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Tower; severall other prelaticall preachers were question'd for popish and treasonable doctrines; the starre chamber, an uniust and arbitrary court, was taken away, and the high-commission court; an act was procur'd for a trienniall parliament, and another for the continuation of this, that it should not be broken up without their owne consents. There were greate necessities for mony by reason of the two armies that were then maintain'd in England, and the people would give the king no mony without some ease of grievances, which forc'd him against his inclination to grant those bills, which, after he had granted, he found he had bound up his owne hands, and therefore privately encourag'd plotts that were in those times contriv'd against the parliament. One of them was to have rescued the earle of Strafford out of prison, and put him in the head of eight thousand Irish, which the king would not consent to disband, when the parliament had some time before moov'd him to it; then the English armie in the north should have bene brought up and engag'd against the parliament itselfe upon a pretence of maintaining the king's prerogative, episcopacy, and some other such things. This plott was manag'd by Percy, Germyn, Goring, Wilmot, Ashburnham,

system of religion of which he was the unworthy head: that to his conduct its ruin was principally attributable may be clearly seen by the speeches preserved by Rushworth, in his fourth volume, of Lord Digby, Falkland, Fiennes, and especially Grimston. At this day there is perhaps hardly to be found a son of the church who would condescend to meddle in such base projects as this archbishop assiduously employed himself in.

m This act for perpetuating the parliament was in fact that which gave them a clear ascendency over the king. The proposing this, as it shewed the fingenuity and judgment of Mr. Pierrepont, to whom Mrs. Hutchinson attributes it, so does it the weakness of the king and his counsellors, who having granted this, had no longer any power of refusal left.-For extraordinary evils extraordinary remedies are often sought, but this, as it soon proved too strong for the king, so was it at last thought too strong for the people. The omnipotence of parliament would be indeed dreadful alike to both if, instead of being amovible, it was permanent.

Pollard, Suckling, O'Neale, and others, of whom some confess'd and impeacht their fellows, others fled, others were put in prison. While this parliament was sitting, the king would needs, contrary to their desires, take a iourney to Scotland, and past by the two disbanding armies in his iourney, where some report that he secretly attempted to urge the Scotch armie against the parliament, which then succeeded not. The houses had reiourned for some time, and left a standing committee of fifty to prepare businesses. About that time a plott was discover'd to them from Scotland, against the lives of some of the greatest peeres of that kingdome; the committee, fearing the like attempts from the same spring, placed strong guards in divers parts of the citie of London. The king's designe in going to Scotland was variously coniectur'd, but this was a certeine effect of it, that it retarded all the affaires of the government of England, which the king had put into such disorder that it was not an easie taske to reforme what was amisse, and redresse the reall grievances of the people; but yet the parliament shew'd such a wonderfull respect to the king, that they never mention'd him, as he was, the sole author of all those miscarriages, but imputed them to evill councellors, and gave him all the submissive language that could have bene us'd to a good prince, fixing all the guilt upon his evill councellors and ministers of state, which flattery I feare they have to answer for: I am sure they have thereby expos'd themselves to much scandall." While the king was in Scotland, that cursed rebellion in Ireland broke out, wherein above 200,000 were massacred in two months space, being surpriz'd, and many of them most inhumanely butcher'd and tormented; and besides the slaine, abundance of poore famelies stript and sent naked away, out of all

This is an oversight of Mrs. Hutchinson's, of which she is seldom guilty. Good policy required then, as it does now, that the king should be held incapable of wrong, and the criminality fixed on ministers, who are amenable to the law. If the patriots of that day were the inventors of this maxim, we are highly obliged to them.

their possessions: and, had not the providence of God miraculously prevented the surprize of Dublin castle, the night it should have bene seiz'd, there had not bene any remnant of the protestant name left in that country. Assoone as this sad newes came to the parliament, they vigorously set themselves to the worke of relieving them, but then the king return'd from Scotland, and being sumptuously welcomed home by the citie, tooke courage thereby against the parliament, and obstructed all their proceedings for the effectuall reliefe of Irelande. Long was he before he could be drawne to proclaime these murtherers rebells, and when he did, by speciall command, there were but 40 proclamations printed, and care taken that they should not be much dispers'd; which courses aflicted all the good protestants in England, and confirm'd that the rebellion in Ireland receiv'd countenance from the king and queene of England. The parliament, besett with so many difficulties, were forc'd for their owne vindication to present the king with a petition and a remonstrance of the state of the kingdome, wherein they spared him as much as truth would beare, and complained only of his ill counsellors and ministers; but this, instead of admonishing, exasperated him, and was answer'd with another declaration of his, and upon severall occasions the parliament being enforc'd to iustifie their proceedings publickly, and the king setting forth replies, these open debates were but the prologue to the ensuing tragedie. The citie

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It would be difficult to draw a distinction so nice as would discriminate between the countenance shewn to the rebels both before and after the rebellion breaking out, and the encouraging the rebellion itself: now that passion and prejudice have subsided there are probably many more that condemn than acquit the king and queen; but whilst the blood of the massacred protestants yet reeked, and indignation glowed, it was neither to be wondered at nor blamed that persons the most tolerant, as the independents professed to be, and Mrs. Hutchinson especially, should speak with enmity of the queen and the catholics, and attribute to them those principles of intolerance and antipathy to protestants which, whether they professed or not, they practised. It will hereafter be seen that, when they ceased to be dangerous, Mr. Hutchinson did not persecute, but protect them.

declaring their good affections to the parliament by a petition, gave the king distrust, and he was observ'd to entertaine an extraordinary guard of cavaliers, who killed and wounded some of the poore unarm'd men that pass'd by his house at Whitehall, and the parliament conceiving themselves not safe, desir'd a guard might be allow'd them under the command of the Earle of Essex; but he refus'd it, with an assurance that he would command such a guard to waite upon them as he would be responsible to Almighty God for, and that the safety of all and every one of them was as deare to him as that of his owne person and children. Yet the very next day after this false message he came to the house of commons, attended with his extraordinary guard, of about four hundred gentlemen and souldiers, arm'd with swords and pistolls, and there demanded five of their members, whom not finding there (for a greate lady at court had before inform'd one of them of his coming, and the house order'd them to retire) he return'd, leaving the house under a high sense of this breach of their priviledge. At this time the people began in greate numbers to bring petitions to the king and parlia

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The force of opinion being the only real force of any prince, and the notion of inviolability his best protection, it was a strange infatuation in him to overthrow them both.

Turno tempus erit magno cùm optaverit emptum
Intactum Pallanta, et cùm spolia illa, diemque
Oderit.

The time shall come when Turnus, but in vain,
Shall wish untouch'd the trophies of the slain,
And curse the dire remembrance of that day.

VIRG. En. 10.

DRYDEN.

An English gentleman, who was resident in France at the time that Louis the Sixteenth sent his guards to the parliament of Paris to seize some of the members (one of whom was the famous Duval Despresmenil), and sent out decrees and manifestoes, as has been here just before related, made this remark, "He has entered upon the career of Charles the First, and he will follow it to the end." Il est entré dans la carriere de Charles I, et il la suivra jusqu'au bout. When he saw again in England, as emi

ment, to beg a more chearefull concurrence betweene them for the reliefe of Ireland, and to encourage the parliament in their honorable endeavours for the reliefe of both kingdomes. The king was offended at this, and retir'd first to Hampton-court, then went with the queene to Canterbury, whom he sent from thence into Holland with her daughter, lately married to the prince of Orange, under pretence of conducting her to her owne court, but really to manage his businesse abroad, and procure arms to be employ'd against the parliament, by the sale of the crowne iewells, which she carried over with her. After her departure the king, taking the prince and the duke of Yorke with him, went to Theobalds, whither the parliament sent a petition to him to returne to his parliament and abide neere London, and that he would not carry the prince away with him, and that he would grant the millitia of the kingdome to be put into such hands as the parliament should recommend, and might confide in; all which he denied, and went immediately to Newmarket, and from thence to Yorke; all this while, by many false pretences, really obstructing the reliefe of bleeding Ireland, and seducing many of the poore people of England into blood and ruine.

In conducting the state of England, in those dayes, wherein he, whose actions I am tracing, began to enter into his part, in this greate tragedy, I have bene too long for that I intended, and too short to give a cleare understanding of the righteousnesse of the parliament's cause; which I shall desire you to informe yourselves

grants, the same French gentlemen before whom he had made this remark, they reminded him of it; saying how little probable this had seemed to them at the period of its being spoken, a year before the holding of the states general!

Probably few people will think Mrs. Hutchinson has been too prolix, many will that she has been too concise. Mr. May's history comes down only to September, 1643, which is much to be regretted, as he may justly be called an impartial and clear historian, but is little read, probably because his history finishes before that period which was the most interesting.

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