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CONTENTS OF VOL. II.
Chap. • Pagz
II. Medical History 28
III. Legal and Constitutional History 68
IV. Fiscal History 90
V. Agricultural History 112,
VI. Commercial History 130
VII. Of the Arts 136
VIII. Nntural History 152
IX. Literary History 196
X. Miscellaneous History—Virtues, Vices, Customs, Diversions, &<:., of
the inhabitants 213
Manners and Character 228
Fecundity, Population, and Longevity 231
XI. Civil History, from the termination of the Revolutionary Wor in 1783
to the year 1808 235
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF LITERARY MEN,
AND OTHER DISTINGUISHED CHARACTERS.
Lionel Chalmers, M D 251
Rev. Richard Clarke 251
William Henry Drayton 252
Christopher Gadsden - 253
Rev. Commissary Garden 256
Alexander Garden, M. D 256
Maj. John James 257
Sir Nathaniel Johnson 258
John Lining, M. D 260
Henry Laurens — 260
John Laurens 264
Gabriel Manigault 266
Peter Manigault 267
Thomas Reese, D. D 267
Col. William Rhett 268
John Rutledge 269
Edward Rutledge 272
Rev. Josiah Smith, A. M 273
Rev. William Tcnnent, A. M 274
Nicholas Trott, L.L.D 275
William Wragg 276
I. A Statistical Account of Edisto Island 278
II. A Statistical Account of St. Stephen's District 291
III. A Statistical View of Pendleton District 295
IV. A Statistical Account of Orangeburg District 299
V. A Statistical Account of Beaufort 301
VI. A Statistical Account of Georgetown 302
VII. A Statistical Account of Claremont District 305
VIII. A Statistical Account of Camden 306
IX. A General View of the upper country 307
The growing importance of the United States excites an increasing curiosity to be acquainted with their early history. Of their wars and of their late revolution much has been written, but a development of the causes which, in less than two centuries, have raised them from poverty to riches—from ignorance to knowledge— from weukness to power—from a handful of people to u mighty multitude— from rude woodsmen to polished citizens —from colonies guided by the leading strings of a distant island to a well regulated, self-governed community, has not been sufficiently the subject of attention. It is a work of too much magnitude to be incorporated in a general history of the whole, and cannot be done to purpose otherwise than by local histories of particular provinces or states. Much useful knowledge on these subjects is already lost, and more is fast hastening to oblivion. A considerable portion of it can now only be recovered by a recurrence to tradition—for records of many events worthy of being transmitted to posterity have either never been made, or if made have been destroyed. Every day that minute local histories of these states are deferred is an injury to posterity—for by means thereof more of that knowledge which ought to be transmitted to them will be irrecoverably lost. These views were so forcibly impressed on the author of the following work, that he began many years ago to collect materials for writing a detailed history of the State in which Providence had cast his lot. In vain did he expect complete information from public records. On many interesting subjects they were silent—the most early were illegible—others were lost in the hurricanes or fires which at several successive periods have desolated Charleston, Much of what escaped from these calamities was destroyed in the invasion of the State by the British in 1779 and 1780. Of what remained every practicable use was made; but to remedy their defects, application was made to the only repositories of facts on which reliance could be placed. This was the recollection of old citizens and especially of such as were the descendants of the first settlers. To them, in the year 1798, he addressed semi circular letter and queries on a variety of subjects connected with the history of Clo These were sent to
•Sim— Having made some progress in collecting materials for a general History of South-carolina from its first settlement, I beg the favor of you to furnish me, in Charleston, with information on any subjects that may properly be incorporated in such a work; and in particular, with answers to all or any of the following inquiries, at least as far as they respect the vicinity of your residence. If you should not have leisure for this purpose, I request that you would put them in the hands of some suitable person who may be willing to collect and transmit the wished-for informat ion.
I am, your most obedient, humble servant,
Charleston, November 19,1798. DAVID RAMSAY.
The time when the settlement of your parish or county began? the date of the oldest grants of land; aad the place from which the first settlers migrated, with some account of the most remarkable of them?
The Indian name of your parish or county ; what tribes of Indians formerly occupied it? notice of their monuments and relics which may remain f if they have disappeared, when and by what means? if still in y^ar settlement, or tho vicinity, what is their present state, condition and number?
Biographical anecdotes of persons in your settlement, who have been distinguished for their ingenuity, enterprise, literature, talents civil or military?
Topographical descriptions of your parish or county, or its vicinity—its mountains, rivers, ponds, animals, useful and rare vegetable productions; stones, especially such as may be useful for mills, lime, architecture, pavements, or for other purposes; remarkable falls, caverns, minerals, sands, clays, chalk, flint, marble, pitooal, pigments, medicinal or poisonous substances, their uses and antidotes 1
The former and present state of cultivation; What changes has it undergone; an account of the first introduction of rice, indigo, Ac. Ma ideas of further improvements, either as to the introduction of new staples or the improvement of the old, or with respect to roads, bridges, canals, opening the navigation of the rivers or boat&Me waters?
An estimate of the expenses and profits of a well-cultivated field, of any given dimensions, say 20 acres, in tobacco, cotton, rice, wheat, or corn, with the average price of land?
The distinction of soils, with a notice of the productions to which they are respectively best adapted; a notice of the different kinds of useful timber; the proportion between cleared and uncleared land; and of the proportions between the number of inhabitants and number of acres?
What are the natural advantages in your vicinity for the erection of mills, and for other labor-saving machinery: for catching and curing fish, and for raising stock f
singular instances of longevity and fecundity? observations on the weather, epidemic and other diseases, and the influence of the climate or of particular situations, employments or aliments; and especially the effects of spirituous liquors on the human constitution J
Is your population, distinguishing white from black, increasing, decreasing, or stationary ; and the causes and evidences thereof?
well informed- persons in every part of the State, and afterwards printed in the newspapers. In consequence thereof, much useful information bus been received.
All the early histories which treat of Carolina were attentively perused, but from them little of consequence could be obtained. Dr. Hewat's historical account of the rise and progress of the colonies of South Carolina and Georgia, was read with much more advantage—on it greater reliance was placed—nnd of it more use has been made, than of all the histories which had preceded. To him every Carolinian ought to be obliged for preserving many useful facts which otherwise would before this day have been forgotten. Ilia valuable work was written shortly before the American Revolution, when tradition went further back and was more recent than at present. Much of the information contained therein is said to have been derived from Lieutenant-Governor William Bull, who had been a public officer since 1740, and who was the son of Lieutenant-Governor Bull, and the grandson of Stephen Bull, who had held public offices in succession from the very first settlement of the colony. For the thirty-four eventful years of revolutionary war and .civil improvements which have intervened since Dr. Hewat wrote and the year' 1808, the author has been n cotemporary witness of nit, and an actor in several of the scenes which are the ground-work of the history of South Carolina in that interesting period. *
Chalmers' political annals of the united colonies also afforded many statements of which use has been made. His knowledge was derived from an authentic source, the plantation office. In dates and early matters of fact, where he differed from other writers, his authority has been considered as paramount; but in matters of opinion, his assertions have been received with large allowance for the principles and feelings of a man who, in consequence of his adherence to the King of Great Britain, was not permitted to continue an inhabitant of the United Mates during their revolutionary struggle for independence.
Governor Drayton's view of South Carolina affords more interesting detailed views of the interior economy of the Suite than had ever been given. His official station and duties as governor opened to him sources of information inaccessible to all preceding writers. Much original matter previously unnoticed is contained in his valuable work, and of it^ise has been made in the following pages.
After the proposals had been issued for publishing the History of South Carolina, and the greater part of it had been written, a flood of local intelligence, in answer to the preceding queries, poured in on the author. Much of this came too late to be incorporated in its proper place; it was too valuable to be suppressed, and was therefore introduced in the appendix in the form of statistical accounts. To his many correspondents, the author returns the warmest acknowledgments for their valuable communications, which will be noticed in their proper place To the Reverend Donald M'Leod he is under very particular obligations for his minute, accurate, and satisfactory account of Edisto Island, and he begs leave to recommend it to others as a model worthy of imitation. If one or more persons in the different districts or other portions of the State, will take the trouble of furnishing statements on the plan of Mr. M'Leod, the author pledges himself, if his life in spared, to connect the whole in one view, nnd give it to the public as n statistical account of South Carolina. If this proposal should be carried into effect a collection of facts useful to philosophers, legislators, physicians and divines, would bo brought to light. The interior economy of the State, which is now the least known of any one in the Union, would become the most known. South Carolina would rise in the esteem of the citizens of other Stntes, many of whom, from not knowing better, load it with reproaches it does not deserve, and deny it much of that credir to which it is justly entitled
Charleston, December 3 \st, 1808.
What manufactures are carried on? how have they heen affected by the independence of these States, and by the establishment of the federal constitution; and your thoughts on the further improvements of them? what public libraries have you? what encouragement is given to schools and colleges? and what has been done, or is doing, to advance literature or diffuse knowledfr,'?
What churches are there in your parish or county; how long have thev been erected; how are they supplied with preachers? how are they attended on days of public worship? what has been done, or is doing, to promote morality and religion among the people?
The date, extent, consequences, and other circumstances of freshets, whirlwinds, hurricanes, or other remarkable events, which have taken place, as far back as can be recollected, in your county or parish?
CIVIL HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA. CHAPTER I.
Columbus, by the discovery of America, introduced the Old World to an acquaintance with the new. No sooner was the existence of a Western Continent known to the maritime powers of Europe, than they eagerly rushed forth to seize a portion of it for themselves. Though that part of the American coast which stretches from the 36th degree of north latitude to St. Augustine, was claimed by Spain, England and France, yet they all for a long time neglected it . Nearly two centuries passed away subsequent to its discovery, before any permanent settlement was established in the tract of country which is now called Carolina and Georgia. That germ of civilized population which took root, flourished, and spread in South Carolina, was first planted at or near Port Royal, in 1670, by a few emigrants from England, under the direction of William Sayle, the first Governor of the province. Dissatisfied with that situation, they removed, in 1671, to the Western banks of Ashley river, and there laid the foundation of old Charlestown,on a plantation now belonging to Elias Lynch Horry. This site was injudiciously chosen, for it could not be approached by vessels of large burden, and was therefore abandoned. A second removal took place to Oyster Point, formed by the confluence of the rivers Ashley and Cooper. There, in the year 1680,* the foundation of the present city of Charleston was laid, and in one year, thirty houses were built. Neither the number of these first settlers, nor their names, with the exception of William Sayle and Joseph West, have reached posterity. They could not, however, have been many; for all of them, together with provisions, arms, and utensils, requisite for their support, defence, and comfort, in a country inhabited only by savages, were brought from England to Carolina in two vessels. To increase the population, was a primary object. There is no evidence of
• A monument in the Circular Church, erected to the memory of Hubert Trade], Mates, " that he was the tirst male child born in Charlestown," and "that he died on the 30th of March, 1731. in the 52d year of his age." Though the precise time of his birth is not mentioned, the whole accords with other historic evidence, that Charlestown began to be built in 1660.
any plan to procure settlers of any uniform description, either as to politics or religion, farther than that a decided preference was given to protestants. The emigrants were a medley of different nations and principles. From England the colony received both Roundheads and Cavaliers, the friends of the parliament, and the adherents to the royal family. The servants of the crown, from motives of policy, encouraged the emigration of the former; and grants of land were freely bestowed on the latter, as a reward of their loyalty. Liberty of conscience, which was allowed to every one by the charter, proved a great encouragement to emigration. The settlement commenced at a period when conformity to the Church of England was urged with so high a hand, as to bear hard on many good men. In the reign of Charles the Second and James the Second, and till the revolution, which was eighteen years subsequent to the settlement of the province, dissenters labored under many grievances. They felt much and feared more; for, in common with many others, they entertained serious apprehensions of a popish successor to the crown of England. Men of this description, from a laudable jealousy of the rights of conscience, rejoiced in the prospect of securing religious liberty, though at the expense of exchanging the endearments of home, and cultivated society for the wilds of America. Such cheerfully embraced the offers of the proprietors; and from them Carolina received a considerable number of its earliest settlers.
The inducements to emigration were so many and so various, that every year brought new adventurers to the province. The friends of the proprietors were allured to it by the prospect of obtaining landed states at an easy rate. Others took refuge in it from the frowns of fortune, and the rigor of creditors. Young men reduced to misery by folly and excess, embarked for the new settlement, where they had leisure to reform, and where necessity taught them the unknown virtues of prudence and temperance. Hestless spirits, fond of roving, were gratified by emigration, and found in a new country abundant scope for enterprise and adventure.
Besides individual emigrants, the colony frequently received groupes of settlers, from their attachment to particular leaders, some common calamity, or general impulse. The first of these was a small colony from Barbadoes, which arrived in 1671, under the auspices of Sir John Yeamans, who had obtained a large grant of land from the proprietors. With these were introduced the first, and for a considerable time, the only slaves that were in Carolina .
Shortly after, the colony received a valuable addition to its strength from the Dutch settlement of Nova-Belgia. This in