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faith, having our hearts sprinkled | put on him a purple robe, 3. and (t) from an evil conscience, and said,

said, “ Hail, King of the Jews!" our bodies washed with pure And they smote him with their water. 23. Let us hold fast the hands. 4. Pilate therefore went profession of our faith without forth again, and saith unto them, wavering; (for he is faithful (u) “ Behold, I bring him forth to that promised;) 24. and let us “ you, that ye may know that I consider one another, to provoke “ find no fault in him.” 5. Then unto love and to good works : came Jesus forth, wearing the 25. not forsaking the assembling crown of thorns, and the purple of ourselves together, as the man- robe. And Pilate saith unto them, ner of some is; but exhorting one “ Behold (a) the man !” 6. When? another : and so much the more the chief priests therefore and offias ye see the day (x) approaching. cers saw him, they cried out, say

ing, “Crucify him, crucify him." The Gospel. John xix. 1. Pilate saith unto them, “ Take

ye Pilate therefore took Jesus, and “ him and crucify him ; for I find scourged (y) him. 2. And the sol- “ no fault in him." 7. The Jews diers platted a (2) crown of thorns, answered him, “We have a (b) law, and put it on his head, and they “and by our law he ought to die, be

(1) v. 22. “Sprinkled” and “washed;"' alluding to the sprinklings and washings required by the Mosaic law on the day of expiation. See Levit.xvi. 14, 15. 19. 24.26.

(u) v. 23. “That promised.” This probably alludes to our Saviour's assurance in his prophecy as to the destruction of Jerusalem. Our Saviour had foretold that before that great event “many should be " offended," (that is, fall off from professing his religion) “ that because iniquity « should abound,” (or have the upper hand,) “the love of many should wax “ cold, but that he that should endure to or the end should be saved, Matt. xxiv. « 10. 12, 13.;" and does not this passage in the Hebrews, from v. 23 to 25. afford strong internal evidence that it was written with a full knowledge of that prophecy, and to persons also who were well acquainted with it ; that it was written whilst those circumstances our Saviour foresaw were occurring, viz. when iniquity was abounding, and the love of many waxing cold, and when therefore the strongest exhortations to patience and perseverance were peculiarly proper ; and that it was written before the destruction of Jerusalem, (which is so often signified under the expression of “the day or coming of the " Lord,” ante, 28. note on Rom. xiji. 11.), but whilst that great event was looked for as near approaching? The epistle to the

Hebrews is supposed to have been written A. D. 63. about seven years before Jerusalem was destroyed.

() v. 25. “ The day,” i. e. (probably) “ the destruction of Jerusalem." See ante, 28. note on Rom. xiii, 11. “ The day of the “ dissolution of the Jewish state," Middl. in loco : the article is inserted, imy fuépav.

(y) v. 1. “Scourged.” A minor punishment, which he might think would satisfy the Jews. The prophecy therefore, Isaiah 1.6. ante, p. 113. " I gave my back to the “smiters, and my cheeks to them that plucked off the hair : I hid not my

face “ from shame and spitting," was hereby fulfilled, and so was part of Isaiah liii. 3. “ He is despised and rejected of “men; a man of sorrows, and acquainted “ with grief: and we hid as it were our “ faces from him; he was despised, and we esteemed him not."

(z) v. 2. “ A crown of thorns," "a purple robe," in derision, treating him as a mock king

(a) v. 5. “Behold, &c." Can he who has quietly submitted to such ignominy, be one who aspires to royal power ?

(6) v. 7. “A law." They probably alluded to Lev, xxiv. 16. “He that bias. phemeth the name of the Lord, he shall “ surely be put to death, and all the “ congregation shall certainly stone him." According to John x. 31. 33. the Jews

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“cause he made himself the(c)Son “ livered me unto thee hath the 5 of God.” 8. When Pilate there

greater sin." 12. And from fore heard that saying, he was the thenceforth Pilate sought to remore afraid; 3. and went again lease him : but the Jews cried out, into the judgement-hall, and saith saying, “ If thou let this man go, unto Jesus, “Whence art thou ?” “thou art not Cesar's (e) friend : But Jesus gave him no (d) answer.

“ whosoever maketh himself a 10. Then saith Pilate unto him, “ king speaketh against Cesar.' “Speakest thou not unto me? 13. When Pilate therefore heard “knowest thou not that I have that saying, he brought Jesus “ power to crucify thee, and have forth, and sat down in the judgepower to release thee?" 11. Jesus

ment seat, in a place that is called answered, “ Thou couldest have “ the Pavement,” but in the He“no power at all against me, ex- brew, “Gabbatha.” 14. And it “cept it were given thee from was the preparation of the pass"above: therefore he that de- over, and about the (8) sixth hour : : took up stones to stone our Saviour, be- clusion he expresses in verse 23. ; “ That cause he said that he and his Father (viz. “ all men should honour the Son, even as God) were one: and they told him that " they honour the Father.” Does St. John they stoned him for “blasphemy; and be- add any thing to qualify or discountenance

cause that thou, being a man, makest this inference ? Certainly not. Our Sa" thyself God.” And when he asserted viour therefore suffers himself, without exto them, Matt. xxvi. 64. and Mark xiv. 62. planation or comment, to be considered as that he was the Son of God, the obsery- claiming equality with God; and that it ation of the high priest upon it was, “ Ye might not be forgotten or misrepresented, have heard the blasphemy;" “ and they" St.

John records it. When the Jews imputed (the Jewish council) “ all condemned him blasphemy to our Saviour, for saying to to be guilty of death;" treating the the sick of the palsy, “Thy sins be forgiven assertion, that he was the Son of God, as “ thee," and assigned as the reason, "Who a claim of being God, and constituting the can forgive sins but God only?"_(Matt. crime of blasphemy. See Acts vii. 56. ix. 3 to 6. Mark ii. 5 to 11. and Luke v. 58. 59. ante, 45.

20 to 24.) our Saviour says nothing to (c) “ The Son of God.” And this in correct their conclusion, that none but such a way as to assume divinity, otherwise God can forgive sins, but goes on to shew it would not have been against their law. that he had that power.

See Graves's The repeated instances in which our Sa- Trinity, 9, 10. viour so acted as to induce the Jews to (d) v. 9. “No answer." Our Saviour consider him as claiming divinity and might not choose to tell Pilate he was of equality with the Father, and in which the Bethlehem, lest that should bring to his inference is countenanced and encouraged recollection the dread Herod had of the by our Saviour himself, furnish strong child born in Bethlehem, and he should proof of this leading doctrine of our faith. order his death from any other cause than According to John v. 17. 18. when the the instigation of the Jews. Locke, 115. Jews sought to slay him, because he had (e) v. 12. “Not Cesar's friend." A powerhealed a sick man on the Sabbath-day, his ful argument with a Roman governor, answer to them was, “ My Father worketh who was accountable to the emperor; and " hitherto, and I work and for this the emperor (Tiberius) was very severe, answer the Jews sought the more to kill and peculiarly jealous of all who pretended him. Why? " Because he not only had to independent power.

See Tacit. and “ broken the Sabbath, but said also, that Sueton. « God was his Father, making himself (g) v. 14. “The sixth hour," i. e, six "equal with God.” Does our Saviour add in the morning, reckoning from twelve at any thing to qualify or discountenance this night. The other evangelists reckon from inference? No. On the contrary, he pro- six in the morning, following the Roman ceeds with a detail which leads to the con- computation. St. Mark says, (Mark xv.

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and he saith unto the Jews, “ Be- the chief priests of the Jews to “ hold your king !" 15. But they Pilate, “ Write not, The King of cried out,“ Away with him, away “ the Jews;' but that he (1) said, “ with him ; crucify him!” Pi- “I am King of the Jews.' late saith unto them, « Shall I 22. Pilate answered, “What I have “ crucify your king ?" The chief “written, I have written.” 23.Then priests answered, “ We have no the soldiers, when they had cru

king but (h) Cesar.” 16. Then cified Jesus, took his (m)garments, delivered he him therefore unto and made four parts, to every them to be crucified. And they soldier a part; and also his coat: took Jesus, and led him away. now the coat was without seam, 17. And he, bearing his (i) cross, woven from the top throughout: went forth into a place, called 24. They said therefore among “ The place of a scull,” which is themselves,

themselves, “Let us not rend it, called in the Hebrew, “Golgotha;' “ but cast lots for it whose it shall 18.where they (k)crucified him, and “ be:” that (n) the Scripture two others with him, on either side might be fulfilled, which saith, one, and Jesus in the midst. 19. And They parted my raiment among Pilate wrote a title, and put it on “ them, and for my vesture they And the writing was,

“ did cast lots." These things JESUS OF NAZARETH THE therefore the soldiers did. 25. Now KING OF THE JEWS. 20. This there stood by the cross of Jesus title then read many of the Jews: his mother, and his (c) mother's for the place where Jesus was sister, Mary the wife of Cleophas, crucified was nigh to the city: and Mary Magdalene. 26. When and it was written in Hebrew, and Jesus therefore saw his mother, Greek, and Latin. 21. Then said and the

and the (p) disciple standing by

the cross.

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25.) " it was the third hour,” (nine in the forenoon)" and they crucified him.” Matthew and Luke concur with Mark in stating that there was darkness over all the land from the sixth hour till the ninth, viz. from twelve to three, and this concurrence shews they all adopted the same computation. See Matt. xxvii. 45.—Mark xv. 33.- Luke xxiii. 44.

(h) v. 15. “But Cesar.". The sceptre then was departed from Judah! According 'to John xviii. 31. they admitted to Pilate, “ It is not lawful for us to put any “one to death." The lawgiver therefore was no longer one of their own people, and the time mentioned in Jacob's prophecy, (Gen. xlix. 10.) “the sceptre shall not de

part from Judah, nor a lawgiver from “ between his feet, until Shiloh come,” was arrived! See ante, 83.

(i) v. 17. “ His, or “his own,” du7ē. (k) v. 18. See Tacitus, lib. xv. § 44.

(1) v. 21. “Said," i. e. “pretended,” to intimate that it was a false claim.

(m) v. 23. “ This account is fuller than that in St. Matthew or Mark, and St. Luke does not mention it at all. See Matt. xxvii. 35. ante, 104. Mark xv. 24. ante, 115.

(n) v. 24. “That the Scripture, &c." Not that they had any such intention or thought: but this is a strong instance of stating as the object what was merely a consequence. See note on Matt. ii. 15. ante, 49, 50. The passage is in Ps.'xxii. 17, 18.“They

pierced my hands and my feet : I may “ tell all my bones: they stand staring and “ looking upon me: they part my gar“ments among them, and cast lots upon my vesture.

Was this true of our Saviour? We have the testimony of witnesses who were present that it was. Is it recorded of any other person ?

(o) v. 25. “ Mother's sister," viz. “Mary, “ the wife of Cleophas.”.

(p) v. 26. “The disciple whom he “ loved,” i. e. “St. John the Evangelist.”

whom he loved, he saith unto his 33. But when they came to Jesus, mother, “Woman, behold thy and saw that he was dead already, "son!” 27. Then saith he to the they brake not his legs : 34. but “ disciple, “Behold thy mother!” one of the soldiers with a spear And from that hour that disciple pierced his side, and forthwith took her unto his own home. came thereout blood and water. 28. After this, Jesus knowing that 35. And he that (u) saw it bare reall (9) things were now accom- cord, and his record is true; and plished, that the (r) Scripture he (x) knoweth that he saith true, might be fulfilled, saith, “ I thirst.” that ye might believe. 36. For these 2. Now there was set a vessel things were done, that the Scripture full of vinegar : and they filled a should be fulfilled, “A (y) bone spunge with vinegar, and put it

“ of him shall not be broken." upon (s) hyssop, and put it to his 37. And again (2) another Scripture mouth. 30. When Jesus therefore saith, They shall look on him had received the vinegar, he said,

“ whom they pierced.” " It is finished :” and he bowed his head, and gave up the ghost.

Easter Even. 31. The Jews therefore, because

The Collect. it was the Preparation, that the bodies should not remain upon the Grant, O Lord, that as we are cross on the sabbath day, (for that baptized into the death of thy şabbath-day was an (t) high day,) blessed Son our Saviour Jesus besought Pilate that their legs Christ; so by continual mortifying might be broken, and that they our corrupt affections, we may be might be taken away. 32. Then buried with him; and that through came the soldiers, and brake the the grave

the grave and gate of death, we may legs of the first, and of the other pass to our joyful resurrection, for which was crucified with him. his merits who died and was buried,

lxix. 22.


(9) v. 28. “ All things," i. e. all other should be broken. Exod. xii. 46. “ Thou things.

“ shalt not carry forth aught of the flesh (7) " The Scripture." Perhaps Psalm “ abroad out of the house, neither shall

“When I was thirsty, they ye break a bone thereof." So Numb. ix. “ gave me vinegar to drink.”

12. (in directing how they who could not (8) d. 29. “ Hyssop,” i. e. “a reed.” eat it at the ordinary time should eat it

. (0 . 31. “ An high day." The first of afterwards,) “They shall leave none of the feast of unleavened bread.

“ it unto the morning, nor break any bone (u) v. 35. “He that saw it," i. e. “St. of it." St. John might mean to point John," the writer of this Gospel : so out our Saviour as the true Paschal Lamb. that this is the testimony of an eye-witness. In 1 Cor. v. 7. he is called “ our passover.”

(5) "He knoweth, &c.” It is upon his (2) v. 37. “Another Scripture,” viz. own knowledge he asserts, so that you Zech.

xii. 10. “ I will pour upon the house have that ground for your belief,

“ of David, and upon the inhabitants of (y) v. 36. “ A bone, &c." In Ps. xxxiv. “ Jerusalem, the spirit of grace and of sup19, 20. is this passage : “Great are the “plications : and they shall look upon me " troubles of the righteous, but the Lord “whom they have pierced ; and they shall " delivereth him out of all. He keepeth mourn for him, as one that mourneth for " all his bones, so that not one of them is “ his only son; and shall be in bitterness " broken ;" and to this passage St. John “ for him, as one that is in bitterness for might allude. It was also a provision as « his first-born." to the paschal lamb, that not a bone of it

and rose again for us, thy Son 21. The like figure whereunto, Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. even baptism (i), doth also now

save us (not the (k) putting away The Epistle. 1 Pet. iii. 17.

of the filth of the flesh, but the It is better, if the will of God be

answer of a good conscience toso, that ye suffer for well-doing wards God,) by the resurrection than for evil-doing. 18. For Christ of Jesus Christ: 22. who is gone also hath once suffered for sins, the into heaven, and is on (1) the just for the unjust, that he might right hand of God; angels and bring us to God, being put to death authorities and powers being made in the flesh, but quickened (a) subject unto him. by the Spirit: 19. by (b) which also he (c) went and (d) preached The Gospel. Matt. xxvii. 57. unto the (e) spirits in prison ; When the (m) even was come, 20. which sometime were disobe- there came a rich man of Arimadient, when once the long-suffering thea, named Joseph, who also of God (g) waited in the days of himself was Jesus' disciple: 58. he Noah, while the ark was a prepar- went to Pilate, and begged the ing, wherein few, that is, eight body of Jesus. Then Pilate comsouls, were saved by (h) water. manded the body to be delivered.

(a) v. 18. “Quickened, &c." or “made « alive again,” θανατωθείς μεν σαρκι, ζωοποιηθείς δε το πνεύματι,

“dead as to the flesh, “ alive as to the spirit; dead in body, alive “in soul." See Horsley's Serm. i. 404, 405, 406. Middl. on Gr. Art. 618.

(6) v. 19.“ By,” or “ in;" the Gr. is ly á. (c) “ Went.

3 He assured one of the malefactors that was crucified with him, that that day the malefactor should be with him in Paradise, (meaning, probably, the place of departed spirits.) . An intimation that his spirit was not to continue, even that day, in a dormant state. According to the Apostle's Creed, “he des scended into hell ;" as to which, see the note in p. 9. (d) “Preached,”. (probably) by pro

of his

(1) “By," or "from.” Hamm. 1 Till.94. The original is di Salos. And in 1 Cor. iii. 15. where the original is eià Trupós, many commentators read, “ from the fire.”

(i) v. 21. “Baptism.” The meaning probably is this: as the ark saved those who were in it, so shall baptism, which is our ark, save us : and we have the best grounds for bearing up against what we suffer, for Christ himself also suffered, and was even put to death; yet did his spirit still subsist, and even went to preach to the spirits of the antediluvian world, and he is since risen from the dead, and gone into heaven, and is on God's right hand: and if he, into whose cause and service we are baptized, is so exalted, our sufferings also will lead to a good end; we shall have the authorities and powers are made subject.

(k) “ Not the putting away, &c." i.e. “ not the outward ceremony, but the thing “signified: a conscientious discharge of the “ duties this baptism requires." See an excellent Essay on this difficult passage, 2 Bens. 312.

(1) v. 22. “On the right hand,” verifying the prophecy in Psalm cx. 1.

(m) v. 57. “ The even.” The latter part of the day of preparation, on which our Saviour was crucified; before the Sabbath was considered as beginning. See Mark xv, 42., and Luke xxiii. 54.

mission, and the prospect they mighie the protection of him to whom angels and

thereby have of everlasting life. See Horsley's Serm. i. 387.

(e) The spirits in prison," i. e. “the “ antediluvians, which sometime were dis“ obedient, but might afterwards have re“ pented, and whose souls were in the place “ to which the spirit of Christ went.”

(g) v. 20. “Waited.” God forbore 120 years before he sent the flood, to give time for repentance. See Gen. vi. 3. “The “ Lord said, My Spirit shall not alway " strive with man, for that he also is flesh; “ yet his days shall be 120 years," i.e. “I “ will spare him for that time."

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