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fulfilled which was spoken of “ called my Son." 16. Then the Lord by the prophet, say- Herod, when he saw that he was ing, “Out of Eygpt have I mocked of the wise men, was ex

of a son, or child, rather than looking for- the scripture may be fulfilled, he that ward prophetically to the Messiah. Dr. “ eateth bread with me hath lift up his Hammond, Bp. Chandler, Dr. Benson, and “ heel against me;'" and yet that passage many other writers, suppose that St. Mal- (which is in Ps. xli. 9.) appears to have rethew did not mean to insinuate either that ferred to one of David's friends only. So the passage in Hosea was intended to fore- in John xv. 24, 25. our Saviour says, “now tell this event, or that the event happened “ have they both seen, and hated both me to fulfil the prediction ; but that all he “ and my Father ; but this cometh to pass, meant was, that the passage in Hosea " that it might be fulfilled which was writmight be applied to this event, as if he had “ ten in their law, they hated me without said, “ so that in this instance also, as well a cause.” The passage there referred to is as in that to which the passage in Hosea in Ps. xxxv. 19. * O let not them which are really referred, it might be said, “ Out of “mine enemies, triumph over me ungodly; “ Egypt, &c." See Chandler's Defence of “ neither let them wink with their eyes, Christianity, 285 to 295. Sykes on Hebr. " that hate me without a cause." This was Introduct. xxxi. Benson's Introduct. xxvi. no prediction that our Saviour should be The Greek words would perhaps admit of hated without a cause;" and can it be the translation, “so that it was fulfilled," supposed that the persons of whom St. iva hic, ut sæpe, non causam denotans, sed John speaks, were constrained or induced eventum (4 Pole Synopsis, 40. 63.) The to hate our Saviour and the Father, that translation in the French edition (Mons, a supposed prediction in this passage might 1672) Matt. ii. 15. as well as in Matt, viïi. be fulfilled? The passage really means 17. Matt. xiii. 35. and Matt. xxvii. 35. is nothing more than this, that what was

a fin que cette parole, &c. fut ac- there said of David's enemies, “they s complie.” Maldonate in loco says, “ut, “ hated me without a cause," might also “ hoc loco non videtur mihi causam, be said of those who hated Jesus Christ “ sed eventum significare; quod Chrysosto- and God. So Matt. xiii. 35. Jesus is said to “ mus et Damascenus multis locis fieri have spoken to the people in parables, “ observaverunt; nec enim propterea fugit that it might be fulfilled which was “ in Ægyptum, ut prophetia adimpleretur, “ spoken by the prophet, I will open my

sed cum vitandi Herodis causa eo fu- “ mouth in parables, I will utter things “ gisset, factum est, ut prophetia proprie “ which have been kept secret from the “impleri videretur.” There are other pas- “ foundation of the world;" and yet it sages where what is at present translated, could never have been for the sake of “ that it might be fulfilled," must mean, fulfilling the passage alluded to that our " so that it was fulfilled." In Matt. vii. Saviour spoke to them in parables, for 16, 17. it is said that our Saviour “cast the passage had no reference to our Sa.

out the evil spirits with his word, and viour, and was not spoken as a prophecy ; “ healed all that were sick, that it might all

, therefore, which was meant, was this, be fulfilled which was spoken by Esaias that what was said, Ps. Ixxviii. 2. “I will “ the prophet, saying, “himself took our open, &c.” would be true if applied to “ infirmities, and bare our sicknesses ;'” our Saviour. And Matt. xxvii. 35. the and yet he could never mean that he cast soldiers are said to have parted our Saout the spirits and healed the sick, for the viour's garments, casting lots, that it might purpose of fulfilling this prophecy; for the be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, direct meaning of this prophecy, unless &c. and yet they knew nothing of the prowe adopt a different reading from that of phecy, and could have had no intention our translation, was, that he would take of fulfilling it. The same mode of exour sins upon himself, and it was rather pression occurs in many other passages, a strain upon the words to apply them to where it could not have been the object bodily infirmities and sickness. Again, in to fulfil any particular part of scripture, John xiii 18. our Saviour (intimating that although it might happen as a consequence, one of his apostles would betray him) says, that parts of scripture which corresponded “I know whom I have chosen, but that with what was done, might be said to have

ceeding wroth, and sent forth and our nature upon him, and as at slew all the (s) children that were this time to be born of a pure in Bethlehem, and in all the coasts Virgin ; Grant that we being rethereof, from two years old and generate, and made thy children under, according to the time which | by adoption and grace, may daily he had diligently inquired of the be renewed by thy Holy Spirit, wise men. 17. Then (1) was through the same our Lord Jesus fulfilled that which was spoken Christ, who liveth and reigneth by Jeremy the prophet, saying, with thee and the same Spirit, 18. « In Rama was there a voice ever one God, world without end. "heard, lamentation, and weeping, Amen. " and great mourning; Rachel “ weeping for her children, and The Epistle. Gal. iv. 1. () “ would not be comforted, be- | Now I say, That (y) the heir, as "cause they (u) are not."

long as he is a child, (x) differeth nothing from a servant, though he

be lord of all; 2. but is under Sunday after Christmas Day.

tutors and governors, until the The Collect.

time appointed of (a) the father. ALMIGHTY God, who hast given 3. Even so we, when we (6) were us thy only begotten Son to take children, were in bondage under

been thereby fulfilled. See Matt. xii. 17. There are also other passages, in which what was merely a consequence is stated as the object. In Matt. X. 34. when our Saviour says he came not to send peace " on earth, but a sword, and to set a man " at variance against his father, and the * daughter against her mother," he did not mean that this was his object, though the misconduct of man might make it, and probably would make it, a consequence.

(8) v. 16. “ Children," i. e. " the male "children;" females could not be objects of his apprehension.

(2) v. 17. “ Then was fulfilled, &c.” The passage referred to is in Jer. xxxi. 15. and relates to the lamentation of the Jewish mothers for the murder of their children by the Assyrian army; it was not a prediction of the distress there should be for this slaughter by Herod; it is, therefore, in effect, the same form of expression as that commented upon above,“ that it "might be fulfilled, &c.” and meant nothing more than that the description of the distress of the mothers in Jeremiah was equally applicable to the distress of these mothers. Chandi. Def. 286.

(x) v.18.“ Are not,” i. e. “ are dead." So when Joseph's brethren meant to intimate that he was dead, the expression they

used was, he “is not." Gen. xlii. 13. 32. like Homer's “ Keila. Ilalpoxios."

(x) This portion of Scripture is altogether figurative; the meaning is this : As an heir is kept in subjection during his minority ; so we, whilst we were in a state like that of minors, (that is, from the time of Moses till Christ,) were kept in subjection by the Mosaic ordinances; but now we are advanced to what may be deemed manhood, and adopted as sons, we are freed from that subjection, and under no further obligation to conform to the Mosaic institutions.

(y) v. 1. “ The heir," i.e." any heir."
(z)" Differeth nothing from," 'i.e.“ is
as much under controul and subjection,

as much (to use the language of v. 3.) in “ bondage.”

(a) v. 2. “ The Father," i. e. “ his, the “ heir's father.”

(6) v. 3. “ Were children.” St. Paul considers them, from the times of Moses to that of Christ, as mere children in reli. gion; and in Gal. iii. 24. he accordingly calls “ the law," that is, the Mosaic insti. tutions, a schoolmaster to bring them “ unto Christ.” Converts, who were not far advanced in the doctrine of Christianity, are called

« babes in Christ. 1 Cor. ii. 1. Heb. v. 13. — 1 Pet. ii. 2."

20. But

the elements (c) of the world : Mary was espoused to Joseph, 4. But when the (d) fulness of before they came together, she the time was come, God sent forth was found with child of the Holy his (e) Son, made of a (g) woman, Ghost. 19. Then Joseph her made under the law, (h) 5. to re- husband, being a (1) just man, deem them that were under the and not willing to make her a law, that we might receive the public example, was minded to adoption of sons. 6. And because

put her away privily. ye are sons, God hath sent forth while he thought on these things, the Spirit of his (e) Son into behold the (m) angel of the Lord your hearts, (i) crying, “ Abba, appeared unto him in a dream, « Father.” 7. Wherefore thou saying, “ Joseph, thou (n) son of art no more a (k) servant, but a “ David, fear not to take unto son; and if a son, then an heir of

“ thee Mary thy wife; for that God through Christ.

" which is conceived in her is of “ the Holy Ghost. 21. And she

“ shall bring forth a son, and thou The Gospel. Matt. i. 18.

“ shalt call his name (0) JESUS: The birth of Jesus Christ was on “ for he shall (P) save his people this wise : When as his mother « from their sins.” 22. Now all

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(c) “ Elements of the world,” i. e. “ the " rites and ceremonies of the Mosaic law, “ which had little or nothing spiritual in " them."

(d) v. 4. “ The time," i.e.“either God's “ own time," or “ the time to treat man4 kind as in a state of manhood." (e) v. 4. 6. “ His," or

“ his own." TOY Troy dute to use duse.

(g) “ Of a woman," probably alluding to his extraordinary conception, out of the ordinary course of nature, as mentioned, Matt. i. 18. in the Gospel for the day.

(h) v. 5. “ To redeem," i. e. “ to free “ even the Jews, who before were under “the law, from further subjection." if they were to be freed, it could never be necessary for the Gentile converts, who had never been under the law, to submit to its ordinances. In Eph. ii. 14, 15. Christ Jesus is said to have broken down “the wall of partition between us," (that is, between Jew and Gentile,) “having " abolished in his flesh the enmity," (that is, the cause which divided them, which kept them from uniting,) “ even the law of commandments, contained in ordi“ nances;" and in Col. ii. 14. he is said to have “blotted out the hand-writing of “ ordinances, that was against us, which “ was contrary to us, and to have taken it 4 out of the way, nailing it to his cross."

6. (i) “ Crying, &c.” i e. “intitling

you to call God your father.” So Rom. viii. 15. St. Paul says, " Ye have “ received the spirit of adoption, whereby

we cry 'Abba, Father !'” “ The Spirit “ itself beareth witness with our spirit, “ that we are the children of God; and if

children, then heirs, heirs of God, and 'joint heirs with Christ.” (k) v. 7. A servant," i. e. “ in bond

age to the ordinances in the law of “ Moses."

(l) v. 19. “ Just," therefore disposed to put her away, (according to Deut. xxiv. 1.) but not willing to make her a public example, and therefore minded to do it privily. See 1 Mag. 482.

(m) v. 20. “ The, “ an ;" there is no article in the original.

(n) “ Son of David." The angel might give him this appellation, to remind him, that he was of that seed from which the Messiah was to be born.

(0) v. 21. “ Jesus," which signifies “a “ Saviour."

(p) “ Save his people from their “sins." This shews the nature of his office - spiritual, not temporal. In the prophecy, Isaiah liji. 6. 11. it is said, that the Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all - that he shall justify many, for he shall bear their iniquities. St. Peter says of him after his Ascension, that God hath exalted him to be a “ Sa.


this was done, (q) that it might The Circumcision of Christ. be fulfilled which was spoken of

The Collect. the Lord by the prophet, saying, Almighty God, who madest thy ( Behold, a virgin shall be blessed Son

blessed Son to be circumcised, “ with child, and shall bring forth and obedient to the law for man; “ a son, and they shall (s) call his Grant us the true circumcision of “ name Emmanuel ; which being the Spirit, that our hearts and all “interpreted, is, “ God with us. our members being mortified from 2. Then Joseph being raised all worldly and carnal lusts, we from sleep, did as the angel of may in all things obey thy blessed the Lord had bidden him, and will, through the same thy Son took unto him his wife : 25. and Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. knew her not till she had

The Epistle. Rom. iv. 8. brought forth her first-born son:

BLESSED (u) is the man and (t) he called his JESUS.

“ whom the Lord will not (x) "im



- The gener

* viour, to give repentance to Israel, and says, “ The Redeemer, whom the Lord "forgiveness of sins.” When John the " shall raise, shall not have a father." Baptist saw our Saviour coming unto him, R. Joses on Ps. lxxxv. 12. he said, “ Behold the Lamb of God,

“ ation of the Messiah shall be singular, " which taketh away the sin of the world,

" not like that of creatures generating in " John i. 29.” St. Peter says of him," who

" the world. None shall know the name " his ownself bare our sins in his own “ of his father, till he come and declare " body on the tree.” And our Saviour

" it. Chandl. Def. 337." himself says, Matt. xx. 28. that “ he came


" Call his name." « Not that he * to give his life a ransom for many." “ should generally pass by that name, but

(9) v. 22. “ That it might be fulfilled ;" “ either, that he should sometimes be so or, so that it was fulfilled;" making the

“ called, or that he should really be fulfilment a consequence only, not the ob

««• Emmanuel,' or · God with us,' that he ject. See ante, 49. note on Matt. ii. 15. “ should be intitled to that appellation." (1) u. 23. “ Behold, &c." The passage

So, Isaiah ix. 6, it is said prophetically of is in Isaiah vii. 14. post.- The other the Messiah, “his name shall be called Evangelists take no notice of this pro

“ Wonderful, Counsellor, the mighty God, phecy; but according to Luke i. 34, 35. “ the everlasting Father, the Prince of post, — when the Virgin Mary asked the

“ Peace;" but it was never meant that angel, how it should be that she could those should be his ordinary appellations. conceive, seeing she knew not a man, his It was a common Hebrew mode of ex

“ The Holy Ghost shall come pression to say, that persons should be upon thee, and the power of the High

called what it was meant to express they "est shall overshadow thee: wherefore should really be. See Matt. v. 9. "also that holy thing that shall be born (t) v. 25. v.

« and called” και εκαλεσε, " of thee shall be called the Son of God." 3 amm. 4. The prophet Jeremiah, ch. xxxi. 22. (per

(u) v. 8. “ Blessed, &c.”: a quotation haps referring prophetically to the Mes- from Ps. xxxii. 2. siah's miraculous birth), says, “ The Lord (3)“ Impute,” that is, “not bring into “ hath created a new thing on the earth, account against." So, 2 Cor. v. 19. the a woman shall


a man." Accord gospel mercy is described to be, God's ing to Gen. iii. 15. it was to be the seed of reconciling the world unto himself, not the woman that was to bruise the serpent's imputing their trespasses unto them."

and it is singular that the Jewish One of St. Paul's objects here is to satisfy writers, in their comments on the Old the Roman converts that the benefits of Testament

, say expressly, that his birth the gospel were not of right, but of God's should be out of the usual course, without favour ; what, in the language of Dr. Mafather. Ber. Rab. on Gen. xxxvii. 22. gee, (1 Magee, 210.) “ man cannot demand

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pute sin.”

9. Cometh this, which he had, yet being uncirblessedness then upon the (y)cumcised; that he might be the circumcision only, or upon the father of all them that (a) believe, uncircumcision also ? for we say though they be not circumcised; that faith was (2) reckoned that righteousness might be imto Abraham for righteousness. puted unto them also : 12. and 10. How was it then reckoned ? the father of circumcision to them when he was in circumcision, or who are (6) not of the circumciin uncircumcision ? Not in cir- sion only, but who also walk in cumcision, but in uncircumci- the steps of that faith of our father sion. 11. And he received the Abraham, which he had, being sign of circumcision; a seal of yet uncircumcised. 13. For the the righteousness of the faith promise, that he should be the

six years

“ of the justice, but must entreat of the mercy instances are mentioned in Genesis of « of God;" not a debt due to any man's Abraham's faith, and his confidence in works, (for that all have sinned, and there

God's promise. When Abraham comfore are subject to punishment, not en- plained to God in his old age that he was titled to reward), but a gift of God's free childless, and that God had given him no grace. And as no works would of them- seed, and God promised him that he selves entitle a man to these benefits, he should have seed, and that they should be concludes that the observance of the Mo- as numerous as the stars of heaven, Abrasaic institutions, a law of works only, ham “ believed in the Lord, and he” (i.e. was no longer necessary,

God) “ counted it to him for righteous(y) v. 9. “ Circumcision." It was a mat- ness. Gen. xv. 4. to 6.” This was before ter of considerable contest, during the the birth of Ishmael or Isaac ; and Ishtime of the apostles, whether the Christian mael was born to him when he was eightyconverts were bound to submit to circum

old. Gen. xvi. 16. When Abraham cision, and to conform to the other Mosaic

was ninety-nine years old, God gave him rites. The apostles had a meeting, and another assurance that he should have a decided that they were not. Acts xv. 1. to son by Sarah his wife, (who was then ninety 30. The spirit and zeal with which St. years old, and long past the ordinary conPaul writes upon this point, and its con- dition of child-bearing :) and in token of a stant occurrence in his Epistles, affords covenant between God and Abraham, God strong internal evidence that the Epistles instituted the practice of circumcision. were written whilst this point continued Abraham appears, indeed, at first to have matter of controversy.

doubted, yet as a proof of his confidence The Jews still submit to this, and many in this promise he was immediately cirother burthensome ceremonies of the Mo. cumcised, and so were all the men of his saic ritual. And would this be the case in house. Gen. xvii. It is to this latter intheir dispersed state, had they not the

stance, as St. Paul explains in the 18th fullest conviction of the divine origin of and 19th verses of this chapter, that he the law of Moses ? Circumcision is also here refers. Abraham's merit in preparing practised by the Arabs, but it is not to sacrifice his son Isaac, was long after performed till the age of thirteen; and

his circumcision. Gen. xxii. why? Because the Arabs are descended (a) v. 11. “ Believe," i. e. “ have faith, from Ishmael, and the rite was first insti. " like his." tuted when Ishmael was thirteen years (6) v. 12. “ Not of the circumcision old, and he was circumcised at that age. only, but, &c." i. e. “not of all who were See Gen. xvii. 11. 25. A strong indirect “ circumcised, but of those only who had proof of the authenticity of the Book of “ faith like Abraham's; so that he was to Genesis.

“ be the father of all who, whether cir(z) “ Reckoned to Abraham," Several “ cumcised or not, had faith.”

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