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“pruning-hooks: nation shall not lift “ is full of idols (z): they worship the

up sword against nation, neither shall “ work of their own hands, that which “ they learn war any more. 5. O house “ their own fingers have made. 9. And “ of Jacob, come ye (r), and let us walk “ the mean (a) man boweth down (6), “ in the light of the Lord. 6. There- “ and the (a) great man humbleth (6) “ fore (s) thou (t) hast forsaken thy “ himself: therefore forgive them not(c). “ people, the house of Jacob, because “ 10. Enter (d) into the rock, and hide “ they be replenished from the east (u), “ thee in the dust, for fear of the LORD, “ and are soothsayers (v) like the Phi- “ and for the glory of his majesty

. “ listines, and they please themselves “ 11. The lofty looks of man shall be " in the children (w) of strangers. “ humbled, and the haughtiness of men « 7. Their land also is full of silver and “ shall be bowed down, and the LORD “gold (x), neither is there any end of « alone shall be exalted in that day (e) “ their treasures : their land is also full “ 12. For the day of the Lord of hosts “ of horses (y), neither is there any end shall be npon every one that is proud 6 of their chariots. 8. Their land also “ and lofty, and upon every one that is “ he" (i. e. the Messiah) “ shall speak (t) 0. 7. “Silver and gold.” One compeace

unto the heathen. Zech. ix. 10.mand (Deut. xvii. 17.) to the king they These passages possibly look forward to a were in after times to have was, "neither period very different from any which has “shall he greatly multiply to himself sl. yet occurred, when man shall live in per- ver or gold.fect harmony with man, and wars shall (y) « Horses." Another command cease throughout the world,

to their king, (Deut. xvii. 16.) was, (r) v.5. “Come ye, &c.” The position “ He shall not multiply horses to himself," of this verse, after those which foretell

to prevent their intercourse with Egypt. the call and coming in of the Gentiles, (z) v. 8. “ Idols.” Idolatry was un might be intended to imply that the house offence against which the Mosaic instituof Jacob would long resist the true religion tions were particularly strict: If as indiand not walk in the light of the Lord, but vidual were guilty of it, he was to be that they also in the end would be con- stoned to death, and no ties of kindred verted and join the flock of Christ. There friendship or love, were to induce a mas are other passages, however, which more to pity or conceal the offender; and if : plainly predict this event, and its accom- city were guilty, the inhabitants and cattle plishment is perhaps at no great distance. were to be destroyed utterly with the

(s ! v.6. “Therefore.An induction, edge of the sword, and the city and the not from what had preceded, but from spoil thereof were to be burnt. Deut

. siz

. what follows: It is because they are re- 6 to 16. So particular was God to keep plenished from the east, &c. &c. that thou up amongst his own peculiar people, (who hast forsaken them. From hence to the had such repeated and decisive proofs of end of the chapter is foretold the punish- his power,) that worship he prescribed, and ment of the Jews for their idolatrous that reverence for himself he thought fit practices, for their confidence in their own to require. strength, and for their distrust of God's (a) v. 9. “ The mean,” “ the great," protection. It predicts also the downfall i. e. “ all ranks." of idolatry.

(6) “ Boweth down,” and “humbleta (t) “ Thou," i. e. “God.”

“ himself,” to worship the idols. (u) “ From the east," where divination (c) “ Forgive them not,” or rather thou was practised.

“ wilt not forgive them,” assigning the (u) Soothsayers." This was against the

reason why forgiveness would be withbell. injunction, Deut. xviii. 14. "These na- (d) u. io. « Enter, &c.” A spirited " tions, which thou shalt possess, heark- mode of insinuating the greatness of the “ ened unto observers of times, and unto impending vengeance. “ diviners ; but as for thee, the Lord thy They shall say to the mountains, coret “ God hath not suffered thee so to do." us, and to the hills, fall on us ;” and

(w) “In the children,” by associating see Rev. vi. 16. with them, learning their practices, and

(e) v. 11. “That day,” i.e. the day of (perhaps) intermarrying with them.

“ God's vengeance."

So Hos. &. 8

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“ lifted up, and he shall be brought “ fear of the LORD, and for the glory “ low; 13. And upon all the cedars (8) “ of his majesty, when he ariseth to “of Lebanon, that are high and lifted “shake terribly the earth. 22. Cease "up, and upon all the oaks of Bashan. ye (k) from man whose breath is in “14. And upon all the high mountains, “ his nostrils (l): for wherein (m) is he and upon

all the hills that are lifted 6 to be accounted of.” up, 15. And upon every high tower, “and upon every fenced wall, 16. And

CHAP. V. (n) upon all the ships of Tarshish (h), ow will I sing to my well-beloved “and upon all pleasant pictures (k). “a song of my beloved touching his “ 17. And the loftiness of man shall be “ vineyard: My well-beloved hath a * bowed down, and the haughtiness of “ vineyard in a very fruitful hill. 2. And

men shall be made lowand the “ he fenced it, and gathered out the = LORD alone shall be exalted in that stones thereof, and planted it with

18. And the idols he shall " the choicest vine, and built a tower * utterly abolish. 19. And they shall " in the midst of it, and also made

go into the holes (i) of the rocks, “wine-press therein: and he looked and into the caves of the earth, for “ that it should bring forth grapes, and * fear of the Lord, and for the glory it brought forth wild grapes (o). * of his majesty, when he ariseth to 3. And now, O inhabitants of Jeru*shake terribly the earth. 20. In that “ salem, and men of Judah, judge, I day a man shall cast his idols of silver, pray you, betwixt me and


vine- and his idols of gold, which they yard. 4. What could have been done - made each one for himself to worship, Iliore to my vineyard, that I have not

to the moles and to the bats : 21. To 6 done in it? wherefore when I looked go into the clefts of the rocks, and " that it should bring forth grapes, into the tops of the ragged rocks, for brought it forth wild grapes (o) ?

(g) v. 13, 14, 15, 16. Trees in prophetic Who can therefore give no assistance Fritings signify great men. Mede. And like God's. When God formed man he edars, oaks, mountains, hills, towers, “ breathed into his nostrils the breath alls, ships, and pictures, are here figur- “ of life, (Gen. ii. 7.)” and by this expresive expressions for persons of rank and sion Isaiah might intend to bring to their pulence.

recollection the origin and creation, and (h) v. 16. “ Ships of Tarshish.” Per- consequent inferiority, of man. The folly ns who have aggrandized themselves by of trusting to man where the reliance ommerce, and pleasant pictures,” those ought to be placed upon God is reproho have raised themselves by works of bated, and man's insufficiency exposed on -t.

the same ground, Ps. cxlvi. 2, 3. “O put (i) v. 19. “ Holes, &c.” The constern- “not your trust in princes, nor in any ion and dismay during the sixth seal in “ child of man, for there is no help in evelations is described in nearly the

“ them : for when the breath of man goeth me manner. (Rev. vi. 15 to 17.) « The o forth, he shall turn again to his earth, kings of the earth, and the great men, " and then all his thoughts perish.”. and the rich men, and the chief cap- (m) “Wherein, &c." What assistance tains, and the mighty men, and every can he give? What has he on which rebond man, and every free man, hid liance can be placed ? themselves in the dens and in the rocks (n) This chapter is unconnected with of the mountains, and said to the moun- what preceded or follows. It reproves the tains and rocks, "fall on us, and hide us Jews for their wickedness, ascribes to that from the face of him that sitteth on the cause calamities which had already bethrone, and from the wrath of the Lamb ; fallen them, and looks forward to the for the great day of his wrath is come, Babylonish invasion and perhaps to more and who shall be able to stand.”

distant judgments. (k) 0. 22. “Cease ye," i.e. "place no (0) v. 2. 4. “ Wild grapes," i.e. "grapes dependence on."

“ of no value," or rather “noxious, of a (1)“ Whose breath is in his nostrils." “poisonous quality."

“ 5. And now go to: I'will tell you “ that continue until night, till wine in“ what I will do to my vineyard; I will “ flame them. 12. And the (1) harp “ take away the hedge thereof, and it “ and the viol, the tabret and pipe, and “ shall be eaten up: and break down .“ wine are in their feasts : but they re

the wall thereof, and it shall be “ gard not the work of the Lord, “ trodden down. 6. And I will lay it “ neither consider the operation of his “ waste: it shall not be pruned, nor “ hands. 13. Therefore (2) my per“ digged, but there shall come up “ple are gone into captivity, because s briers and thorns : I will also com- they have no knowledge: and their “ mand the clouds that they rain no “ honourable men are famished, and “rain upon it. 7. For the vineyard of “ their multitude dried up with thirst. 6 the Lord of hosts is the house of “ 14. Therefore hell (v) hath enlarged “ Israel, and the men of Judah his “ herself, and opened her mouth with“pleasant plant: and he looked for out measure : and their glory, and “ judgment, but behold oppression; for “their multitude, and their pomp, and

righteousness, but behold a cry (p). “ he that rejoiceth shall descend into it “ 8. Woe (9) unto them that join house “ 15. And the mean man (w) shall be “ to house (r), that lay field to field “ brought down, and the mighty man (r « till there be no place, that they may “shall be humbled, and the eyes of the “ be placed alone in the midst of the “ lofty shall be humbled.

16. But the “ earth. 9. In mine ears said the Lord 6 Lord of hosts shall be exalted in " of hosts, “Of a truth many houses “ judgment, and God that is holy " shall be desolate, even great and fair, “ shall be sanctified in righteousness 66 without inhabitant. 10. Yea, ten acres “ 17. Then shall the lambs (7) feed

" of vineyard shall yield one bath (s), “after their manner (y), and the waste 16 and the seed of an homer shall yield places of the fat ones (2) shall stran" an ephah (s).” 11. Woe unto them

gers (a) eat. 18. Woe unto them that " that rise up early in the morning, “ draw Iniquity (6) with cords of vanity, that they may follow strong drink, “ and Sin as it were with a cart-rope :

(p) v. 7.“ A cry,” from those who were ative expression : intimating a destruction oppressed.

so great, that hell (personified) would feel (9) v. 8. “ Woe, &c.” Denunciations unable to hold the numbers, unless she against sinners of all descriptions, the ra- were enlarged. pacious miser, the drunkard, the presump- (w) v. 15. “The mean man;" and "the tuous idolater, the false teacher, the self- mighty man," i. e. “ all ranks." sufficient, and the corrupt and unjust judge. (2) v. 17. “The lambs," i.e. either lite

(r) “ Join house to house," i. e. “set rally, or the meek, the innocent, the up“their whole minds upon increasing their assuming." “possessions."

(y) “ After their manner," i. e. (pro(s) 1. 10. “ One bath,” “ one ephah,” bably,) " as they please: securely

, with something less than a bushel. “An homer's “out interruption or restraint.”. was eight bushels ; a bath, an ephah, and (z)

“ The waste places of the fat ones." the 10th of an homer, were the same. “the extensive possessions of the Ezek. xlv. 11. The meaning therefore “rich :" where, according to v. 8. “ field here is, the scarcity shall be so great, that “ is laid to field, till there be no place.". the harvest shall not produce more than a (a) “Strangers," who have no iße * tenth of what was sown.

to it. (t) v. 12." The harp, &c.” Though there (6) v. 18. “ Draw iniquity, &c." Bald is every thing to heighten their enjoy- imagery (as I conjecture) in Isaiah's finest ments, they omit to think of Him from stile, to paint the insolent audacity of the whom all blessings and powers of enjoy- wicked : placing Sin and Iniquity (person

: ment come.

ified) as idols in a triumphal car

, drawing (u) v. 13. “ Therefore." This is the

them in triumph with decorated cords of reason, because they have no knowledge. traces, hurrying them fearlessly along as if See ante, note on Is. ii. 16.

their cords had the strength of cart ropes (u) v. 14. “ Hell, &c." A bold figur- or cables, and were in no danger of break

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"19. That say, “Let him (c) make “they have cast away the law of the “speed, and hasten his work, that we “ Lord of hosts, and despised the word

may see it : and let the counsel of the “ of the Holy One of Israel. 25. ThereHoly One of Israel draw nigh and “fore is the anger of the Lord kindled

come, that we may know it.20. Woe against his people, and he hath “ unto them that call evil good, and “ stretched (i) forth his hand against

good evil; that put darkness for “them, and hath smitten them and

light, and light for darkness; that “ the hills did tremble, and their car"put bitter for sweet, and sweet for cases were torn in the midst of the « bitter. 21. Woe unto them that are streets : For all this his anger is “ wise (d) in their own eyes, and pru- not turned away, but his hand is * dent in their own sight. 22. Woe stretched out still. 26. And he will " unto them that are mighty to drink “ lift (k) up an ensign to the nations “wine, and men of strength to mingle (e)" from far, and will hiss (1) unto them

strong drink : 23. Which justify the “ from the end of the earth : and be“ wicked for reward, and take away (8) “hold, they shall come with speed " the righteousness of the righteous

" swiftly. 27. None shall be weary, nor « from him. 24. Therefore as (h) the “ stumble amongst them: none shall "fire devoureth the stubble, and the “ slumber nor sleep: neither shall the flame consumeth the chaff, so their “ girdle of their loins be loosed (m), nor "root shall be as rottenness, and their " the latchet of their shoes be broken. “ blossom shall go up as dust: because “ 28. Whose arrows are sharp, and all

ing, and then defying the Holy One of (c) v. 19. “ Him," i. e. “the Holy One Israel in the words of v. 19. Sin," here " of Israel,” in derision; “him whom ye is uodoubtedly a substantive : ard that so call." their idols were carried about in chariots (d) v. 21. “ Wise in their own eyes.", with great pomp may be inferred from “ Above being instructed.” 2 Kings xxii, 11. ante, 605.; for Josiah (e) v. 22. “Mingle, &c." They used to "took away the horses the kings of Judah add spices to their wine, to increase its " had given to the sun,” (one of the chief strength. See Ps. Ixxii. 9. objects of idolatrous worship,) " and (g) v. 23. “ Take away, &c.” “ treat-, "burned the chariots of the sun with fire.” “ing him as a guilty person.” See Parkhurst's Heb. Lexicon, 4th ed. (h) v. 24. “As, &c." or " as the stubble 685. An account of the procession of “the fire devoureth, and the chaff the fire Juggernaut, the great idol of the Hindoos,

“ consumeth, so, &c.” “they shall be like which Dr. Buchanan witnessed in 1806, burnt stubble or chaff." (and which account was met with long after (i) v. 25. “Hath stretched, &c.” This the former part of this note was written), may refer to the calamities in the times of may enable the reader the better to ap- Ahaz, when the Lord brought Judah low, preciate the explanation here suggested and delivered Judah and Jerusalem " to

The throne of the idol was placed on a “ trouble, to astonishment, and to hissing, stupendous car or tower, about 60 feet “ because of the sins of Ahaz.” See ante, * in height, resting on wheels, which in. note on Is. i. 2. * dented the ground deeply as they turned (k) v. 26. “Lift up an ensign, &c." to * slowly under the ponderous machine. gather them to his standard.

Attached to it were six cables of the (1) “ Hiss," i. e. “ call,” to collect size and length of ships' cables, by which them. The same expression occurs, Is. vii. the people drew it along. Thousands 18. “ The Lord shall hiss for the fly, and of men women and children pulled by « for the bee." each cable, crowding so closely that · (m) v. 27.“ Be loosed," i. e. “they shall some could only use one hand. Infants “ always be ready for action.” The garare made to exert their strength in this ments in those times were long and flow. office, for it is accounted a merit of ing, and when they were to move rapidly, righteousness to move the god.” Buch- required girding. For the description of han's Researches, 25, 26. See 2 Just. another irresistible army, see Joel ii. 2. &c. 1. 55.


" their bows bent, their horses hoofs

unto Ahaz (m), saying, 11. “ Ask thee " shall be counted like flint (g), and their “ a sign (n) of the LORD thy (0) God, " wheels like a whirlwind (h). 29. Their “ ask it either in the depth, or in the “ roaring shall be like a lion, they shall “ height above." 12. But Ahaz said

, roar like young lions : yea, they shall I will (p) not ask, neither will I “ roar and lay hold of the prey, and tempt (9) the LORD.” 13. And he “shall carry it away safe, and none shall said, « Hear ye now, O (r) house of “ deliver it. 30. And in that day they “ David, Is it a small thing for you to “ (i) shall roar against them (i), like “ weary men, but will ye weary(s) my ) “ the roaring of the sea : and if one look "God also ? 14. Therefore the LORD 66

unto the land, behold darkness and “ himself (u) shall give you a sign, “ Be“ sorrow, and the light (k) is darkened “hold, a virgin (o) shall conceive

, and " in the heavens thereof."

“ bear a son, and shall call his name (e) CHAP. VII. Verse 10 to 17.

“ Immanuel. 15. Butter and honey (=)

" shall he eat, that (y) he may know MOREOVER (1), the Lord spake again “ to refuse the evil, and choose the good

. (g) v. 28. “ Like flint.” No road shall

(t) .“ My," emphatically, to intimate that be too hard for them, and nothing shall they had deserted him, and turned him of; lame them : the horses in those times had that they had no longer confidence or hope no shoes, so that a hard hoof was of great in him, so that he was no longer their God importance. 2 Lowth.

To what an extent Alaz and the people (h) “ Like a whirlwind." “ Irresistible, had abandoned God may be seen, ante, “ what nothing can stop or withstand.” 622. note on Isaiah i. 2.

(2) v. 30. “They," i. e. “ these hostile (u) v. 14. “ Himself," i.e. (perhaps) " of “ armies ;" “ them," i. e. “ the Jews." “ himself, unasked."

(k) “And the light, &c." i. e. probably (v) “A virgin, &c." or rather “The " even in the heavens,” (the place for light) “ virgin. 2. Hales, 454.” 5 Faptér;. Sept. “ there is nothing but darkness." The “ So far from God's meaning to get whole verse is figurative, to denote the “ up the Jews, he shall in his own time greatness of their distress. "

“ break through the course of nature, (1) A prophecy of the miraculous con- “ and cause even one of their virgins to ception of the Messiah. See ante, 53. “ conceive and bear a son, who shall be

(m) v.10.“ Ahaz,” king of Judah; a very “ Emanuel, or God with us.” This mirawicked king. See ante, 622. note on Isaiah, culous conception is perhaps implied in the 3.2. B. C. 742.

first promise (Gen. iii. 15.), that the seed (n) v. 11. “ A sign." Ahaz was at this of the woman should bruise the serpent's time under great apprehensions from Rezin “ head," and it is more distinctly referred king of Syria, and Pekah king of Israel : to, Jer. xxxi. 22. “ The Lord bath created God had just sent him an assurance that a new thing in the earth, a woman skal they should not succeed, and here offers

compass a man.” And see Mic. 8. $. him a sign to confirm it.

where after the known prophecy that it (0) “ Thy God,” who ought to be thy should be out of Bethlehem Ephratah that God, whom alone thou ought to worship. the Messiah should come forth, it is added

, See 13. where after the refusal by Ahaz, " therefore will he give them up, until the the prophet calls him “my God.”

“ time that she which travaileth bath brought (o) v. 12. “ I will not, &c.” a presump- « forth.” And see ante, 53. note on Matti tuous refusal, from insolence and pride and 23. 2 Lightf. 101. disregard of God! It was his duty, when (w) “ Call his name," i.e." he shall be." commanded, to obey. See Jerome in loco. (1) v. 15. “ Butter and honey," which

(9) “ Tempt," i. e. (probably) “try, were commonly given to infants in those “ trust; appeal to. I have no confidence times. It was probably intended to inti

. " in him.'

mate that though on the one hand he was (r) v.13.“Ohouse of David,"addressing to be Immanuel (i.e. God with us), yet the whole house -- no longer speaking indi- on the other he was also to be very man of vidually to Ahaz, who had shewn himself the substance of his mother, of a reasonable unworthy.

soul and human flesh subsisting, and that (s) “ Weary,” by distrusting, by disbe

as a proof thereof he should be in infancy lieving, by despising : would it be a small Hence to discredit man, and do ye dare to

in the state of ordinary infants, and should Credit God? Chrys. in loco,

pass through childhood as other children do.

(y) “ That he may know," i. e. (pro

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