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been powerfully impressed by the awful authority of the eye, the voice, the whole bearing of Jesus, and that, thus acted upon, his mind put forth a sudden and unexpected force, and sent life and vigour through the diseased hand. The authority of the mind over a healthy limb, saving that we are familiar with it, is not less miraculous and inscrutable than its influence in this instance over a withered member. Could the scales of familiarity fall from our eyes, could our minds only be emancipated from the thraldom of custom,

Heavy as frost and deep almost as life,"

the views now suggested might hope to find favour.

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Even the case of the Centurion's son or servant, who was cured of palsy by Jesus while he was at a distance from him, which may seem to contradict our theory, admits, without any violence done to probabilities, of the supposition of a strong mental influence. The Centurion was a man of uncommon sensibility and faith. He was beloved by the Jews. His confidence in the power of Jesus astonished our Saviour himself, and drew from him that memorable declaration, "Verily I say unto you, I have not found so great faith, no, not in Israel. Many shall come from the east and the west and the north and the south, and sit down with Abraham and Isaac and Jacob in the kingdom of Heaven, while the children of the kingdom shall be thrust out;" a declaration which shows most impressively how comprehensive were his aims, and how instinctively his regards extended beyond the narrow limits of his own nation.

THE DEMONIAC OF GADARA.

155 There must have been some congeniality of character between the Centurion and his favourite servant. The persons, who had gone to request the benevolent offices of Jesus, returned probably with the exciting intelligence that he was approaching. Who can doubt that this must have had a powerful effect upon the sufferer, connected, as it no doubt was, with the strong expressions of the Centurion's faith? Even if these suppositions may not be made, there remains the declaration of Jesus, "According to thy faith be it done unto thee."

Again. The accounts of the cure of the demoniac " of Gadara present some remarkable particulars pointing the same way. This case has occasioned much cavil, and it is not to be denied that it is pressed by difficulties. I have no explanation to propose which I can hope will prove satisfactory. But there are certain aspects under which it may be viewed, which wonderfully corroborate our doctrine. For instance, I do not know that it has ever been noticed, and yet it is a point well worthy of attention, that the evil spirits still held possession of the man, or rather he was still insane, even after Jesus had rebuked the demon and commanded him to come out of him. How is this circumstance to be reconciled with the idea that the miraculous power of Jesus was a power which had no regard in its exercise to conditions? Jesus commanded but he was not obeyed! The man was still crazy, he still spoke as if there were a legion of evil spirits in him, although his ferocity had vanished. In accordance with the foregoing representations, I adopt the following view of this case. I

suppose that the insanity of this man had been produced, or at least very much aggravated, by a fearful mental impression-the idea that he was possessed by evil spirits. In all ages popular superstitions and errors have had a large share in producing or confirming mental derangement. The belief of those days in the influence of malignant spirits must have had fearful effects upon excitable temperaments. The very circumstance that the Gadarene believed there was a Legion of demons in him, shows how strong was his conviction that he was possessed. Here then was the seat of his malady, in this fatal impression. And it had become so inveterate that it could be corrected only in a certain way and by means adapted to the nature of the case. Jesus rebuked the evil spirit, or in other words exerted his authority over the madman, and he became comparatively calm. And no doubt he would have remained so, as long as Jesus was present, but after his departure the man's derangement would in all probability have returned in all its violence. Jesus, perceiving that he was still possessed, or insane, asked his name, with a view no doubt to ascertain the state of the case. And here it does not appear to have been sufficiently considered, that the proposal to send the evil spirits into the swine did not come from Jesus but from the maniac. It was the suggestion of insanity, and it appears to me to be characterized by the cunning of insanity. While the unhappy man took care to speak in the character of the evil spirits by whom he believed himself possessed, it would seem as if he were actuated by a secret desire to have

157

THE DEMONIAC OF GADARA.

decisive evidence, ocular proof that they had really forsaken him, and so he proposed that they should be sent into the swine. It was an insane proposal, but the result was exactly fitted to act upon and satisfy a diseased mind, to restore it to soundness and relieve it of the fatal impression under which it laboured. The fate of the swine was calculated to convince the man that the malignant influence was no longer exerted upon him. How the swine were affected I cannot tell. I see no difficulty in supposing that they were visited with sudden mania at the will of Jesus. Nor does this supposition militate against his benevolence. If, as it appears, such a demonstration of power were necessary to relieve the mind of the madman of a fatal delusion, surely the value of the swine was not to be weighed against the welfare of a human being labouring under a terrible disease, and the comfort of the whole vicinity endangered by the ferocity of the maniac. No man could pass that way because he was so violent and savage.

I am not attempting a complete solution of this case. I would only observe that, so far as I am capable of seeing into it, it appears to warrant, in a remarkable manner, the views of the miraculous power of Jesus, which I offer. Here, so far at least as the madman was concerned, this extraordinary power appears to have been exerted, not in violation of, but in accordance with, the laws of the human mind.

In the accounts of the miracles of Jesus we find that he continually employed means of one kind or another, means confessedly inadequate of themselves to produce the designed effects, but still means.

When the leper came to him, he did not merely say, "I will, be thou clean," but he extended his hand and touched the leper. In the case of the man born blind, he spat on the ground and made clay of the spittle and anointed the eyes of the blind man. And in another case, when an individual was brought to him deaf, and with an impediment in his speech, he pursued a similar method, touching the tongue of the man. I am aware that it is said he did these things, in order to indicate decisively to those around him that the cures, the wonderful effects wrought, were produced by himself; that in the cure of the man born blind, which took place on the Sabbath, Jesus intended to discredit the childish tradition of the Pharisees, that forbade the use of any medicaments on that day, even so much as anointing the eyes with saliva. That these may have been his reasons for the methods he employed, I will not deny, and yet they do not wholly satisfy me. The naturalness and singleness of his character have been so mournfully obscured by his being so often represented as speaking and acting for effect, that I distrust every interpretation of his words or works, which goes not beyond this. Believing in the doctrine of his double nature and his absolute omniscience, men have lost all sense of the simplicity and sincerity of his character, and he has been regarded as speaking and acting, not from any vital healthy impulse of his own nature, but merely with a view to others. When, for instance, he marvels at the faith of the Centurion, it is not, if we adopt the common belief, to be imagined that he was really astonished, or that he was not previously per

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