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" and buildest it in three days, / hour. 46. And about the ninth * save thyself. If thou be the hour Jesus cried with a loud “Son of God, come down from voice, saying, “ Eli, Eli, lama sa“the cross.” 41. Likewise also bachthani ?that is to say, “

the chief priests mocking him, “God (o), my God, why hast

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with the scribes and elders, said, “ thou forsaken me?" 47. Some 42. “ He saved others, himself of them that stood there, when “ he cannot save. If he be the they heard that, said, “ This man " King of Israel, let him now “ calleth for Elias.' 48. And "come down from the cross, and straightway one of them ran, and u we will believe him. 43. He took a sponge, and filled it with () trusted in God; let him (p) vinegar, and put it on a reed, " deliver him now, if he will have and gave him to drink. 49. The “ bim : for he said, I am the rest said,

“ Let be, let us see “Son of God.'

44. The (m) “ whether (9) Elias will come to thieves also, which were crucified


50. Jesus, when with him, cast the same in his he had

he had (r) cried again with a teeth. 45. Now from the sixth loud voice, yielded up the ghost. (n) hour there was darkness over 51. And, behold, the (s) veil of all the land unto the ninth (n) the temple was rent in twain from


cording to John ï. 19. when the Jews Psalm was fulfilling in what he suffered. asked of our Saviour a sign, he answered See the notes on v. 35. 43. and said unto them.“ Destroy this temple, (p) v. 48. “ Vinegar." In Ps. Ixix. 22. « and in three days I will raise it up." (which probably referred prophetically to But he spake of the temple of his body; the Messiah,) it is said, “they gave me and it is to this saying they here referred. “ gall to eat, and when I was thirsty, they St. Matthew and St. Mark mention it as

gave me vinegar to drink.” one of the grounds of accusation against (9) v. 49. “Whether Elias, &c.This our Saviour, Matt. xxvi. 61. Mark xiv. probably was said with a sneer ; the Jews 58. post, 112.

expected from the prophecy in Mal. iv. 5. (1) v. 43. “ He trusted, &c.” How ex- that Elijah was to come in person before actly does this correspond with the pro- the Messiah appeared : they did not unphetic declaration in Ps. xxii. 7,8. ? • All derstand that John the Baptist, by coming

they that see me, laugh me to scorn : in the spirit and power of Elijah, had fulthey shoot out their lips, and shake their filled that prediction. The prophecy is, "heads, saying, 'He trusted in God that “ Behold I send you Elijah the prophet "he would deliver him ; let him deliver “ before the coming of the great and “ him, if he will have him.''

“ dreadful day of the Lord: and he shall (m) v. 44. “The thieves." According “ turn the heart of the fathers to the chilto Luke xxiii. 40. one of them rebuked “ dren, and the heart of the children to the the other for reviling him ; 'this is there- “ fathers, lest I come and smite the earth fore either an affirmation as to the two, “ with a curse.” Ante, 37. note on though only true as to one; or both might John i. 21. at first revile, and one might be struck (r) v. 50. “ Cried, &c.” St. Luke has with some part of our Saviour's conduct, recorded what he said: “Father, into thy and then rebuke his companion.

“hands I commend my spirit.” (r) 0.45, “ Sixth and ninth hour," i. e. (s) v. 51. “ The veil, &c.” The veil se“ twelve at noon, and three in the after- parated the holy place from the holy of noon; adopting the Roman computation. holies ; the latter was considered a type (o) v. 46. * My God, &c.” The begin- of heaven, into which none but the high ning of Ps.xxii

. - Our Saviour might intend priest could enter, and that only once a to draw to their consideration how this year. Abp. Kidder considers this rending

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the top (t) to the bottom; and the

Monday before Easter. earth did quake, and the rocksrent;

For the Epistle. Isaiah Ixiii 1. (x) 52. and the graves were opened; and many bodies of the saints Who is this that cometh from which slept, 53. arose, and came Edom, with dyed garments from out of the graves after his resur- Bozrah (y)? this that is glorious rection, and went into the holy in his apparel

, travelling in the city, and appeared unto many greatness of his strength ? (z) “ I 54. Now when the centurion, and “that speak in righteousness, they that were with him watching mighty to save.” 2. Wherefore Jesus, saw the earthquake, and art thou red in thine apparel, those things that were done, they and thy garments like him that feared greatly, saying, “Truly (ú) treadeth in the wine-fat? 3. “ I “ this was the Son of God.” “ have trodden the wine-press

“ alone; and of the people there

it in twain, as importing that now, through Christ, the Holy of Holies, that is, the kingdom of heaven, is laid open, not to the high priest only, but to all people, and not once in a year only, but at all times. Kidd. 333. 335. See an admirable reading upon this chapter, 2 Porteus's Lectures, 266. Lecture 22.

(t) “ From the top, &c." So that it was not the effect of the earthquake: that would have rent it from the bottom upwards, not from the top downwards : but this, perhaps, is hypercritical. Kidd. 333. 335.

(u) v. 54. “ Truly, &c.” The Centurion must have known what his accusation was, viz. “that he claimed to be the Son of God," and this was an exclamation, that his claim was just. It was drawn from the Roman soldier, an impartial spectator, not only by the earthquake, and other circumstances, but by the conduct of our Saviour whilst upon the cross, and by his last words, commending his spirit into the hands of God. Saint Mark xv. 39. says, when the centurion saw that he so cried out, and gave up the ghost, he said, “ truly, &c.” attributing his exclamation to that act of resignation and devotion. The celebrated Rousseau, after contrasting the life and death of our Saviour with those of Socrates, concludes the comparison with this sentence: “ Yes, if the life ( and death of Socrates are those of a sage, *** the life and death of Jesus are those of a “ God.” 2 Port. Lect. 298.

(-x) A prophetic dialogue between the Messiah and the Israelites, looking forward to a time of extraordinary vengeance upon his enemies, and of redemption and

deliverance to his faithful servants; per. haps the time of the destruction of Jeru. salem. In the 1st and 2d verses the questions are put, Who is making the desolation, and what is the cause ? The answers are at the end of verse 1. and in the 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th verses. The rest of the chapter is in the mouth of the people; it calls to mind what God had in former times done for the Israelites, and prays anxiously for deliverance.

(y) v. 1. “ Bosrah,” “ the chief city of Edom.” Bosrah is supposed to have had its name from the number of wine-presses. Edom and Bosrah are probably named, as being often at war with the Israelites, and are therefore put for any enemies. In Isaiah xxxiv. 6. (where the prophet is perhaps referring to the same period as here) he names the same place : “ The Lord “ hath a sacrifice in Bozrah, and a great “ slaughter in the land of Idumea," (i. e. Edom.)

(z) “I," i. e. (probably) “ the Messiah, “the righteous Saviour." In Rev. xix. 11. 13. 15, 16. is a description of our Saviour, strongly corresponding with this chapter : " I saw heaven opened, and be“ hold a white horse : and he that sat upon “ him was called faithful and true, and in “ righteousness he doth judge and make

war: he was clothed with a vesture dipped in blood, and his name is called « « the Word of God:' and out of his “ mouth goeth a sharp sword, that with it “ he should smite the nations : and he shall “ rule them with a rod of iron : and he

treadeth the wine-press of the fierceness “and wrath of Almighty God."

" was none with me: for I (a) | said, “ Surely they are my people, " will tread them in mine anger, “ children that will not lie:" so " and trample them in my fury; he was their Saviour. 9. In all " and their blood shall be sprinkled their affliction he was afflicted,

upon my garments, and I will and the (e) angel of his presence “ stain all niy raiment. 4. For the saved them : in his love and in "day of vengeance is in mine his pity he redeemed them; and "heart, and the year of my re- he bare them, and carried them “ deemed is come. 5. And I all the days of old. 10. But they " looked, and there was none to (8) rebelled, and vexed his holy “(6) help; and I wondered that Spirit: therefore he was turned to " there was none to uphold: there- be their enemy, and he fought "fore mine own arm brought sal against them. 11. Then he re“vation unto me; and my fury, membered the days of old, Moses “it upheld me.

6. And I will and his people, saying, “ Where “ tread down the people in mine (h) is he that brought them up

anger, and make them drunk in “out of the sea with the shepherd "my fury, and I will bring down " of his flock ? Where is he that " their strength to the earth.” “put his holy Spirit within him ? 7. I will mention the loving-“ 12. that led them by the right kindness of the (c) Lord, and the “ hand of Moses with his glorious praises of the (c) Lord, according “ arm, dividing the water before to all that the (c) Lord hath be- “ them, to make himself an everstowed on us, and the great good- “ lasting name? 13. that led them ness toward the house of Israel, “ through the deep, as an horse which he hath bestowed on them “ in the wilderness, that they according to his mercies, and ac- “ should not stumble?" 14. As a cording to the multitude of his beast goeth down into the valley, loving-kindnesses. 8. For he (d) the Spirit of the (c) Lord caused

(a) u. 3. “ Will tread." Should not this and the other verbs be in the past tense ?

(6) v. 5. “None to help,” i. e. (perhaps) "no chance of deliverance by human “ means."

(c) v. 7. 14. 16, 17. “ The Lord,” in the Hebrew “ Jehovah,” in the Greek Kúpros. See ante, 29. note (m).

(d) v. 8. “ He said," i.e. “ there was " time when he so said ; when he had so "great a kindness towards them.”

le) v. 9. “ The angel of his presence." A strong expression, to signify the peculiar protection he afforded them; as if an angel of especial rank attended to their preservation. In Matt. xviii. 9. 10. where our Saviour is speaking of the consideration God bas of little children, he assigns as a reason why they should not be despised, " that in heaven their angels do always

“ behold the face of my Father which is " in heaven." So Ps. xxxiv. 7. the angel

of the Lord,is said to tarry round about them that fear him, and to deliver them.

(g) v. 10. “Rebelled, &c." See Ps. lxxviii. and cvi. an account of many of their rebellions and punishments, and of God's ultimate forbearance; when, accord. ing to Ps. lxxviii. 39. “ many a time turned “ he his wrath away, and would not suffer “ his whole displeasure to arise."

(h) v. 11. “ Where is he, &c." These, to the end of v. 13. if not of v. 14. are put as the words of Moses and the people ; as their expostulation with God. In Exod. xxxii. 11 to 13. and Numb. xiv. 13 to 19. there is a similar expostulation from Moses, lo induce God to spare the people. It is often stated as a reason for God's forgive


him to rest; so didst thou lead thy | while: our adversaries have trodpeople, to make thyself a glorious den down thy sanctuary. 19. We

15. Look down from hea- are thine : thou never barest rule ven, and behold from the habita- over them; they were not called tion of thy holiness and of thy by thy name. glory: Where is thy zeal and thy strength, the sounding of thy The Gospel. Mark xiv. 1. bowels and of thy mercies toward me ? are they restrained ? 16. After two days was the feast of Doubtless thou art our Father, the (i) passover, and of unleathough Abraham be ignorant of vened bread : and the chief priests us, and Israel acknowledge us and the scribes sought how they not: thou, O Lord, art our Father, might take him by craft, and put our edeemer; thy name is from him to death.

2. But they said, everlasting. 17. O Lord, why hast “ Not on the feast-day, lest there thou made us to err from thy ways, “ be an uproar of the people.” and hardened our heart from thy 3. And being in Bethany, in the fear? Return for thy servants' house of Simon the leper, as he sake, the tribes of thine inherit- sat at meat, there came a (k) wo

18. The people of thy holi- man having an alabaster-box of ness have possessed it but a little ointment of spikenard, very pre


ness to the Israelites, or as a ground for directed to take a male lamb, without imploring it, that his name should not be blemish, and to kill, dress, and eat it; polluted among the heathen, and that the and they were to take of the blood, and heathen should not have the power of strike it on the side posts and the upper saying, “ where is now their God.” See door posts of their houses, and God proEzek. xx. 9. 14. 22. and Ps. Ixxix. 10. and mised, that “when he passed through the ante, 85. Joel ii. 17.

“ land, to destroy the first-born of the (i) v.1. “ The passover." The first of “ Egyptians, he would pass over the houses the three great feasts at each of which “ of the children of Israel.” See Exod. every male was to appear before the Lord xii. 3 to 28. One of the directions as to at the place which he should choose. (See the lamb was, that they should not break Deut. xvi. 1. 16.) Jews, therefore, from all a bone thereof." (See Exod. xii. 46. – parts of the earth, would be at Jerusalem Numb. ix. 12.) The paschal lamb is conat the time of our Saviour's apprehension sidered a type of our Saviour; he was and crucifixion. It is remarkable too, crucified at the time prescribed for killing that it was at the second of these feasts, the paschal lamb, and as the blood of the the feast of weeks, that the gift of tongues, paschal lamb protected the Israelites from the power of speaking languages they had temporal death, so does the blood of never learned, was conferred upon the Christ protect all real Christians from apostles. The same persons, therefore, death eternal. The paschal lamb was to who had witnessed the crucifixion, would be killed on the fourteenth day of the first be witnesses of the gift of tongues, and month, in the evening. Exod. xii. 2. 6.would naturally carry an account of both Numb. ix. 1. 3.- Levit. xxiii. 5. 6. events to the countries from which they (k) v. 3. “A woman." Either Mary, came. The passover was instituted to the sister of Lazarus, who lived at Bethany, commemorate the preservation of their and is referred to John xi. 2. as “that first-born, when all the first-born of the “ Mary, which anointed the Lord with ointEgyptians were destroyed; and the feast "ment,” (and see John xii. 3.) or Mary of unleavened bread, which accompanied Magdalen. Grotius Pole, and Dr. Townit, was to commemorate their deliverance son, (1 Towns. 73.) think it was the former; from the land of Egypt. At the institu- Dr. Hales the latter. 2 Hales, 241. tion of the passover, cach family was

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cious; and she brake the box, 12. And the first day of unleavened and poured it on his head. 4. And bread, when they killed the

passthere were (1) some that had in- over, his disciples said unto him, dignation within themselves, and “ Where wilt thou that we go and said, Why was this waste of prepare, that thou mayest eat “the ointment made? 5. For it “ the passover?”

13. And he might have been sold for more sendeth forth two (m) of his dis" than three hundred pence, and ciples, and saith unto them, “Go " have been given to the poor." (n) ye into the city, and there And they murmured against her. “shall meet you a man bearing a 6. And Jesus said, « Let her pitcher of water: follow him. " alone ; why trouble ye her? she “ 14. And wheresoever he shall “ hath wrought a good work on go in, say ye to the good man 7. For ye have the poor

“ of the house, The master saith, “ with you always, and whenso- “ Where is the guest-chamber, ever ye will ye may do them

“ where I shall eat the passover good : but me ye have not al- “ with my disciples ? 15. And he ways. 8. She hath done what

“ will shew you a large upper " she could : she is come afore- “room furnished and prepared: “hand to anoint my body to the

“ there make ready for us.” burying. 9. Verily I say unto 16. And his disciples went forth, “you, Wheresoever this gospel and came into the city, and found " shall be preached throughout as he had said unto them: and “ the whole world, this also that they made ready the passover. " she hath done shall be spoken 17. And in the evening he cometh “of for a memorial of her." with the twelve. 18. And as they 10. And Judas Iscariot, one of the sat and did eat, Jesus said “

Verily twelve, went unto the chief priests, I say unto you, One of you to betray him unto them. 11. And “ which eateth with me shall (0) when they heard it, they were

betray me.” 19. And they beglad, and promised to give him gan to be sorrowful, and to say money. And he sought how he unto him one by one, “ Is it I ? might conveniently betray him. and another said, « Is it I ?

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(7) o. 4. “ Some.” According to John pitcher of water, or that the master of the xii. 4. Judas Iscariot was the person who house should furnish them with a guestexpressed his indignation.

chamber, and that it should be an upper (m) v. 13. “ Two,” i. e. (according to room, and prepared ; and yet within a very Luke xxii. 8.) “ Peter and John." This few hours they were so disconcerted and therefore occurred in the presence of alarmed by his apprehension, that they all Peter

, who is supposed to bave overlooked forsook him and fled. A conduct he preSt. Mark's Gospel. Theaccount is more ex- dicts, v. 27. plicit than St. Matthew's, (Matt. xxvi. 17.) (o) v. 18. “ Shall betray me.” Another so that this is an instance that St. Mark's strong instance of fore-knowledge. Peter, Gospel is not merely an abridgement of must have heard it, and so must St. MatSt. Matthew's.

thew and St. John, who have also recorded (n) “ Go, &c." These instances of it. Matt. xxvi. 21. - John xiii. 21. The foreknowledge would naturally tend to recollection of these instances after the confirm the apostles' belief. How could resurrection would have a tendency to he foresee, but through the power of God, strengthen their faith, had it required adthat they would meet a man, bearing a ditional support.

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