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Greek heterodoxy, the proceedings of the king of England LIAM II ell under debate: and here his outrages to religion, and K. of Eng. his incorrigibleness, after frequent admonition, were so strongly represented, that the pope, at the instance of the council, was just going to pronounce him excommunicated. Here Anselm, immediately falling at the pope's feet, en- He prevents treated him to stop the censure; and his holiness, though the king's with some difficulty, was prevailed on by him. And now communithe council, who admired Anselm before for his parts and learning, were farther charmed with him for his Christianity and good nature; to see him return good for evil in so remarkable an instance, and interpose for the king, who had used him so very roughly.
This year the Cistercian order was founded. It pretends to refine upon the rule, or at least upon the practice of the Benedictines. Robert, abbot of Molesm, in the diocese of Langres, began the institution, though the first lines of this scheme were struck out by one Harding, or Stephen, an English monk of Sherburn. This Stephen quitted his monastery of Sherburn, and travelled into France, and from thence to Rome, where, after he had studied for some time, he began to relish the monastick way of living better than formerly. Upon this change of inclination he goes to the abbey of Molesm, and enters himself a monk there. And being pressed to some duties which he thought foreign to St. Bennet's rule, he desired to be satisfied. This occasioned a dispute in the convent, where Harding persuaded the abbot and part of the brothers to discharge themselves from all superfluous observances, and be governed only by the substance and fundamentals of the rule. However, the bulk of the convent could not be gained to any reformation. Robert, therefore, with eighteen of his monks, of which Harding was one, retired into a desert, in the diocese of Chalons, called Cistellæ, or Cistercium, where, by the assistance of Otho 1., duke of Burgundy, and Walter, bishop of Chalons, he built the first abbey of this distinction; Hugo, bishop of Lyons, pope Urban's legate, approving the institution, Robert received his pastoral staff from the bishop of Chalons. But being ordered by the pope to return to Molesm the next year, one Albericus, a monk of character, was made abbot in his place. Stephen Harding succeeded him
ANSELM, in that post about ten years after, under whom this religious Abp. Cant. colony flourished and spread exceedingly. The famous St. Bernard and his companions were received into the society; upon this they made a great figure, and were raised to a very considerable interest in most parts of Europe. This order came over into England in the year 1128, and was first settled in the abbey of Waverley, in Surrey.
These Cistercian monks were tied to severe discipline, and thought themselves obliged to every circumstance of their rule. Their custom is to sleep in their clothes, and never return to their bed after matins. The abbot has no privilege of liberty above the convent, only he is not obliged to eat with the monks, his table being assigned for the entertainment of poor people and strangers; they are never allowed above two dishes, and none but those that are sick are indulged in a flesh diet. From the middle of September to Easter they never eat above once a day upon any holidays, excepting Sundays. They make use of the Ambrosian hymns and way of singing, and never stir out of Malmsb. de the cloister, unless to work in the fields, Gest. Reg. 1. 4. fol. 71, 72.
After the synod of Bari was ended, the pope and Anselm returned to Rome, where they found an agent sent from nal. tom. 11. the king of England to disprove Anselm's allegations, and
answer his complaints against his highness. The English ambassador told the pope, that his master was surprised at his holiness's order for putting Anselm in possession of his archbishoprick, since he positively acquainted that prelate what he must expect in case he quitted the realm without leave. The pope asked the ambassador if he had anything farther in his instructions against Anselm? He answered, nothing: "Could you, then," says the pope, "think it worth your while to fatigue yourself with so long a voyage only to tell me that your primate was stript of all his fortune only for appealing to St. Peter's award? If therefore you have any regard for your master, return immediately, and tell him, that unless he will venture the highest censure of the Church, his method will be to restore Anselm forthwith to all his property and privilege." The ambassador, being shocked with this answer, told the pope he had something farther to communicate, and desired a private audience.
Monast. Anglic. vol. 1. p. 703.
The court of
by the Eng
sador, desert Anselm.
And to work his purpose the better, he began to try the interest of his purse; and thus by presents and promises he LIAM II. persuaded the pope to relax a little, and, whereas the king's time for performance was fixed at Easter, he got it pro- Rome,bribed rogued to Michaelmas. This story is modestly told in a few lish ambaswords by Eadmer; but Malmsbury enlarges with more freedom upon the prevarication. He tells us, the pope was Eadmer. under some difficulty and irresolution about the matter; P. 52. that his regard for Anselm kept him tight at first, and that Gest. Ponfor some time he hung in suspense between conscience and tif. 1. 1. fol. interest, but was at last overbalanced by the consideration of a good present. And here Malmsbury declaims with a great deal of honesty and satire against the prevalency of money. He is so frank as to say, it was a scandalous thing for a person of his station to prostitute his credit and conscience, and give up the point of justice for the sake of a little pelf. When Anselm perceived how matters went, he thought it was to no purpose to lose any more time upon a mercenary man, and that it was most advisable to return to Lyons. But the pope would by no means part with him, and, to sweeten him after his disappointment, he lodged him in a noble palace, and settled it on him for his lifetime. And here his holiness used to make him frequent visits, and converse with all the familiarity and friendship imaginable.
He is pre
nod at Rome.
This pope had summoned a council to sit at Rome about A. this time; when the synod met, Anselm had a very sent at a syhonourable seat assigned him and his successors: this being Corona. the first time of an archbishop of Canterbury's appearing at Malmsb. ib. a Roman synod. When the canons were agreed on, and drawn up, the pope ordered Reingerius, the bishop of Lucca, to publish them to the audience: this prelate, after he had gone a good way in his commission, seemed of a sudden to be somewhat disturbed, to forget his business, and run out upon a foreign subject. "What will become of Eadmer. us," says he, "we are loading our people with new precepts and articles of duty, but we do not relieve those that apply to us for protection; the whole world seems surprised at this conduct, and complains, because the head of Christendom does not sympathise more sensibly with the members!" Then he proceeds to express mention of Anselm's case, and
ANSELM, remonstrates against the delays which were thrown in Abp. Cant. against doing ustice; here the pope interposed, and desired him to forbear, with a promise that matters should be rectified. Reingerius, being a man of zeal and fervour, replied, "It was fit it should be so, for God would not pass over the neglect ;" and when he had said this, he returned to his charge, and went on with the publication of the
This year, Osmund, bishop of Salisbury, departed this life. He was born in Normandy, and a gentleman by extraction. When the Conqueror made his expedition upon England, Osmund, who was then a military man, attended him. He was afterwards made earl of Dorset and privycounsellor by that prince; and at last, upon the death of Herman, promoted to the see of Salisbury. He finished and consecrated the church begun by his predecessor, reformed the musick of the choir, and furnished the chapter with a considerable library. He was a person of unexceptionable behaviour, had nothing of ambition in his temper, and governed his diocese with great strictness and discipline. He wrote several books, particularly the life of St. Aldhem, first bishop of Sherburn, and compiled the service or "Ordinal secundum usum Sarum." He was buried in his cathedral of old Salisbury, canonized after his death, and the third of December appointed for his holy
Malmsb. de day.
Gest. Pontif. 1. 2. fol. 142.
The reason of his drawing up the office "secundum usum Sarum," was to bring the Church-service to an uniformity. Episc. Sa- For before this time, as Harpsfield observes, almost every risburiens. diocese had a different liturgy. Osmund collected his
matter out of the Holy Scriptures, and other valuable Church records, and digested it in so commodious a method, that it was generally approved, and made the standard of publick devotion almost everywhere in England, Ireland, and Wales. But after his death, as this historian continues, Harpsfield. there were several interpolations thrown in, which were not Hist. An- altogether defensible: the bishops, it seems, conniving at Sec. cap. 19. this alteration. p. 251.
To proceed: In the synod above mentioned, all the laity that gave investitures for abbeys or cathedrals were excombidden to receive investiture from any of the laity.
Bishops and abbots for
K. of Eng.
municated; and those which received investitures from lay hands, consecrated persons so invested, or came under the LIAM II. tenure of homage for any ecclesiastical promotion, were put under the same censure.
When the council broke up, Anselm returned immediately to Lyons, but did not think it safe to travel in the high road, because, it was said, Guibert, the antipope, had ordered a painter at Rome to take the archbishop's picture incognito, and by thus stealing his face they hoped to surprise him Malmsb. de upon his journey.
Gest. Pontif. 1. 1. fol.
Being now come to the conclusion of this century, it may 127. not be improper to observe, with the learned Du Pin, that the disputes between the popes and emperors occasioned great disorders in the Church and empire of Germany. That during these commotions the popes made use of the juncture to seize the sovereignty of Rome, and make themselves independent of the emperors: that Gregory VII. was so particularly excessive in his pretensions, that he almost quite swallowed up the authority of the bishops. That the great number of the pope's legates dispatched almost into every quarter, and the power they assumed to themselves, maimed the jurisdiction of the ordinaries, and was very burthensome to the Churches whither they were sent. And now it was that the cardinals began to mount to an unusual pitch of grandeur, to overtop the bishops, to have the greatest share in the election of popes and in the management of Church affairs: and, to conclude, the court of Rome, under different claims Du Pin, and pretences, gained the cognizance and decision of almost New Eccl. Hist. cent. all manner of ecclesiastical business. 11. p. 126.
When Anselm came back to Lyons, he was entertained CENT. XII. by Hugo, the archbishop, with all the heartiness and regard imaginable; and here he stayed till he received the news of king William's and pope Urban's death, which happened not long after. The manner of the king's death was thus: as he was hunting in New-Forest, one Walter Tyrrel, a Norman, happening to let fly at a stag, lodged the arrow in The death the king's breast, who passed by unexpectedly in the in- of king William Rufus. terim; the king fell down upon his wound, and died without speaking a word. Hoveden reports, that this accident was generally interpreted as a judgment upon the Conqueror's