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5. He made a covenant with Jacob, and gave Israel a law: which he commanded our forefathers to teach their children (y);
6. That their posterity might know it and the children which were yet unborn;
7. To the intent, that when they came up they might shew their children the same;
8. That they might put their trust in God and not to forget the works of God, but to keep his commandments;
9. And not to be as their forefathers, a faithless and stubborn generation: a generation that set not their heart aright, and whose spirit cleaveth not stedfastly unto God;
10. Like as the children of Ephraim who being harnessed, and carrying bows, turned (2) themselves back in the day of battle.
11. They kept not the covenant of God and would not walk in his law.
20. They spake against God also, saying: "Shall God prepare a table in the wilderness?
21. "He smote the stony rock "indeed, that the waters gushed "out, and the streams flowed "withal: but can he give bread "also, or provide flesh for his "people ?"
22. When the Lord heard this, he was wroth: so the fire was kindled in Jacob, and there came up heavy displeasure against Israel;
23. Because they believed not in God and put not their trust in his help.
24. So he cominanded the clouds above and opened the doors of heaven.
25. He rained down manna (e) also upon them for to eat: and gave them food from heaven.
(c) v. 15. "Led them." "The Lord "went before them by day in a pillar of a "cloud, to lead them the way; and by
night in a pillar of fire, to give them "light, to go by day and night. Exod. xiii. "21.- xiv. 19, 20.'
(d) v. 16. "Clave, &c." See Exod. xvii. 1 to 6. and Numb. xx. 1 to 11.
(e) v. 25." Manna." See Exod. xvi. and Numb. xi.
26. So man did eat angels' food: for he sent them meat enough.
27. He caused the east-wind to blow under heaven: and through his power he brought in the south
28. He rained flesh upon them as thick as dust: and feathered fowls (g) like as the sand of the sea.
29. He let it fall among their tents: even round about their habitation.
30. So they did eat, and were well filled; for he gave them their own desire: they were not disappointed of their lust.
31. But while the meat was yet in their mouths, the heavy wrath of God came upon them, and slew (h) the wealthiest of them : yea, and smote down the chosen men that were in Israel.
32. But for all this they sinned yet more and believed not his
33. Therefore their days did he consume in vanity and their years in trouble.
34. When he slew them, they sought him and turned them early, and inquired after God. 35. And they remembered that God was their strength: and that the high God was their Redeemer.
(g) v. 28. "Feathered fowls." See Exod. xvi. 13. and Numb. xi. 31.
(h) v. 31. "Slew, &c." Numb. xi. 33. "While the flesh was yet between their "teeth, ere it was chewed, the wrath "of the Lord was kindled against the "people, and the Lord smote the people "with a very great plague." He proved therefore (in answer to verse 20, 21.) that their complaints were groundless, that he could prepare a table in the wilderness,
36. Nevertheless, they did but flatter him with their mouth : and dissembled with him in their tongue.
37. For their heart was not whole with him: neither continued they stedfast in his cove
38. But he was so merciful, that he forgave their misdeeds: and destroyed them not.
39. Yea, many a time turned he his wrath away and would not suffer his whole displeasure to arise.
40. For he considered, that they were but flesh and that they were even a wind that passeth away, and cometh not again.
41. Many a time did they provoke him in the wilderness: and grieved him in the desert.
42. They turned back, and tempted God: and moved the Holy One in Israel.
43. They thought not of his hand: and of the day when he delivered them from the hand of the enemy;
44. How he had wrought his miracles in Egypt: and his wonders in the field of Zoan.
45. (i) He turned their (k) waters into blood: so that they might not drink of the rivers.
46. He sent lice among them, and devoured them up: and frogs to destroy them.
could give bread also, and provide flesh for his people; and then he punished them for their distrust.
(i) v. 45 to 51. "He turned, &c." From hence to the end of the 52d verse is an enumeration of the plagues upon the Egyptians; and in verses 53 to 56. is a statement by way of contrast of the singular protection afforded to the Israelites.
(k)" Their waters," i. e. "the Egyptian "waters."
47. He gave their fruit unto the caterpillar and their labour unto the grasshopper.
48. He destroyed their vines with hailstones: and their mulberry-trees with the frost.
49. He smote their cattle also with hailstones and their flocks with hot thunder-bolts.
50. He cast upon them the furiousness of his wrath, anger, displeasure, and trouble: and sent evil angels among them.
51. He made a way to his indignation, and spared not their soul from death: but gave their life over to the pestilence;
52. And smote all the first-born in Egypt: the most principal and mightiest in the dwellings of Ham. ()
53. But as for his own people, he led them forth like sheep: and carried them in the wilderness like a flock.
(1) v. 52. "Ham," i. e. "Egypt." (m) v. 57. "So," or yet."
(n) v. 58. "Like, &c." The same idea occurs Hos. vii. 16. " They return, but "not to the Most High: they are like a "deceitful bow."
(o) v. 59. "Hill altars," in imitation of the heathen worship. Part of God's orders to Moses for the conduct of the children of Israel in the land of Canaan was this, that they should "drive out all the in"habitants of the land before them, "and destroy all their pictures, and their "molten images, and quite pluck down all "their high places. Numb. xxxiii. 52." But very soon after the death of Joshua, they "forsook the Lord God of their "fathers, and followed other gods, of the "gods of the people that were round about "them, and bowed themselves unto them: "and the anger of the Lord was hot "against Israel, and he delivered them "into the hands of spoilers that spoiled "them, and he sold them into the hands "of their enemies round about, so that
54. He brought them out safely, that they should not fear and overwhelmed their enemies with the sea;
55. And brought them within the borders of his sanctuary: even to his mountain, which he purchased with his right hand.
56. He cast out the heathen also before them : also before them: caused their land to be divided among them for an heritage, and made the tribes of Israel to dwell in their tents.
57. So (m) they tempted, and displeased the most high God: and kept not his testimonies;
58. But turned their backs, and fell away like their forefathers: starting aside like (n) a broken
59. For they grieved him with their hill-altars (0): and provoked him to displeasure with their images.
they could not any longer stand before "their enemies. Judges ii. 12. 14" They accordingly served the king of Mesopotamia eight years, (Judges iii. 8.) and the king of Moab eighteen (Judges iii. 14.) The Lord afterwards sold them into the hands of Jabin king of Canaan, and he mightily oppressed them twenty years, (Judges iv. 2, 3.) They were afterwards delivered into the hands of the Midianites seven years, (Judges vi. 1.) The Philistines and the children of Ammon oppressed them eighteen years, (Judges x. 7, 8) and they were again in the hands of the Philistines forty years, (Judges xiii. 1.) And, lastly, in the time of Eli, the Philistines in one engagement slew 4000 of them, and in another 30,000, and took the ark of God. It is to these different occurrences that the 62d and following verses refer. God afterwards smote the Philistines with great destruction wherever they kept the ark, and vexed them with emerods, and this plague is probably alluded to in the 67th verse. See 1 Sam. iv. v.
60. When God heard this, he was wroth and took sore displeasure at Israel;
61. So that he forsook the tabernacle in Silo (p): even the tent that he had pitched among men. 62. He delivered their power into captivity and their beauty into the enemy's hand.
63. He gave his people over also unto the sword: and was wroth with his inheritance.
64. The fire consumed their young men and their maidens were not given to marriage.
65. Their priests were slain with the sword and there were no widows to make lamentation. 66. So (q) the Lord awaked as one out of sleep and like a giant refreshed with wine.
67. He smote his enemies in the hinder parts and put them to a perpetual shame.
68. He refused the tabernacle of Joseph and chose not the tribe of Ephraim;
69. But chose the tribe of Judah even the hill of Sion, which he loved.
70. And there he built his temple on high and laid the foundation of it like the ground (r),
which he hath made continually. (r)
71. He chose David (s) also his servant and took him away from the sheepfolds.
72. As he was following the ewes great with young ones, he took him that he might feed Jacob his people, and Israel his inheritance.
73. So he fed them with a faithful and true heart and ruled them prudently with all his power.
O GOD, the heathen are come into thine inheritance: thy holy temple have they defiled, and made Jerusalem an heap of
2. The dead bodies of thy servants have they given to be meat unto the fowls of the air: and the flesh (u) of thy saints unto the beasts of the land.
3. Their blood have they shed like water (a) on every side of Jerusalem and there was no man (y) to bury them.
4. We are become an open
liverance, probably written shortly after the commencement of the Babylonish captivity. From the correspondence of the 6th and 7th verses with Jeremiah x. 25. it has been conjectured that Jeremiah, who lived in the time of the captivity, was the author. The same subject as the 74th Psalm.
(u) v. 2." The flesh, &c." This passage is referred to 1 Maccab. vii. upon the treacherous murder of 60 of the Assideans.
(x) v. 3. "Like water," i. e. " in such "abundance."
(y)" No man, &c." so great was the destruction.
shame to our enemies a very scorn and derision unto them that are round about us.
5. Lord, how long wilt thou be angry shall thy jealousy
burn like fire for ever?
6. Pour (2) out thine indignation upon the heathen that have not known thee and upon the kingdoms that have not called upon thy Name.
7. For they have devoured Jacob and laid waste his dwelling-place.
8. O remember not our old sins; but have mercy upon us, and that soon for we are come to great misery.
9. Help us, O God of our salvation, for the glory (a) of thy Name: O deliver us, and be merciful unto our sins, for thy
10. Wherefore do the heathen now "Where is their
11 O let the vengeance of thy
(z) v. 6. "Pour, &c." This is the passage, Jer. x. 25. "Pour out thy fury upon "the heathen that know thee not, and 66 the families that call not on thy upon "name; for they have eaten up Jacob, "and devoured him, and consumed him, " and have made his habitation desolate."
(a) v. 9." The glory, &c." When any calamities fell the Jews, the heathen upon spoke disparagingly of God, as if he could not protect them, and therefore was not the true God. See note on Ps. lxxiv. 28. where their protection is called God's own cause." It is a mark of their humility, that they bring forward nothing on their own behalf, but rest their hope for deliverance solely on God's own motives: on his consideration that their abasement will encourage the adversaries of his religion.
(b) v. 13. "Blasphemy," i. e. "insult," in saying as in v. 10. "where is now their "God." Such insinuations against God are repeatedly called "blasphemy." See Ps. x. 14. lxxiii. 8. — lxxiv. 11. 19. — lxxxix. 50.2 Kings xix. 3.
servants' blood that is shed: be openly shewed upon the heathen in our sight.
12. O let the sorrowful sighing of the prisoners come before thee according to the greatness of thy power, preserve thou those that are appointed to die.
13. And for the blasphemy (6) wherewith our wherewith our neighbours have blasphemed thee: reward thou them, O Lord, sevenfold into their bosom.
14. So we that are thy (c) people, and sheep of thy pasture, shall give thee thanks for ever: and will alway be shewing forth thy praise from generation to generation.
(c) v. 14. "Thy people, &c." referring (perhaps) to Ps. c. 2. where they assume to themselves this appellation, "we are thy "people, and the sheep of thy pasture."
(d) A prayer for deliverance, probably written in the time of Hezekiah, when Sennacherib, who had taken all the fenced cities of Judah, (2 Kings xviii. 13.) came up against Jerusalem. See 2 Kings xviii. 19.-2 Chron. xxxii. 30. - Is. xxxvi. and xxxvii. (e) v. 2. "Before," i. e. "in the sight " of."
(g) "Ephraim, &c." The three tribes who, in the march through the wilderness under Moses, went immediately behind the tabernacle, and had just before them that part from which God sent forth the tokens of his power. (See Numb. ii. 17 to 22.) So that, by calling to mind the signal instances of God's protection at that time, he may induce him to stir up his strength, to show the light of his countenance, and help and deliver them.