, or one would. ther fuppofe, the French general diftates to the English general, that the bafis of the convention fhould be the evacuation of Pr tugal, on condition that the French should be conveyed away to France, with arms, ammunition, and baggage, that Liber fhould be considered as a neutral port; that the Ruffian fleet thould not be atacked by the English, till after a certain time from its quitting the harbour.
What could induce fir Arthur Welledyr
A grand Pep is now taken towards the formation of the government; and the junta of Seville iffued a molt admirable paper upon the occafion. All the juntas feemed to be impreffed with the fame principles, and the ceility of forming a central go. vernment for the immediate purposes of carrying on the war with France, corref. ponding with other countries, and keeping up the connections with their colonies. In confequence of this mutual agreement, deputjes have been elected by the different juntas, who are to meet at Cuidad Reale,
the district of La Mancha, there to take upon themielves the reins of government, and to provide every thing for the meeting of the Coritz. Much will depend upon the wifdom and patriotiim of this delegated bady; the happinets of the kingdom is in a great meature in their hand, and there is every reason to believe, that the filtelt perions have been flected upon this occafion. In the first exercite of their authority, they will probably go upon the ancient principles of their free government; and war inult be their chiet concern. To the Cortes mult he left the lettling of the fixed principles of their future government; and it is to be hoped, that their king will be kept lately in France till the whole is aranged. As a conftitution was provided for them at Bayonne by the French empo
the Tagus. Five thousand failors had no thing to do, and their country could not avail itfelf of their fervices. We fend them back to Rulia to recruit their fleet, and to enable them to combat the king of Sweden in the Baltic. What will our ally of Swedea fay to this? In fact, the treaty is injurious to Spain, Portugal and Sweden. How does it tell with respect to ourfelves? Our folders had fought bravely, had beaten the French, and had every salon to expect an unconditional fubmiffion, or at least that the French fhould become prifoners of war. The idea that they fhould be permitted to go again into actual fervice immediately feems to prepofterous, that nothing scarcely can justify it. Again, both army and navy have been joined together in an expedition, and the naval force of the enemy would form, upon the ufual terms, fome prizemoney. They have now had hard blows, and rothing in return to compenfate them for their labours. In fort, army and navy, the whole country, and all our allies, have reafon to complain of this disgraceful butinefs; and throughout England, not one approving voice has been heard upon this occafion.
put his name to fuch conditions, no one England can imagine: but, be this as it may, the conditions are not treated h the contempt they defèrved at headuters. A convention is actually drawn figned, and fealed, by which the nch are indeed to leave Portugal, but are to find tranfports for them; they are carry away their arms, a certain quanof ammunition, and their baggage, tis, all the plunder of our allies. The ffian fleet, however, has not the fame 115. Our admiral interferes in this ret, and he will not fuffer the feet to re the Tagus; but by a strange infiftency permits the failors to depart, or her contents that they fhall be carried k to Ruffia, and their fhips are to be reed to Ruffia at the end of fix months m figning of the treaty of peace. Thus the forces of our coma.on enemies, > were cooped up in Lisbon, and incapaof acting against our allies with effect, on a fudden let loofe, and in a manner ich Bonaparte and the emperor of Russia uld never have expected. Whilt the nch were in Lisbon, they were to all ints and purpoles of no other ufe, than to p the Portuguefe in the environs of the tropolis in order; and there could be doubt, that in a fhort time they muft re fubmitted to the armies of the Portu. le, unaided by our forces. They could get into Burgos, without being cut off the Spaniards; and they were wanted by French at the foot of the Pyrenees. Our erals have kindly confented, that they uld be conveyed away in the earliest nner to Bonaparte's army, now prepar ; for the invasion of Spin. They are be landed in France, and a few days I convey them from their landing-place, take their station in the invading army, to attack the Spaniards. Thus the aniards will have no fmall reafon to cry t against this fhameful treaty. What is the condition of the Portuguefe? does not appear that they have been at confulted upon this occafion. A French my has feized her country, committed mberlefs outrages, plundered it unmercilly, and we graciouily came over to affift ir allies, we beat, as we fay, the enemy, d yet let him carry away the property of ir friends. Surely the Portuguele might y, you ought to have left us fome chance. getting back the property unjustly taken om us. We are not indeed to much inred as the Spaniards, as we do get rid of efe robbers; but when we go to the aftance of our neighbours, we hali have to it them again, but without any chance the reftitution of our property. The Rulian fleet was perfectly ufelel's in October, 1808.
It is natural now to afk, who were the generals that could thus difhonour the Eng. lifh rame? The two firit were fcarcely known; the third, fir Arthur Wellesley, had acted with great kill and bravery, both in Portugal and India. For fome time it was reported, that the latter had left the army, and had protefted against thefe proceedings; but his name appears in the preliminaries, giving his fanction to terms more difgiaceful than thote which were at laft concluded. Many have been the attempts to remove the blame from his thoulders to thole who are fuperior to him in co.nmand; but we cannot fee how, if they are difgraced, he will efcape from a much greater portion of ignominy. In thort, the whole is a mystery, to be developed by a military enquiry: for at prefent we cannot account for it, but upon a fuppofition that will cover thefe generals with far more dif grace than could have even been attached to the conventions at Buenos Ayres and Helder. Our foldiers fight bravely, what is the reafon that Great Britain has fo much reafon to complain of her conman. ders in chief?
England does not complain of her naval commanders, and the has no reason, whilst they act with the spirit lately displayed in the Baltic. The English and Ruffians have met together in a hottile manner on the leas. Only two of our fhips were with the Swedes, and the Ruflians were retreating. The English advanced, and loon got away 4 L
from the Swedish fleet, and nine Ruan men of war were feen fleeing from two Englifh fhips of the line. Our veffels came up with the rear of the Ruffians, took one hip, which they were under the neceflity of deftroying, and compelled the reft, who came up to its affiftance, to retreat. The adiniral prefented the Ruflian flag to the king of Swe. den, who with the greatest gallantry defired that it might be fent to England as a proof of the bravery and kill of our naval forces. The Ruffian fleet efcaped to Port Baltic, and may by this time be deftroyed: for we doubt not that, if there is any poflibility of attacking them, the opportunity will not be loft by our commanders. This fuccefs of the combined navies of Sweden and England will lead to the entire deftruction of the Ruffian naval power in the Baltic, and by all accounts, the arms of Sweden have been fuccefsful in Finland. It is certain that the Ruffians have retreated, and their main body is faid to be not above thirty or forty mile from Petersburgh: but accounts from that quarter are little to be depended upon. Our naval affiftance will be a great point in favour of the king of Sweden, and the circumftances that have taken place in the fouth of Europe may continue him for fome time longer on the throne.,
Denmark remains, as before, inactive as to the war about her. This country has however, been diftinguished by the gallant conduct of the Spaniards, who, by Bonaparte's treachery, had been marched fo far from their homes. With great skill their commander contrived to march feveral regiments to the fea fide, who, hearing of the revolution in their country, burned with impatience to affift in the caule of liberty. Measures had been concerted with the ad. miral of our hips on the coat, and the Spanish troops were conveyed from Zealand to a small ifland, thence to Gottenburgh, and are now on the way to England to be conveyed to their own country. We flatter ourfelves that they will be landed in Bif. cay, before the French troops embarked at Lifbon can be marched to the Pyrenees.
What the plans of the emperor of Russia may be, time alone can difcover. Should the alliance between him and France be fhaken by events in Spain, Auftria will be fafe: if not, the war may break out in that quarter, and Auftria again be humbled. If the is, no compaflion can be excited; for it does not appear, that the fyem of the court has been at all changed, nor that any thing has been done to make the people imitate the tranfactions in Spain.-Contu fion is to have taken place in Poland: the Poles, with juftice, complaining that their liberty and independence were a it restored. They will be brought to order by the fore
cious Ruffians, the decided ty, who, being flaves them enjoy the fight of happiness mar country.
Turkey prefents to us the maxic toms of decaying empire. The Patter Ottomans is now upon the ran ten predeceffor enjoyed it but a fher t the young prince holds his sat en precarious tenure. The whole wr the militia. A commander entert
depofing the remaining meande a new one upon the thione-μ15 felf vizier! that is in othe the ruler of the empire. changes mult weaken the fate, fo wretched a government the anc lized Europe might be turned wings nefit. To England might propens * figned the islands in the Metre 10 and the unhappy Greeks might be 20 the benefits of civilized life. Tre to take place in this part of the wat not much longer be delayed; and te fcent of. Mahomet will, it is to be foon fhare the fame fate with the crown of popery.-His holiness ta making fad lamentations; he cast the lots of his temporalities. Way, happen, we truit that Englishmen w? tega i be fo bately employed as in the reina debuter his holiness, as he is called, to the lice nions, which have been annexed tog to the injury of his fubjects and to ag kind. Indeed, much as we fhoud of at the fuppreffion of the unmente poacher va Bonaparte, it would be with great that we should fee Italy reflured to 27kesed, its former matters.
In France, Bonaparte has had a of his fenate; and before it have bece, a all the papers relative to the abdicary. the throne of Spain, the fettling of a pai conftitution for it at Bayonne, and many, pointment of a king. The languag ga on this occafion is exactly fimilar to thin the old courts of Europe, in which Tog court is every thing and the people not en Great appointments are made for the def fed king and prince, and the royal famista Spain; and it is taken for granted, as, when thefe unfortunate men had n their rights, which they certainly wat liberty to do, the appointment of a life for fell into the hands of him to when one wi reigned them. This is upon fuppofitates that a kingdom is fomething, to which the king has a right, independently of the p plea foolish and abfurd notion for king cannot poffets any right but by ad ous appointment, and we fhall not find betw the Lattory of Spain, that, on the abling on= on of a king, the right of appointing ada ha ceffor is vetted in the fortre gn who f
must be expiated by blood; and the going
e Americans fill continue their em
their wife plan to avoid a war, and > be led away by thofe falfe notions of ir and glory, which have hitherto the nations that delight in war-ules ought to be expected from every man lifgrace to rational beings. who takes upon himself the office of judge, fingular circumstance has occurred in jury, and executioner in his own caufe. olony in Botany Bay. The governor The punishment will probably next be exbeen arrested, and fent home by the tended to the principals and feconds in all in command. The circumftance rela- duels, where the caufe is trifling, and to it are not fufficiently developed where the difpute could easily have been it is faid, that many illegal proceed- made up by the feconds. In this manner had taken place in the colony. That the horrors of a favage custom will be ofvernor may deserve this treatment, and ten removed; and even men will learn econd in command be juftified in fuper in time, that it does them no honour to be g him, we cannot doubt; and nofo ready to take away the lives of their g is more difficult than to keep gover- fellow-creatures. of diftant colonies to a true fenie of duty. In England, however, it has ifeen, that punishment, though long yed, follows atrocious acts; and the ence and execution of governor Wall proofs, that offenders, however high in e, are amendable to the laws of their ntry. It would be improper to enter into particulars of the prefent fituation of the ny, till the charges have been properly I against the governor, and he has been rd in his own defence. Two gentlemen of the name of Campbell fe excited a great deal of intereft; and ir fate will, it is to be hoped, be a rning to every one who may be hurried his pallions into the danger of commitg the fame crimes. The one was a mili ry officer, the other is a civil magiftrate. he unfortunate military gentleman had a fpute with a brother officer at mets upon e modes of giving command at a review, id the language uled upon the occafion as warm, but not fuch as, according to e most rigid notions of honour, could quire a duel, and they might have palled en between two men without pro ucing one. However, the major though, hat his honour was wounded, and that if
rone of France. However this may e French, loft to all the feelings of li, and actuated by the fame wicked is influenced the cabinets of Europe beginning of their revolution, are en
with vigour into the meatures of chief, and are fabricating manifeftos Sre to thofe of the duke of Brunfwick The prince of Cobourgh, in which the ards are to be treated as revolters, and molt feverity of punishment is to be irened to refiftance.
The punishment of the civil magiftrate was not to great, though this mr. Campbell, like his namefake, was the means of taking away the life of an Englishman. His fentence was three months imprisonment, and a fine to the crowu and if to this is added the poignant reflection of the cenfure of the law and of all our countrymen, unleis perhaps we may except fome members of the fociety for the fuppreffion of vice, we trust that this will be fufficient to prevent fimilar wrong-headednefs, and the dangerous interference of the members for the suppression of vice in the diversions of the people. A country fealt or wake was held fomewhere near Bath, with the ufual country diverfions, which the members of the vice fociety hold fo much in abhorrence. Mr. Campbell chofe to term the meeting riotous, broke in among the people with one or two contabies, and being rather preffed in return by them, shot with a pistol one of them dead. The laws of the land were fufficient for the feizure of the culprit, who was very properly brought to his trial, and after an excellent admonition from the judge, received the fentence of the law, and is now undergoing the punishment, which it awarded to his crime, On the un happy
happy man we would avoid faying any thing to wound his feelings on the contrary we rejoice at the good character which, from the teltimony of his neighbours, he feems in general to have borne: but the circumftances in which this criminal placed himself, cannot fail of giving rife to furious reflections:-A dispofition of late years has prevailed in this country of interfering, under the ideas of a fpecious morality, with all the amulements of the lower claffes. Ma-' ny gentlemen who have good houses, exccl. dent dinners, and excellent wines, who can vifit their friends when they pleate, and how they please, constitute themselves into judges of what ought to please their inferiors; and their interiors are to move in a line or rule, according to the fuppofed more refined notions of thofe more moral and rangelical ten. Let the criminal conduct of mir. Campbell and his puninment being fuch perfous to better reflections, and lead their minds to a better train of thinking we recommend to them a paper of Jovellanos on the interference of government in the amusements of Spain, which they will find at the end of lord Holland's memoirs of Lopez de Vega. They will there fee how the fpirit of a people may be broken; and to this fate would the people of England be brought, if the fociety for the fuppreffion of vice was not daily finking into contempt.
ftating that the plunder founde fellion of Dupont and his army ly exhibited at the custom boce z ty, for the purpose of alluring that fuch plunder had been made Among the articles of plunder wel ber of vales, crucifixes, and other that difcription, ftolen from 15 chapets, there are alfo fome by co, termed Napoleons, whir to Dupont, no doubt, for the coruption.
Dupont is confined at St Seir) consequence of his milzonduâ ; allowed 24 reals, about 55. day for his fubftance. of this officer is ascribed, circumftances already known, " lowing fact :
Very thortly after he had f Dupont dispatched a confidente Junot, adviling him ftroagly tos. Andalufia, and stating to him the would be certain, from varios which were deicribed; and particul thould the main body of the Spar be drawn away, in confequeat alarm of his spproach, he (Dip the means of rallying the French p and aiding the object of Junot T was intercepted, and his letter tas and the natural confequence was the diate imprisonment of Dupont.
30.] A proclamation has been p by general Beresford, lord Proby, neral Kellermann, relative to the t on of property, that had been pla confiscated. The reftitution of thi miflioners, one of whom is an Engi cer, the fecond a Portugusfe, and th a French officer.-Great difputes ken place relative to the articles rela property. Our officere declared tha cer did not come under the denomina property.-Junot however infifted t and his army had a right to carry eff ever was in their poffetion whift he
glome family plate-Seignior Ferragdez, an Alcalde, had been ordered to pay 6000 collars, and was thrown into prifon until his friends had raifed the fum. Upon his liber. ation, he demanded from the fccretary to general Junot, the caufe of his fine and imprifonment, when he was answered that the contribution was to enable the general to reward the bravery which his troops had displayed in the battles of the 17th and 21it. A fum amounting to nearly 50,000 dollars has in like manner been taken from an Engluh gentleman of the name of Stevens, long refident in Portugal.
ty to the amount of 10,000, dollars includ-manded at Lisbon.—This interpretatio been refitted by cur officers, and the h are to return to their own country wit that pillage they had fo fcandaloufy quired.-Junot had attempted to enta his plunder, among which was the feum of natural curiofities, belonging to prince regent: it was all, however, dered to be re-landed-One of the hi features of this convention will thus be tened; but our brave troops are repre ed, in private letters, to be muce diffi fied with the refult of the campaign.-It not true, however, that any infurretties had broken out at Lisbon, and has rathe furprifed us, that none of the privat letters make mention of the proteft faid t
LONDON Sept. 26.
IMMEDIATELY after the conventions were concluded in Portugal, the French, who were permited to carry off their plun. der with impunity, fet about increafing it by all poffible means-Hoftilities had ceafed with the British, but hoftilities agairt Portuguese property were molt actively carried on. The following instances have been mentioned-A merchant of the name of Pedro D'Avelea, had, the day after the date of the treaty, been plundered of proper
29.] By a veffel which arrived yesterday from Cadiz, account have been received,