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insurrection, invasion, or war, were all set down. This roll Abp. Cant. of ecclesiastical servitude, as Matthew Paris calls it, was laid up in the Exchequer; and a great many churchmen, who refused to submit to the imposition, were banished the Matth. Pa- kingdom.

ris. Histor. Major. p. 7.

Stigand deposed in a synod.

This year, in the Octaves of Easter, there was a great synod held at Winchester. Here Hermenfred, bishop of Upon theri- Sitten, or Sion, and John and Peter, cardinal priests, rever Rhone. presented pope Alexander II. In this synod, Stigand, archbishop of Canterbury, was deprived, for the reasons already mentioned. His brother Egelmar, bishop of the East Angles, had likewise the same sentence passed against him; several abbots were also dispossessed of their governments. The king making it his business to throw the English out of posts of honour and profit, to open the way for his Normans, and establish his new conquest. Upon this view several bishops and abbots were ejected in an arbitrary manner, without any proof that they had either offended against Church or state.


Hoveden Annal. fol. 259.

Wigorn. ad
An. 1070.

At this council, where most of the rest were frighted for fear of the loss of their dignities, Wulstan, bishop of Worcester, put up a bold claim for the rights of his see. It seems, when Aldred, the late archbishop of York, was translated thither from Worcester, he kept several of the manors of that see in his hands, which, upon his death, were seized by the king. The restitution of these lands was demanded by Wulstan, who pressed the king and council to do him justice. But the contest lying between the sees of York and Worcester, and the archbishoprick of York being vacant at that time, the decision of the point was respited till the metropolitical see was filled up, and a prelate made to plead on the behalf of that church.

This metropolitical see being filled toward the latter end of this year, Wulstan revived the suit at the council, or convention, of Pedrede, or Petherton, in Somersetshire; and here had justice done him, and had his church perfectly disencumbered from the encroachments of the metropolitan of York; and all the privileges and liberties granted by the Saxon kings confirmed to his see.

At this synod Wulstan was charged by Lanfranc with insufficiency and want of learning; and being required to de


fend himself upon this head, and likewise to make out the privileges of his see against the pretensions of the arch- K. of Eng. bishop of York, he went out of the council to deliberate upon his answer, and prepare himself. And perceiving some of his monks very anxious and busy about the cause in hand, instead of asking their assistance, he told them, the nones, or office for three o'clock, was not said, and therefore, says he, let us go about it forthwith. They told him it was much more seasonable to make ready for his defence, and that the office might be performed at leisure afterwards: for, say they, if the king and nobility hear us singing of service now, they will think us ridiculous. Pray, says the bishop, let us wait upon God in the first place, and let the cause stay till the business of religion is over. When service was done he returned to the council, but without giving himself any trouble about what was to be offered. His friends concluding him unprepared, grew solicitous about the event; but Wulstan desired them not to be uneasy upon his account, for he was well assured the interest of St. Dunstan's and St. Oswald's prayers would bring him off. Upon this he gave a monk instructions upon the case, and retained him to plead for him. It is true the man had but a slender share of elocution, but, as Malmsbury observes, he understood French tolerably well, and that qualified him for the employment. And thus we see the Conqueror had brought his own language into the courts of justice very early. As for Wulstan, he carried every point of the cause; and he, who before was thought unfit for the government of a single diocese, was entreated by the archbishop of York to visit his province, and assist him in the administration.

Malmsb. de
Gest. Pon-


Before I take leave of Wulstan, I must acquaint the tif. 1. 4. fol. reader with the summons he received from the pope's legates to appear at the council of Winchester. In this instrument he is enjoined to bring the abbots of his diocese along with him. I mention this to shew, that in this age none See Records but bishops and abbots were reckoned members of the English councils.


Numb. v.

The Whitsuntide after this council, the king promoted Thomas, canon of Baieux in Normandy, to the archbishoprick of York; and Walcelin, his chaplain, to the see of Winchester. The court being now at Windsor, the king


Abp. Cant.

ordered a synod to be held there. At this synod, where FRANC, Armenfred the pope's legate presided, Agelrick, bishop of Selsea, was deprived without any warrant from the canons, and afterwards imprisoned by the king's order. A great many English abbots were likewise deprived at this council, and Normans put in their places. And here the king preferred his chaplains, Arfract and Stigand, to the bishopricks of Elmam and Selsea. And now the archbishop of Canterbury being deprived, and the see of York not perfectly filled up, Walcelin was consecrated bishop of Winchester by Armenfred, the pope's legate.

p. 68.

As for Stigand, whether he was present at the council where he was deposed, is somewhat uncertain. Matthew Paris mentions his retiring into Scotland this year with Alexander, bishop of Lincoln, without taking notice when he returned. But Brompton reports the matter as if the archbishop was present when the sentence passed against him; he tells us, this prelate put the king in mind of his former professions of friendship, and appealed to him for protection that the king excused himself for not interposBrompton ing in his behalf, out of a pretended regard to the pope. Stigand lying thus under the censure of the pope and the council of Winchester, the king had a fair colour for gratifying his old resentment. This prelate, therefore, being outed of all his fortune, was imprisoned at Winchester, where the king treated him roughly, and ordered him a very slender allowance. It was thought, one reason of this rigorous usage, was to bring Stigand to a discovery of a vast treasure he was supposed to have concealed; but either out of hopes of liberty, and being the better for his money, or out of disaffection and revenge to king William, they could His death. never persuade him to the owning of any effects. It was not long before want and melancholy brought him to his end. When he was dead, they found a little key about his neck, and some notes which directed to a vast sum of money lodged under ground, which was all seized, and conveyed into the Exchequer.

Brompton p. 68. Antiquit. Britan. in Stigand.


The see of Canterbury, thus vacant, Lanfranc, abbot of preferred to Caen in Normandy, receiving orders from pope Alexander

the see of


and king William to come into England, was preferred to that archbishoprick. This Lanfranc was born at Pavia in


the duchy of Milan, and extracted from a reputable family: he was bred to letters, and made a remarkable progress in K. of Eng. most parts of learning. Being thus improved, he had a strong inclination for the cloister, and pitched upon Bec in Normandy, upon the score of the poverty of the house, and the pious behaviour of the monks. And here being not used to drudging, and rustic employments, he set up a logic lecture to support himself. And thus he raised his character, and made the monastery a celebrated seat of academical learning but being so much distinguished in merit from the rest of the fraternity, he drew the envy of some of the house upon him, who preferred a complaint against him to duke William : he was charged with misbehaving himself towards the convent, and reproaching them with ignorance. This accusation, as slender as it appears, was so heightened that Lanfranc was summoned to court to purge himself. And here the duke of Normandy took notice of him for a person of great learning and capacity, and not long after preferred him to the abbacy of Caen. His election and con- Malmsbur. secration to the see of Canterbury was very remarkable and Pont. 1. 1. solemn; for he w first chosen by the church of Canter- fol. 116, 117. bury. This choice was agreed to by the bishops and tem- A. D. 1070. Aug. 28. poral nobility, at the king's court. At his consecration, The solemwhich was performed at Canterbury, all the bishops of England were either present or excused themselves by messages tion. and letters. He was consecrated by Giso, bishop of Wells, and Walter, bishop of Hereford, eight other prelates being at the solemnity.

de Gest.

nity of his



Chronolog. Saxon. ad The see of Winchester, which was likewise vacant by the An. 1070. deprivation of Stigand, was given to Walcelin, as has been Annal. fol. observed. This prelate had a design to eject the monks out 260. Brompton of his cathedral, and place secular canons in their room. p. 968. And Eadmer acquaints us, that almost all the Norman bishops had formed the same project. They had gained the king to their interest: and as for Walcelin, he had got forty canons ready to bring into his church; and wanted nothing but the license of his metropolitan to complete the enterprise; neither did he in the least question the archbishop's concurrence. But Lanfranc, being a great friend to the monastic institution, refused to give his consent, and so the business dropped, and the canons were disappointed.


Though the bishops were thus balked by their primate, FRANC, they resolved to make another effort; and to strike at the Abp. Cant. root of the cause, they moved, by general consent, that the monks might be removed from the church of Canterbury; if they gained this point, they concluded it would be a leading case, and facilitate the reformation in other cathedrals, To this purpose they urged, that the secular clergy were much fitter for that station than monks, who were confined to their cloister; especially in the metropolitical see, which was designed for the inspection and government of other churches. Though these allegations were thought reasonable by the king and great men, yet Lanfranc's interest and elocution was such that he broke the design: and being apprehensive the attempt might be renewed after his death, he resolved to clench the matter. To this purpose he procured a bull for the settlement of the monks from pope Alexander II.


Hist. No-
vor. 1. 2.
p. 10.

To do Lanfranc justice, though he acted with great vigour and courage in what he undertook, yet ambition cannot be laid to his charge; for soon after his promotion, he wrote a letter to pope Alexander II., to desire leave to quit the see, and retire to a private life. Amongst other things, he tells the pope, that notwithstanding he was strongly solicited by king William, yet he had never accepted the see of Canterbury, had not the bishop of Sitten and Hubert, the cardinal-legate, laid his holiness's commands upon him. That he endeavoured to excuse himself upon the score of his insufficiency; and of his being unacquainted with the temper and language of the English: that these excuses being refused, he was perfectly overruled by the authority of the apostolic see; that being thus forced into the archbishoprick, he found his strength so disproportioned to his business, and met with so much disturbance from the avarice, obstinacy, and libertinism of the people he had to deal with, that he was quite weary of his life; and was extremely afflicted to see himself reserved to such unfortunate times. Besides, so far as he could conjecture, the mischief was likely to increase, and grow more intolerable; and therefore he proceeds to entreat his holiness, by all that is sacred and solemn, to send him a discharge, and give him leave to retire to a cloister; and to persuade the pope farther to

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