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fine, and the fuperiority it has acquired at fea.
It is not neceffary to coincide in opinion with this nation, as to its poffeffing the dominion of the feas from the time of Cæfar it is anxious to trace back the origin and eftabithment of its marine to ancient times, when in reality it is very modern; we mean here the men of war, and not the merchant veffels, which in an ifland muft of courfe be ancient: the inhabitants having to procure by fea, what their own land
Henry VIII. defirous of having a le fleet, was obliged to purchate thips of the Genoefe and Venetians, ten poffeffing many veffels; at this be they have fcarce any. The empire of the fea has made a change in its rulers, as well as that of the earth its fovereigns.
Printing had originally been, as it were, an hereditary bufinefs, but the civil war brought a great many of their workmen into the trade; it tended, however, to lower their confequence: the bookfellers held theinfelves far beyond the printers in importance; and though at first the printers made a great difplay of their names, now they contented themfelves with only modeftly putting the initials. Some works, as well in the reign of Charles 1. as in the ufurpation, which were in the eyes of the ruling powers peculiarly obnoxious, were without either the name of printer or bookfeller. England's petition to the king,' was printed on the day of Jacob's trouble, and to make way (in hope) for its deliverance out of it; May 5, 1643.' Sə The Mystery of the good old caŭfe,' was printed in the first year of England's hberty, after almost twenty years flavery, 1660. Such publicas tions would have endangered the lives of the printers, if they had dared to have put their names to them. Some. of the light fquibs and crackers of the day have whimfical notices of print
Elizabeth, who joined the ambiti on of a woman with the defire of appearing a great queen, was the first efablither of the English marine, yet the left but forty fhips of the line, which at that time was a great navy. Charles II. more engaged in his pleasures that in increafing his ing. power, added forty-three. A tafteIt was a period of figns, as well for naval affairs had already gained as wonders; all engaged in literature, ground, and when a nation poffeffes had their figns, not manual but, the fpirit of admination, the fove- limnial. This had been the practice reign has only to protect and encou- from the beginning. Ames has given rage it. us the devices of fome of our early printers.
As foon as the marine of England rofe into repute, that of Portugal ceafed to exist.
1. Nov. 9, 1807.
Hiftory of British Printers, Bookfel-
The ftationers' company alfo had, their grant of arms, as it were, to fanction fuch devices. Philip and Mary gave them '1 Sable, on a chev. ron, between 3 Bibles Or, a Falcon rfing, with 2 Rofes, Gules, feeded of the 2nd. In chief in a Glory, a dove expanded, proper. Thomas Day adopted the tign of the fun; and allu five to his own name, and that printing was to illumine the world, which had been in ignorance, he took for his motto, Arife, for it is DAY.The fun became a favourite fign
with various bookfellers, probably as having come from the original fun. Printers and book fellers, who only dealt in bibles, might well take for. figns, one or three of the facred volumes. The king's arms, the rofe and crown, the king's head, the queen's arms, the queen's head, and the prince's arms, might well fignify, that they who ufed fuch fignis, were loyal men, and employed by fuch great perfonages: it is to the credit of all ufurpers, that none of thefe figns were forbidden, even from the time of the king's murder, until the refto ration, though the royal arms were removed from churches and courts of juftice for the flate's arms, which the wags called the beast's breeches; res marked too, that God and the common wealth were not on the fame fide, alluding to the infcription upon their money.* We have alfo The City Coat Epifcopal books might well be fold at the bishop's head, or the mitre. Religious ones at the holy lamb, or the angel, or Catherine wheel. Roman catholic ones at the pope's head, or the crafs keys. It was a royal conceffion to let his holinefs have his facred noddle appears publicly in a proteftant capital, when Henry VIII. would not permit even the word pops to remain in any printed book, and I have one or more volumes printed in his reign, before his quarrel with Clement VII. that has had afterwards the obnoxious word obliterated with a pen. Why
bacchanal publications at the vine, the tun, and the half bowl; botany at the fleur de lis, or the marygold.As to the white lion, black bear, red bull, green dragon, brazen ferpent, unicorn, talbot, and fox; the phoenix, peacock, three pigeons, parrot, black fwan, and raven, these might be fuppofed to treat of natural hiftory; but I believe they conveyed no more meaning, than the materials of which they were formed, had ideas. Time well expreffed works. of moral-improvement of the mind, intimating that we fhould feize op、 portunity. The windmill did very well for the whimfies of the fancy as well as for all religious and politi cal changes, of which there were not a few, in that prolific period of alterations. Agricultural books had an appropriate fign in the hand and plough, or the harrow. In those of, strength and beauty, Adam and Eve was a felect fign; or it might be, applied to population. As to works of imagination, Ben Johnson's head, was well chofen, and the more so as Pollard, its owner, was the great romance bookfeller. Walkly, an author himfelf, had the flying horfe; but I do not know whether he ever mounted the Pegafus: his catalogues are the best of his works, but lils of names, and flowing numbers. ill agree. Emery, at the eagle and child, I fuppofe was brought up by, the Stanley family, as it thewed his gratitude. Had John of Ghent been,
we had the Turk's lead, feems mar- in the land of the living, I fhould vellous; the fultans not being patrons have fuppofed Crawford, at the castle of learning Law books might well, and lien, had been patronized by his be purchased at the judge's head. titular majefty of Caftile and Leon, Nautical works at the thip, the mer. The blazing ftar, the feven stars, maid, or the dolphin: philanthropy and the hand and ftar, were all as at the hand in hand: military at the rivals to different funs. After all, gun, the helmet, or the three daggers, the fign of the printing prefs, adopted by both Eld and Speed, was the most in character. Do, mr. Editor, excufe a little rambling here. I have broke, in too much upon your time and paper, in mentioning all the most noted
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• We do not find the proteor's head for figns until after the restoration, when we have tumble as-un Dick; nor the protector's or the ftates, the commonwealth's arms: prosis that they were not popular. .
to their appointment, as we fee by the commitment of Nathaniel Brook of Cornhill, called a ftationer; but he was alfo a bookfeller. Many of the tracts against Oliver were printed in Holland. All his vigilance did not prevent Killing no Murder ap. pearing.
At the restoration there could not be lefs than from 130 to 140 bookfellers and printers in London. Many of these undoubtedly starved others, yet there were more calls for fmall. tracts than can now be imagined. Pamphlets of all kinds; fingle fermons, efpecially funeral ones, teemed at that time. All the rival fects had each its own faints, and every one who died, who was not grossly immoral, was ranged amongit the beatified by the different preachers. The works before the restoration, particularly after the commencement of the civil war, were generally relative to religion and politics. There are a few exceptions.
noted figns of times now long fince paffed away, it must have been a gazing age, no wonder it was a fliff necked generation.
But to be ferious, Oliver, once in the faddle, was more abfolute than the monarch he had murdered. His highnels required full as much flate as any of our kings. Henry VIII. had Pynfon and Tyndal as his printers. Edward VI. Wolf, a Swifs, to print Hebrew, Greek, and Latin; and Torrentin, a German by birth, but who had been a printer at Florence, to publish the Pandects. But CaI wood and Jugge were printers of proclamations and ftate books in that reign, and in Mary I.'s, though Totil had the law department. EliZabeth continued Cawood and Jugge; the afterwards had Field, and then began the Barker family to be the royal printers, who continued fo for three, generations. One of them, Robert Barker, died a prifoner for debt in the king's bench, in 1645.6; no doubt owing to the distraction of that period. Bi alfo was a printer to Charles I. Elizabeth gave Chayet wert the privilege of printing all books of the common law. The parliament had employed Hufbands. The protector appointed John Field, and Henry Hills. Field probably was a defcen lant of Elizabeth's printer, and he was printer to Cambridge, of which he ftyled himself, ACADAMIA TYPOGRAPHIA. The protector little regarded the charter of the ita tioners, as we fee by their humble petition, March 6, 1655, to fecretary Thurloe, relative to a grant, given to Hills and Field, to print, bibles; it threatened ruin to many of the company
THE form of their laws is called cariacao, the witneffes coriente, and the perfon accufed cariade. A man is here feized, imprisoned, and the, depolitions, taken against him; and after continuing a certain time, (whofe greater or lefs duration des pends upon money and intereft) he is. examined. His anfwers, whether of denial, confeffion, or information, are written and figned: he is then remanded back to his confinement. Some farther time elapfes according to the magnitude or infignificance of the affair, when the cariacao takes place; the accufed and accufer are confronted, the accufation is read,
Oliver had no bishop of London who could licence the prefs. He ufed a ftronger meafure, by placing commiffioners over the book fellers and printers, for their proper regula
tions. Thefe were the major gener-and the prifoner is defired to give his als of literature. They acted fuitably aufwers on its truth, and what he has March, 1808.
A Full and Interefting Account of the Brazils, &c. (Continued from page ico.)
to defend it. After thefe are noted, the first examination of the prifoner is repeated to the witnefs, whofe remarks on it are also taken down, and the papers are figned by both parties. This is tranfacted by a judge, or minifter, and two clerks, whofe fignature is added, to authenticate the whole. The papers then pafs to the court of juftice, who decide finally on the queftion, and pronounce fentence; from which in fome cafes, appeal lies to the grand court in Lif bon, or it is referred to the clemency. of the prince.
Their legal procedure for crim. con. is the following:-The first applicarion is made to the judical power, which gives orders to confine the frail culprit till the iffue of the affair; and then, after the examination of wit neffes, &c. tranfmits the documents and refers the final determination and fentence of divorce to the ecclefiaftical court, fo far as refpects the man and wife; referving to itself the punish ment of the male delinquent. This latter measure confifts of a fevere fine and imprisonment, towards thofe who can afford it; but fometimes of tranf portation to Angola.
The bufinefs is always difpatched without delay; and if the cafe be very flagrant, the female is doomed to a convent for life, to be maintained by the husband at about ten-pence per diem. The parties cannot marry again during their joint lives.
The generality of crimes are puniflied with imprisonment; but the affocious one of murder and treafon, with death, unless the parties are opulent; in which cafe they too often escape, by means of the fubtilties of the law, by appeal, or by pardon. Puniftrment by torture is forbidden, and fecretos are fubftituted in its ftead. The laws refpecting debtors are extremely le nient; a late ordinance at Bahia prohibits imprifonment for debt, unless it be a fwindling or fraudulent tranf action, which is punished by con
finement till reftitution is made, or the injured party relents. If an in dividual finds himfelf unable to pay his creditors, he delivers over to them his effects, which are fold and divid ed, and he is free; but if he neglects' to do this, or refufes to pay, the creditors feize by diftraint every thing he Iras, except the clothes on his perfon, and have claims on whatever property he may afterwards acquire, till the debt is liquidated.
MANNERS AND CUSTOMS.
The male inhabitants generally drefs as in Lisbon, following the English modes; except that when vifiting on a holiday, they have an excels of embroidery and fpangles on their waistcoats, and lace to their linen." The fword they have totally thrown' afide, (except in office); and cocked hats are going out of fathion. Shoc and knee buckles of folid gold, and of their own manufacture, are very common; and they are fondly attached to every fpecies of finery. On' their return home, thefe gala clothes are inftantly' taken off, and a gown' or thick jacket adopted by Tome in their ftead, while others content' themselves remaining in their hist' and drawers.
The ufual drefs of the ladies is a fingle petticoat over a chemife. The latter is conipofed of the thinneft! muflin, and is generally much worked and ornamented; it is made fo full at the bofom, that on the finalleft move." ment it drops over one or both' fhoulders, leaving the breast perfect. ly expofed; and befides this, it is fo tranfparent, that the fkin is every where vitible underneath. This vio lation of feminine delicacy appears the more difgufting, as the complexion of the Brazilians is in general very indifferent, approaching to an ob fcure tawny colour. Stockings are fcarcely ever ufed; and during the rainy feason, which is to them cold, they fhuffle about in a pair of dip pers, and are accomodated with a
or a woollen great coat faced with thag, fimilar to the German cavoys. When attending mass, a deep black ilk mantle, worn over the head, conceals the transparent coftume be neath. They let the hair grow to a great length: it is twifted, taftened in a knot on the head, and always loaded with a profufion of powder of tapioca. On fome public occafions, and vifits of ceremony, a few ladies of rank adopt the European drefs.
thick blue and white cotton wrapper, &c. Scarcely a day paffes without fome one or other of thefe feftivals occurring. Sometimes, on grand occafions, after coming from church, they visit each other, and have a more plentiful dinner than common, under the term banquet; during and after which they drink unusual quantities of wine; and when elevated to an extraordinary pitch, the guitar or violin is introduced, and finging commences; but the fong foon gives way to the enticing negro dance.This is a mixture of the dances of Africa, and the fandangos of Spain and Portugal. It confitts of an individual of each fex dancing to an infipid thrumming of the inftrument, always to one meafure, with fcarcely any action of the legs, but with every licentious motion of the body, joining in contact during the dance, in a manner ftrangely immodeft.The fpectators aiding the music with an extemporaneous chorus, and clapping of the hands, enjoying the fcene with an indifcribable zeft.These amusements, with parties into the country, and a few others of a trifling nature, added to the enervat ing idlenefs in which the Brazilians are plunged, conftitute their whole happiness.
The fingular cuftom of permitting the end of the thumb, or forefinger, (fometimes both) to grow to a hideous length, and then putting it to a fharp point, is common to both fexes. This excrefcence, however, is not without its ufe, as it ferves the men to divide the fibres from the tobacco leaf, and cut it into thape preparatory to rolling it into fegars, to the fmoaking of which they are greatly addicted. Their viols and guitars are alfo thrummed with this nail, the flourishing difplay of which adds, in their opinion, a beauty to the inftrument. And lastly, thefe facred nails are confidered as diftinguithing the wearers for an eafy indolence, which in this country is no trivial recommendation.*
At Bahia, there is a Portuguese comic theatre, under the management of an Italian. The houfe is nothing better than a barn, and the acting, decorations, &c. are in unifon. The mufic is the only tolerable part.
The chief amufements of the citizens, are the feafts of the different faints, proceffions of nuns, fumptuous funerals, the holy or paffion week,
In Brazil, fays mr. Pinkerton, (Geog. Vol. III. p. 723.) the rainy feafon begins in April, and ends in Auguft. This is called the winter, though, in fact, the heat is equal or fuperior to that of the dry feafon, or fummer. These terms are fo arbitrary in South América, that if it rain in the morning, the expreffion is what a dreadful winter And if the fun thine in the afternoonwhat a beautiful fummer!' The
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It is a curious circumitance, that a fingular cuftom prevails in China, where the men of learning, as they itile them foil teems with fertility, and rather felves, fuffer the nails of their little fingers requires to be exhausted than ma to grow fometimes to the enormous-length nured. cf 3 inches, for the fole purpofe of giving occular demonftration of the impoffibility of their being employed in any fort of manaal labour.-See Barrow's Travels.
round the world, feems to have colM. Bougainville, in his voyage leЯed