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his sonne, to perswade his father to declare himselfe; but he told them, he knew his father's affections were firme to the parliament, that he had encourag'd him to ioin with them, and promis'd him money to carrie it on, and such like things, which he continually assur'd them, till the collonell's cold behaviour, and some other passages, made them at length, those at least who were firine to the cause, iealous both of the father and the sonne. Hereupon when the danger grew more imminent, and my lord lay out a brave prey to the enemie, they sent Captaine Lomax, one of the committee, to understand his affections from himselfe, and to presse him to declare for the parliament, in that so needfull season. My lord professing himselfe to him rather desirous of peace, and fully resolv❜d not to act on either side, made a serious imprecation on himselfe in these words: " When," said he, "I take armes with the king against "the parliament, or with the parliament against the king, let a "cannon bullett devide me betweene them;" which God was pleas'd to bring to passe a few months after: for he, going into Gainsborough, and there taking up armes for the king, was surpriz'd by my lord Willoughby, and, after a handsome defence of himselfe, yielded, and was put prisoner into a pinnace, and sent downe the river to Hull, when my lord Newcastle's armie marching allong the shore, shot at the pinnace, and being in danger, the Earle of Kingston went up upon the decks to shew himselfe, and to prevaile with them to forbeare shooting, but assoone as he appear'd a cannon bullett flew from the king's armie and devided him in the middle, being then in the parliament's pinnace, who perished according to his owne unhappie imprecation. His declaring himselfe for the king, as it enforced the royall, so it weak'ned the other party.

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This is a most singular story, and no doubt peculiarly gratifying to a fatalist to recite; it is however assuredly true, being mentioned by several historians, with only the difference of his being said to be under, instead of on, the deck; the latter of which is far the most probable.

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Sr. Richard Biron was come to be governor of Newark. A house of my lord Chaworth's in the vale was fortified, and some horse putt into it, and another house of the Earle of Chesterfield's, both of them within a few miles of Nottingham. Ashby de la Zouch, within eight miles of Nottingham, on the other side, was kept by Mr. Hastings. On the forrest side of the country, the Earle of Newcastle's house had a garrison in it, and another castle of his, within a mile, was garrison'd. Sr. Roger Cooper's house, at Thurgaton, was alsoe kept; so that Nottingham, thus beleaguer'd with enemies, seem'd very unlikely to be able either to resist the enemie or support itselfe. Therefore the gentlemen, upon the newes of my lord Newcastle's intended approach that way, sent up Mr. John Hutchinson to acquaint the parliament with their condition, who so negotiated their businesse that he procur'd an order for Coll. Cromwell, Coll. Hubbard, my lord Grey, and Sr. John Gell, to unite their forces, and rendezvous at Nottingham, to prevent the queene from ioining with the king, and to guard those parts against the cavaliers. Accordingly, in the Whitsun holidays 1643, they all came, and the younger Hotham alsoe brought some more rude troopes out of Yorkshire, and ioin'd himselfe to them. The forces now united at Nottingham were about five or six thousand, my lord Grey being their commander in chiefe. Upon the urgency of the gentlemen at Nottingham, he drew them out against Wiverton-house in the vale, but upon a groundlesse apprehension quitted it, when they might in all probabillity have taken it, and retreated to Nottingham, where, two or three days after, the enemie's horse faced them, but they would not be prevailed with to goe out, though they were not inferior to them. Young Hotham, at that time, carried on a private treaty

a Wiverton-house and Shelford manor.

In a letter to the king, the queen writes from Newark that "all the force the parliament had in those parts was only one thousand men in Nottingham

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with the queene, and every day receiv'd and sent trumpetts, of which he would give no account. Then was Nottingham more sadly distrest by their friends then by their enemies; for Hotham's and Gell's men not only lay upon free quarter, as all the rest did, but made such havock and plunder of friend and foe, that 'twas a sad thing for any one that had a generous heart to behold it. When the committee offer'd Hotham to assigne him quarters for his men, because they were better acquainted with the country, he would tell them he was no stranger in any English ground. He had a greate deale of wicked witt, and would make sport with the iniseries of the poore country, and, having treason in his heart, licens'd his souldiers, which were the scumme of mankind, to all villanies in the country that might make their partie odious. Mr. Hutchinson was much vext to see the country wasted, and that little part of it, which they could only hope to have contribution from, eaten up by a company of men who, insteed of relieving them, devour'd them, and Hotham's souldiers, having taken away goods from some honest men, he went to him to desire restitution of them, and that he would restraine his souldiers from plunder; whereupon Hotham replied, "he fought for liberty, and expected it in all things." Replies follow'd, and they grew to high language; Hotham bidding him, if he found himselfe griev'd, to complaine to the parliament. Mr. Hutchinson was passionately concern'd, and this being in the open field, Coll. Cromwell, who had likewise had greate provocations from him, began to shew himselfe affected with the countrie's injuries, and the idle wast of such a considerable force, through the unexperience of the chiefe commander, and the disobedience and irregularities of the others; so they, at that time, being equally zealous for the publick service, advis'd together to seeke a remedie, and dispatcht away a post to London, who had no greater ioy in the world then such employments as tended to the displacing of greate persons, whether they deserv'd it or not; him they sent away immediately from the

place, to informe the parliament of Hotham's carriages, and the strong presumptions they had of his treachery, and the ill management of their forces. This they two did, without the privity of any of the other gentlemen or commanders, some of which were little lesse suspected themselves, and others, as my lord Grey, through credulous good nature, too greate a favourer of Hotham. The messenger was very dilligent in his charge, and return'd assoone as it was possible with a committment of Hotham, who accordingly was then made prisoner in Nottingham-castle, and Sr. John Meldrum was sent downe to be commander in chiefe of all those united forces. When they marcht away, a troope of my lord Grey's having the charge of guarding Hotham, towards London, suffer'd him to escape, and thereby putt the towne of Hull into a greate hazard; but that the father and sonne were there unexpectedly surpriz'd, sent up prisoners to London, and after some time executed. Those who knew the opinion Cromwell after had of Mr. Hutchinson, believ'd he registred this businesse in his mind as long as he liv'd, and made it his care to prevent him from being in any power or capacity to pursue him to the same punishment, when he deserv'd it; but from that time, growing into more intimate acquaintance with him, he allwayes us'd to profess the most hearty affections to him, and the greatest delight in his plainnesse and open-heartednesse that was imaginable.

• Those who consider and represent Cromwell as a prodigy not only of treachery, design, ambition, and artifice, but likewise of sagacity and foreknowledge, will deem this a proof of his having thus early conceived his scheme of aggrandizement; but to those who are better satisfied with the probable than the marvellous it will seem to prove no such thing; they must well know that if he had so soon any great views, they must have been very distant and indistinct; they will find here only the first of a long series of instances, wherein will be seen the quick and clear discernment, the strong and well-poised judgment, the promptitude and firmness of decision, which enabled him to seize and convert to his advantage every opportunity that presented itself, and even the actions, thoughts, and inclinations, of other men; and they will

Assoone as Sr. John Meldrum came downe to his charge at Nottingham the queen's forces came and faced the towne, whereupon the cannon discharging upon them, the Duke of Vendosine's sonne and some few others were slaine. The parliament horse drew out of Nottingham to receive the queene's, but they came not on, after this execution of the cannon, for in the mean time the queene was passing by, and although the parliament horse pursued them, yet would not they engage, for it was not their businesse; so when they saw they had lost their designe, the horse return'd againe to Nottingham, where the foote had stay'd all the while they were When the Earle of Kingston declar'd himselfe for the king he rays'd what forces he could and went into Gainsborough, a towne in Lincolneshire, scituate upon the river of Trent. There, before he was fortified, my lord Willoughby, of Parham, surpriz'd the towne and all his souldiers, who disputed it as long as they could, but being conquer'd, were forc'd to yield, and the carle himselfe retreated into the strongest house, which he kept till it was all on flame round him, and then giving himselfe up only to my lord Willoughby, he was immediately sent prisoner to Hull, and shott

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see united to these such a command over his own thoughts and passions as permitted exactly so much, and no more of them than was convenient, to appear: these qualities, though less astonishing than the prescience and almost the power of creating events, which is attributed to him, would and did equally well answer the purpose of his progression; which he effected in such a manner as to fill with the greatest propriety all the intermediate situations through which he passed, to take as it were a firm footing at each gradation, and to arrive at the pinnacle of power without having once run any considerable risk of an overthrow in his career. Such rational observers will likewise see here, what will in the sequel still more strikingly appear, that if he must be called a traitor, he was not of that paltry treachery which sacrifices a man's party to self; he was steadily bent on procuring the triumph of his own party over their opponents, but too covetous of commanding his party himself. It may be thought there wanted but little, perhaps only the survivance of Ireton, to have made Cromwell intrinsically as well as splendidly great.

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