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to do as he had ever done unto put his own clothes on him, and them. 9. But Pilate answered led him out to crucify him. them, saying, “Will ye that I re- 21. And they compel one Simon a “ lease unto you the King of the Cyrenian, who passed by, coming “ Jews?” 10. (for he knew that out of the country, the father the chief priests had delivered of (a) Alexander and Rufus, to him for envy.) 11. But the chief bear his cross. 22. And they bring priests moved the people, that he him unto the place Golgotha, should rather release Barabbas which is, being interpreted, “ The unto them. 12. And Pilate an- place of a scull.” 23. And they swered and said again unto them, gave him to drink wine mingled “What will ye then that I shall with myrrh : but he received it “ do unto him whom ye call the not.. 24. And when they had · King of the Jews ?»s 13. And crucified him, they (6) parted his they cried out again, “ Crucify garments, casting lots upon them, “ him." 14. Then Pilate said unto what every man should take. them, “ Why, what evil hath he 25. And it was the third (c) hour ; “ done?” And they cried out and they crucified him. 26. And the more exceedingly, “ Crucify the superscription of his accusa« him.” 15. And so Pilate, will- tion was written over,
« THE ing to content the people, re
“ KING OF THE JEWS.” leased Barabbas unto them, and 27. And with him they crucify two delivered Jesus, when he had (2) | thieves; the one on
one on his right scourged him, to be crucified. hand, and the other on his left. 16. And the soldiers led him away 28. And the Scripture (d) was fulinto the hall called Pretorium ;
filled, which saith, “ Ànd he was and they call together the whole “ numbered with the transgresband. 17. And they clothed him “sors.” 29. And they that passed with purple, and platted a crown by railed on him, wagging their of thorns, and put it about his heads, and saying, “Ah, thou head; 18. and began to salute “ that (e) destroyest the temple, him, Hail, King of the Jews !” “ and buildest it in three days, 19. And they smote him on the “ 30. save thyself, and come down head with a reed, and did spit « from the cross.” 31. Likewise upon him, and, bowing their also the chief priests, mocking, knees, worshipped him. 20. And said among themselves with the when they had mocked him, they scribes, “ He saved others ; himtook off the purple from him, and 66 self he cannot save.
(2) v. 15. “Scourged," and so fulfilled Isaiah 1.6.
(a) 0. 21. “ Of Alexander and Rufus." Matthew and Luke name Simon, as the person compelled, but neither of them speak of him as the father of Alexander and Rufus. Grotius apprehends that Alexander and Rufus were both known at the place for which this Gospel was intended, and then it was natural to name
them. An Alexander is named, 1 Tim. i. 20. and a Rufus, Rom. xvi. 13.
(6) v. 24. “ Parted his garments. Matt. xxvii. 35. (ante, 104.) and note there.
(c) v. 25. “ The third hour," i.e. nine in the morning See Matt. xxvii. 45. ante, 105. John xix. 14. post,
(d) v. 28. “The Scripture," viz. Isaiah liii. 12.
(&” note on Matt. xxvii. 40. (ante, 104.)
“ Christ the King of Israel de- | him to drink, saying, “Let “ scend now from the cross, that alone; let us see whether Elias "we may see and believe.” And “ will come to take him down." they that (s) were crucified with 37. And Jesus cried with a loud him reviled him. 33. And when voice, and gave up the ghost. the sixth hour was come, there 38. And the (k) veil of the temple was darkness over the whole land was rent in twain from the top (1) until the ninth hour. 34. And at to the bottom. 39. And when the the ninth hour Jesus cried with a centurion, which stood over against loud voice, saying, Eloi, Eloi, him, saw that he so cried out, “ lama sabachthani ?” which is, and gave up the ghost, he said, being interpreted, “ My (h) God, “ Truly (m) this man was the (n) “ my God, why hast thou for- « Son of God.” “ saken me?" 35. And some of them that stood by, when they heard it, said, “ Behold, he calleth
Wednesday before Easter. « Elias.” 36. And one ran and
The Eristle. Hebrews ix. 16. (o) filled a spunge full of (i) vinegar, and put it on a reed, and gave Where a (p) testament is, there
(g) v. 32. “ They that were crucified “ with him." See note on Matt. xxvii. 44. ante, 105.
(h) v. 34. “ My God, &c.” See note on Matt. xxvii. 46. (ante, 105.)
(i) v. 36. “Vinegar." See ante, 105. note on Matt. xxvii.
48. (k) v. 38. “ Veil." See note on Matt. xxvii. 51. ante, 105.
(2) “ From the top, &c." See ante, 106. note on Matt. xxvii. 51.
(m) v. 39. “ Truly, &c.” See ante, 106. note on Matt. xxvii. 54.
(n) “ The Son." See ante, 106. note on Matt. xxvii. 54.
(o) A continuation of the contrast between the atonement by Christ, and that under the Mosaic dispensation. See ante, 97, 98. Heb. ix.
(p) v. 16. “ A testament." The word here rendered “ testament," is in this, and parts of the preceding and following chapter, and elsewhere, rendered “ cove“ nant, (Heb. viii. 6.9, 10., ix. 4., 8. 16.) and the word rendered - testator" in this and the next verse, (7 Blasteméve and ó 8.2.J! Hevos,) is by no means necessarily confined to (even if it will bear) that meaning. It is difficult, in our idea of the word “testament,” in verses 15.18.20. to understand how our Saviour was the Mediator of a new testament, or how the Mosaic dispensation can be called “a
6 testament.” Who, it may be asked, was the testator in either dispensation? Not the Father, for he has never undergone death: not Moses in the first, for that was in force during his life, and the only death there was of bulls and goats ; not Jesus Christ in the second, for he was the Mediator only. The translation of this and the next two verses should perhaps be, “ where there is a covenant, “ (a dispensation or appointment of remiso sion and forgiveness, as this is, or an “ atonement,) there must of necessity be “ the death of what is appointed for the
sacrifice. For it is because of the sacri“ fice, that the dispensation is of force: “ for it is of no force whilst what was “ appointed for the sacrifice is alive. “ Whence it was not without blood that “ the first dispensation was consecrated." See Parkhurst, Greek Lexicon, Beatos, Διαθήκη, and διαθέμενος. One of the senses of dialismus is, " to appease, to satisfy;" and diardyun may therefore mean “an atone
ment, a satisfaction, or a dispensation of “ forgiveness.” What is translated " after “ men are dead,” is in the original “ yex goãs ;” and that may signify, “on ac“ count, or by means of the deaths, or dead « bodies." In Ps. 1. 5. mention is made of " those who had made a covenant with « God," “ il fucians," and the rendering for itJuolais, is “ with sacrifice.”
must also of (9) necessity be tabernacle and all the vessels of the the death of the (r) testator. ministry. 22. And almost all things 17. For a testament is of force after are by the law purged with blood; men are dead : otherwise it is of and without shedding of blood no strength at all while the testa- is no remission. 23. It was theretor liveth. 18. Whereupon neither fore necessary that the patterns (u) the first testament was dedicated of things in the heavens should be without blood. 19. For when (s) purified with (x) these ; but the Moses had spoken every precept heavenly (y) things themselves to all the people according to with better sacrifices than these. the law, he took the blood of 24. For Christ is not entered into calves and of goats, with water, the (2) holy places made (a) with and scarlet wool, and hyssop, and hands, which are the (6) figures sprinkled both the book and all of the (c) true ; but into heaven the people, 20. saying, “ This is itself
, now to appear in the pre" the blood of the testament sence of God for us.
25. Nor yet " which God hath enjoined unto
that he should offer himself often, "you.” 21. Moreover, hesprinkled as the high priest entereth into likewise with (t) blood both the the holy place every (d) year with
- what is ap
“ and sprinkled it on the people, and said, “ Behold the blood of the covenant which " the Lord hath made with you concern.
ing all these words. Exod. xxiv. 3—8."
(t) v. 21. " Blood," rather “ the blood,” that mentioned ver. 19. The article is in the original “75 dinal."
(u) v. 23. “ Patterns of things in the “ heavens," i. e. “ the tabernacle, &c." which Moses made according to the pattern of what God shewed him in the Mount, (Exod. xxv. 9. Heb. viii. 5.) and which were considered as corresponding with what was in heaven.
(2) “ These," i. e. “the blood of bulls
w and goats."
(9) “Of necessity,” because God has so determined. It is for him alone to decide upon the means.
(r) “ The testator," "pointed," • BlaMéuevos; the masculine gender might be used, because, upon the dedication of the Mosaic dispensation, the sacrifice was of males ; males were generally, if not invariably, the instituted sacrifices under that dispensation, and our Saviour, the greatest of all sacrifices, is here included.
(s) v. 19. “ When Moses, &c.” After Moses had received from God the ten commandments, and divers other laws, he “ told the people all the words of the "Lord, and all the judgments: and all " the people answered with one voice, " and said, “ All the words which the “Lord hath said will
And " Moses wrote all the words of the Lord, " and built an altar, and twelve pillars, ac
cording to the twelve tribes of Israel. " And he sent young men of the Children of Israel, which offered burnt-offerings, " and sacrificed peace-offerings of oxen unto the Lord. And Moses took half " of the blood, and put it in basons: and "half of the blood he sprinkled on the "altar. And he took the Book of the " Covenant, and read in the audience of " the people: and they said, “ All that " the Lord hath said will we do, and be “ obedient." And Moses took the blood,
(y) " The heavenly things themselves, “ &c.” The meaning seems to be this, " the blood of bulls and goats was neces“sary to purify the tabernacle, and what
soever was to enter into it; but for ad“ mittance into heaven, much more valua“ble blood, even that of Christ himself,
(z) v, 24. “The holy," or "holy;" there is no article in the original.
(a) “ Made with hands," i. e. “ human workmanship,” “any earthly “ temple."
(6) "" The figures," i.e. “ only the “ figures.”
(c) “ The true,” i. e. 66 what is in “ heaven."
(d) v. 25. “Every year,” Once every
blood of others; 26. (for then must the twelve.
the twelve. 4. And he went his he often have suffered since the way, and communed with the foundation of the world :) but chief priests and captains, how now once, in the end of (e) the he might betray him unto them. world hath he appeared, to put 5. And they were glad, and coveaway sin by the sacrifice of him. nanted to give him money. 6. And self. 27. And as it is appointed he promised, and sought opporunto men once to die, but after tunity to betray him unto them in this the judgement; 28. so (g) the absence of the multitude. Christ was once offered to bear (h) 7. Then came the day (n) of unthe sins of many (i); and unto leavened bread, when the passthem that look for him shall he over must be killed. 8. And he appear the second time, with- sent Peter and John, saying, “Go out (k) sin, unto salvation. “ and prepare us the passover, The Gospel. Luke xxii. 1.
“ that we may eat.” 9. And they
said unto him, “ Where wilt thou Now the feast (1) of unleavened “ that we prepare ?”
10. And he bread drew nigh, which (m) is said unto them, “ Behold, when called “The (1) Passover.” 2. And “ye are entered into the city, the chief priests and scribes sought “ there shall a (o) man meet you, how they might kill him ; for “ bearing a pitcher of water : they feared the people. 3. Then “ follow him into the house entered Satan into Judas, surnamed “ where he entereth in. Iscariot, being of the number of “ ye shall say unto the good man
year, on the tenth day of the seventh (k) “ Without sin," i. e. (perhaps) “ in month, the high priest was to make an far different state from that in which atonement in the holy place for the “ he was, when he was taking upon himsanctuary, for the tabernacle of the con- “ self the sins of the world ; not in a state gregation, for the altar, for the priests, “ of humility, as one who had sins upon and for all the congregation. See Lev. “ him, but in a state of glory, as one xvi. 11-34.
“ without sin, as the great Judge, to give (e) v. 26. “ The end of the world," “ salvation to those that look for him, and ouvieneia 7wy docvwy. i.e. " the completion of “ to punish those who do not." “ the ages," when they were entering into (1) “ The passover." See note on the last age of the world; (See Dan. Mark xiv. 1. ante, 108. ii. 44., & vii. 13.) or “the conclusion of the (m) v. 1. “ Which is called, &c." St. “ Jewish age." Newt. on Proph. ii. 142. Luke was writing for the Gentiles, who
(g) v. 28. “ So Christ, &c." The mean- might want this explanation; the Jews ing is, as it is with man, that he dieth once could not : they knew it well. only, and after that comes judgment, so (n) v. 7. “ The day, &c.” i. e. “the is it with Christ ; he was to be offered “ evening before that day on which the once only, his second appearance will be paschal lamb was to be slain :" they at the day of judgment, and then they reckoned their days from evening to evenwho have looked for him shall have their ing: according to Gen. i. 5. the evening reward.
and the morning were the first day; and (h) “ To bear, &c.”
according to Gen. xii. 18. on the fournote on 1 Pet. ii. 24.
teenth day of the first month, at even, (1)," of many,” not indiscriminately they were to eat unleavened bread, until of all; but of such as feel their own in- the one and twentieth day of the month, sufficiency and the advantages of the atonement he has made, who humbly look (o) v. 10. “A man meet you, &c." up to him, and endeavour to walk in his See note (n) on Mark xiv. 13. ante, 109. commandments.
" of the house, « The Master “given for you : this do in re" saith unto thee, Where is the “ membrance of me.' "guest-chamber, where I shall wise also the cup after supper, " eat the passover with my dis- saying, “This cup is the new (s)
12. “ And he shall “ testament in my blood, which “shew you a large upper room
« is shed for you.
21. But, be“ furnished : there make ready." hold, the hand of him that (1) 13. And they went, and found as “ betrayeth me is with me on the he had said unto them: and they “ table.
22. And truly the Son of made ready the passover. 14. And “ man goeth as it was (u) deterwhen the (p) hour was come, he “ mined: but (x) woe unto that sat down, and the twelve apostles “ man by whom he is betrayed !” with him. 15. And he said unto 23. And they began to inquire them, “ With desire I have de
among themselves, which of them “sired to eat this passover with
it was that should do this thing. "you before I suffer : 16. for I 24. And (y) there was also a strife " say unto you, I will not any among them, which of them should “ more eat thereof, until (9) it be be accounted the greatest. 25. And “ fulfilled in the kingdom of God.” he said unto them, “ The kings 17. And he took the
gave “ of the Gentiles exercise lordthanks, and said, “Take this, “ ship over them; and they that “and divide it among yourselves : “ exercise authority upon them are 18. “ for I say unto you, I will not “ called Benefactors. 26. But (2) “ drink of the fruit of the vine, ye
shall not be so: but he that “ until the kingdom of God shall “ is greatest among you, let him “come.” 19. And he took bread, “ be as the younger ; and he that and gave thanks, and brake it, “ is chief, as he that doth serve.
unto them, saying, “ 27. For whether is greater, he “ This (r) is my body which is “ that sitteth at meat, or he that
(p) v. 14. “ The hour,” viz. “ the even " of the fourteenth day of the first month." See Exod. xii. 6. 10. Lev. xxiii. 5. Numb. ix. 3.
(9) v. 16. “ Until it be fulfilled, &c." May not this mean, until that great sacrifice, of which this is a figure, the true Paschal Lamb, shall be offered up?
() . 19. “ This, &c.” See note on Mark xiv. 22. ante, 110.
(s) v. 20. “ Testament,” or “ nant," or “ dispensation." See ante, 116. note on Heb. ix. 16.
(t) v. 21. “ Betrayeth me." See note on Mark xiv. 18. ante, 109. (u) v. 22. “ Determined," i. e.
« in “God's counsels." His sufferings and death were fully foretold in Isaiah liji. The seventh verse there is, “ he was op"pressed, and he was afflicted, yet he
opened not his mouth : he is brought as " a lamb to the slaughter."
(1) “ Woe, &c." According to Matt. xxvii. 4, 5. he “repented, when he saw “ what was done, and went and hanged “himself.” This prophetic declaration, therefore, had so far a speedy accomplishment.
(y) v. 24. “ And, &c.” According to Matt. xx. 25. 29. and Mark x. 42. 46. this happened at an earlier period : before they reached Jericho, on their way to Jerusalem.
(z) v. 26. “ Ye shall not be so," i. e. “ you shall exercise no lordship over “ others, shall have no temporal power : “ he shall be greatest among you who has “ the most complete controul over him
self, who subdues his own pride, his own “appetites and passions, and makes the greatest sacrifices for the benefit of others.”