« السابقةمتابعة »
1674 was conquered by England, and thereupon acquired the name of New York. After their subjugation, many of the Dutch colonists, dissatisfied with their new masters, determined to emigrate. The proprietors of Carolina offered them lands, and sent two ships for their accommodation, which conveyed a considerable number of them to Charlestown. Stephen Bull, Surveyor General of the colony, had instructions to mark out lands on the south west side of Ashley river, for their accommodation. They drew lots for their property, and formed a town which was called Jamestown. This was the first colony of Dutch settlers in Carolina. Their industry surmounted incredible hardships, and their success induced many from ancient Belgia afterwards to follow them to the western world. The inhabitants of Jamestown, finding their situation too narrow, spread themselves over the country, and the town was deserted.
In 1679, King Charles II. ordered two small vessels to be provided at his expense, to transport to Carolina several foreign protestants, who proposed to raise wine, oil, silk and other productions of the south. Though they did not succeed in enriching the country with these valuable commodities, their descendants form a part of the present inhabitants.
The revocation of the edict of Nantz, fifteen years subsequent to the settlement of Carolina, contributed much to its population. In it, soon after that event, were transplanted from France the stocks from which have sprung the respectable families of Bonneau, Bounetheau, Bordeaux, Benoist, Boiseau, Bocquet, Bacot, Chevalier, Cordes, Courterier, Chastaignier, Dupre, Delysle, Dubose, Dubois, Deveaux, Dutarque, De la Consiliere, De Leiseline, Douxsaint, Dupont, Du Bourdien, D’Harriette, Faucheraud, Foissin, Faysoux, Gaillard, Gendron, Gignilliat, Guerard, Godin, Girardeaux, Guerin, Gourdine, Horry, Huger, Jeannerette, Legare, Laurens, La Roche, Lenud, Lansac, Marion, Mazyck, Manigault,* Melli
* A letter written in French by Judith Manigault, the wife of Peter Manigault, who were the founders of the worthy family of that name, may give some faint idea of the sufferings of these French protestant refugees. This lady, when about twenty years old, embarked in 1655 tor Carolina, by the way of London. After her arrival, she wrote to her brother a letter, giving an acrount of her adventures. This letter translated into English, is as follows :-"Since you desire it, I will give you an account of our quitting France, and of our arrival in Carolina. During eight months, we had suffered from the contributions and the quartering of the soldiers, with many other inconveniences. We therefore resolved on quitting France by night, leaving the soldiers in their beds, and abandoning the house with its furniture. We contrived to hide ourselves at Romans, in Dauphigny, for ten days, while a search was made after us; but our hostess being faithful, did not heiray us when questioned if she had seen us. From thence we passed to Lyons - from thence to Dijon—from which place, as well as from Langres, my eldest brother wrote to you ; but I know not if either of the letters reached you. He informed you that we were quitting France. He went to Madame de Choiseul's, which was of no avail as she was dead, and her son-in-law had the command of
champ, Mouzon, Michau, Neufville, Prioleau,* Peronneau, Perdriau, Porcher, Postell, Peyre, Poyas, Ravenel, Royer, Simons, Sarazin, St. Julien, Serre, Trezevant.
These, and several other French protestants, in consequence of the revocation of the Edict of Nantz, repaired to Carolina, and became useful inhabitants. Many of their descendants have been, and are, respectable and distinguished citizens.* They generally at first established themselves on Santee
every thing: moreover, he gave us to understand that he perceived our intention of quilling France, and if we asked any favors from hin, he would intorm against us. We therefore made the best of our way for Metz, in Lorraine, where we embarked on the river Moselle, in order to go io Treves-from thence we passed to Cocbieim, and to Coblentz- from thence to Cologue, where we quilled the Rbine, to go by land to Wesel-where we met with an host, who spoke a little French, and who informed us we were only thirty leagues from Lunenbury. We knew that you were in winter quarters there, by a letter of yours, received fifteen days before our departure from France, which mentioned that you should winter there. Our deceased mother and myself earnestly besought my eldest brother to go that way with us; or, leaving us with her, to pay you a visit alone. It was in ihe depth of winter: but he would not hear of it, having Carolina so much in his head that he dreaded losing any opportunity of going thither. Oh, what grief the losing so fine an opportunity of seeing you at least once more, has caused me! How have I regretted seeing a brother show so little feeling, and how often have I reproached him with it! but he was our master, and we were constrained to do as he pleased. We passed on to Holland, to go from thence 1o England. I do not recollect exactly the year, whether stor '85, but it was that in which King Charles of England died, (Feb. 1685.) We remained in London three months, waiting for a passage to Carolina. Having embarked, we were sadly off: the spotted fever made its appearance on hoard our vessel, of which disease many died, and among Them our aged mother. Nine months elapsed before our arrival in Carolina. We touched at iwo ports--one a Portuguese, and the other an island called Bermuda, belonging to the English, to refit our vessel, which had been much injured in a storm. Our Captain having commilied some misdeineanor. was put in prison, and the vessel seized. Our money was all spent, and it was with great difficulty we pro. cured a passage in another vessel. Atier our arrival in Carolina, we sutiered every kind of evil. In about eighteen months our elder brother, unaccustonied to the hard labor we had to undergo, died of a fever. Since leaving France we had experienced every kind of aflliciion-disease--pestilence-famine-poverty-hard labor. I have been for six inonths together withoutlasting bread, working the ground like a slave; and I have even passed three or four years without always having it * when I wanted it. God has done great things for us, enabling us to bear up under so many trials. I should never have done, were I to attempt to detail to you all our adventures. Let it sutlice that God has had compassion on me. and changed my fate to a more happy one, for wbich glory be unto hini." The writer of the above letter died in 1711, seven years after she had given birth to Gabriel Manigault, who in a long and useful life accumulated a fortune so large, as enabled him to aid the asylın of his persecuted parents with a loan of $220,000, for carrying on its revoluuonary struggle for liberty and independence. This was done at an early period of the contest, when no man was certain whether it would terminate in a revolution or a rebellion.
* The Rev. Elias Prioleau, the founder of the eminently respectable family of that name in Carolina, inigrated thither soon afier the revocation of the Edict of Nantz, and brought with him from France a considerable part of his protestant congregation. He was the grandson of Anthoine Prioli, who was elected Doge of Venice in the year 1618. Many of his numerous descendants, who were born and constantly resided in or near Charleston, have approached or exceeded their 70th year; and several have survived, or now survive their suih.
+ Three of the nine Presidents of the old Congress which conducted the United States through the revolutionary war, were descendants of French protestant refugees, who had migrated to America in consequence of the revocation of the Edict of Nantz. The persons alluded to were Henry Laurens, of South Carolina; John Jay, of New York; and Elias Boudinot, of New Jersey.
river; and from them that part of the country in old maps was called French Santee,
Besides these French refugees who came directly from France, there was a considerable number which, after a short residence in the northern countries of Europe and of America, particularly New York, repaired to Carolina, as a climate more similar to the one from which they had been driven, than the bleaker regions to which they had first resorted. Thus Carolina became a general rendezvous of French protestants, as had been originally contemplated by one of their distinguished leaders, shortly after the discovery of America. *
in the year 1696, Carolina received a small accession of inhabitants, by the arrival of a congregational church from Dorchester in Massachusetts, who, with their minister, the Rev. Joseph Lord, settled in a body near the head of Ashley river, about twenty-two miles from Charlestown.
In the year 1712 the Assembly passed a law directing the public receiver to pay out of the treasury, fourteen pounds current money to the owners or importers of each healthy male British servant, not a criminal, betwixt the age of twelve and thirty years.
No considerable groups of settlers are known to have emigrated to South Carolina, between 1696 and 1730, but the province continued to advance in population from the arrival of many individuals. It in particular received a considerable accession of inhabitants from Georgia, at the first settlement of that Colony. The Colonists there were prohibited the use
*As early as the year 1562 Admiral Coligny, a zealous Huguenot, formed a project for founding an asylum for French protestants in America. He succeeded so far as to affect a settlement under the direction of John Ribault somewhere on the coast of Carolina, most probably on or near the island of St. Helena. These French settlers not being well supported, became discontented; and afterwards the whole of them put to sea, with a scanty stock of provisions. Pinched with hunger they killed one of their number, who consented to be made a victim to save his comrades. The survivors were taken up by an English ship, and carried into England. Two years after, or in 1564, M. Rene Laudonniere, with a consider. able reinforcement, arrived at the river of May on the same coast after it had been abandoned. This second groupe of French protestants was killed by Pedro Melendez a Spanish officer, who had received orders from his King to drive the Huguenots out of the country, and to settle it with good Catholics. In execution of this order he hung several of the French seuilers, and suspended over them a label signifying, "I do not do this as to Frenchmen, but as to Lutherans." The Spanish conqnerers took the stand of the vanquished French and fortified it. But their cruelty was retaliated by Dominique De Gourges, who soon after sailed from France with a considerable force. On his arrival he successfully attacked the Spanish seulement, and after killing many in action, he hung the survivors on the same trees in which his countrymen had been previously hung, and with a searing iron, impressed on a tablet of wood this inscription, “I do not do this as to Spaniards, but as to robbers and murderers." The victors, atter razing the forts and destroying the settlement, returned to France. The country, thus abandoned by both French and Spaniards, remained in the undisturbed possession of the Indians for more than a hundred years. Soon after the end of that period, it was taken possession of by the English, and under their auspices became an asylum for French protestants, as it had been originally intended by Admiral Coligny:
of spirituous liquors, and were not suffered to own slaves. Several of them soon found that Carolina would suit them better. In a few years after the royal purchase of the province in 1729, vigorous measures, which shall be hereafter related, were adopted by government for filling the country with inhabitants. Contracts were made-bounties offered—free lands assignedand other inducements held out to allure settlers. The door was thrown open to protestants of all nations. Besides the distressed subjects of the British dominions, multitudes of the poor and unfortunate closed with these offers; and emigrated from Switzerland, Holland and Germany. Between the years 1730 and 1750, a great addition was made to the strength of the province from these sources; Orangeburg, Congaree, and Wateree, received a large proportion of the German emigrants.. Numbers of palatines arrived every year. The vessels which brought them over usually returned with a load of rice, and made profitable voyages. After some time the King of Prussia suddenly put a stop to this intercourse, by refusing to the emigrating palatines a passage through his dominions. Williamsburg township was the rendezvous of the Irish. The Swiss took their stand on the northeast banks of the river Savannah. Soon after the suppression of the rebellions of 1715 and 1745, in Scotland, many of the vanquished Highlanders were transported to, or voluntarily sought an asylum in South Carolina.
In the course of eighty-years, or about the middle of the 18th century, the most valuable lands in the low country were taken up; and settlements were gradually progressing Westwardly on favorite spots in the middle and upper country. The extinction of Indian claims by a cession of territory to the King, was necessary to the safety of the advancing settlers. This was obtained in 1755. In that year Governor Glen met the Cherokee warriors in their own country, and held a treaty with them. After the usual ceremonies were ended, the Governor made a speech to the assembled warriors in the name of his King; representing his great power, wealth, and goodness, and his particular regard for his children the Cherokees. He reminded them of the happiness they had long enjoyed by living under his protection; and added, that he had many presents to make them, and expected they would surrender a share of their territories in return. He informed them of the wicked designs of the French, and hoped they would permit none of them to enter their towns. He demanded lands to build two forts in their country, to protect thern against their enemies, and to be a retreat to their friends and allies, who furnished them with arms, ammunition, hatchets, clothes, and everything that they wanted.
When the Governor had finished his speech, Chulochcullak arose, and in answer spoke to the following effect : “ What I now speak, our father the great King should hear. We are brothers to the people of Carolina; one house covers us all." Then taking a boy by the hand, he presented him to the Governor saying, “ We, our wives, and our children, are all children of the great King George; I have brought this child, that when he grows up he may remember our agreement on this day, and tell it to the next generation, that it may be known forever.” Then opening his bag of earth, and laying the same at the Governor's feet, he said : “ We freely surrender a part of our lands to the great King. The French want our possessions, but we will defend them while one of our nation shall remain alive.” Then delivering the Governor a string of wampum, in confirmation of what he said, he added ; " My speech is at an end-it is the voice of the Cherokee nation. I hope the Governor will send it to the King, that it may be kept for ever."
At this congress, a prodigious extent of territory was ceded to the King of England. Deeds of conveyance were drawn up, and formally executed, by the head men of the Cherokees in the name of the whole nation. It contained not only much rich land, but an air and climate more healthy than in the maritime parts.
It exhibited many pleasant and romantic scenes, formed by an intermixture of beautiful hills-fruitful valleys—rugged rocks—clear streams, and pleasant waterfalls. The acquisition, at that time, was of importance to Carolina; for it removed the savages at a greater distance from the settlements, and allowed the inhabitants liberty to extend backwards in proportion as their numbers increased.
After the cession of these lands, governor Glen built a fort about three hundred miles from Charlestown. This was afterwards called fort Prince George, and was situated on the banks of the river Savannah, and within gun shot of an Indian town called Keowee. About an hundred and seventy miles farther down, a second stronghold, called fort Moore, was constructed in a beautiful commanding situation, on the banks of the same river. In the year following a third fort was erected, called fort Loudon, among the upper Cherokees, situated on Tennessee river, upwards of five hundred miles from Charlestown.
At the time Governor Glen was procuring additional territory for South Carolina, the events of war were furnishing inhabitants for its cultivation. The province of Nova Scotia was originally settled by the French, under the name of Acadiè. When the province was surrendered to the English, by the treaty of Utrecht, it was stipulated for the inhabitants