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ANSELM, of Anselm, or had any dependence upon his see, were so Abp. Cant. ruggedly used by the court, that they cried out that a vacancy was more tolerable than such an unfortunate prelate.


A. D. 1095. The pope's nuncio

comes privately with a pall into England.

Eadmer, Hist. Nov. 1. 2. p. 32.


During the time while things were to rest in their former condition, Walter, bishop of Alba, was sent by Urban into England, being attended by two clergymen that officiated in the king's chapel. These clergymen, when the king perceived Anselm would not comply, were dispatched privately to Rome to enquire into the late election, and examine which of the two pretenders, Guibert or Urban, were canonically chosen, for till that time the English were unacquainted how matters stood. These agents, after they found the right lay in Urban, applied to him, according to their instructions, and, by large promises of acknowledgment, endeavoured to persuade the pope to send the king the archbishop of Canterbury's pall, taking no notice who was to be the person. This was the king's point, who thought his getting the pall into his possession would make him master of the business; and that, when Anselm was thrown out of his see and banished, he might easily make another archbishop, and give the pall to whom he pleased.

The pope complied so far as to send the bishop of Alba to the king with the pall, but with secret orders concerning the disposal. This prelate, who was to be very private in the affair, passed incognito through Canterbury, and, avoiding Anselm on purpose, held on his journey to court, not making the least mention of the pall, the king desiring the matter might be transacted without the least noise. The bishop, arriving at court some few days before Whitsuntide, discoursed very agreeably to the king, and, keeping himself somewhat upon the reserve, gave a general expectation of satisfaction. And to make the king believe the pope was in his interest, he dropped not the least sentence in favour of Anselm, offered nothing to take up the difference on foot, to remove the hardships from the archbishop and settle him in his station. The legate's silence upon this point was very surprising to many people, who conceived great hopes of justice and accommodation from him. Being thus disappointed, they took the liberty to expostulate and declare they were perfectly at a stand with these mysterious proceedings: "If money," say they, "has such an ascendant


at Rome, and is so great an overbalance to justice, the poor are in a lamentable condition, and those that have not K. of Eng. a long purse to solicit with may even throw up a good cause!"

The king being pleased with the bishop of Alba's dis- The king owns Urban course, and concluding he had a full commission to come for pope. up to his purpose, in case he declared for his master, ordered Urban to be owned for pope in all his dominions; and after he had thus far gratified the see of Rome, he treated with the legate about the deprivation of Anselm, promising him a vast present, and an annual pension to the pope, provided they would assist him to accomplish this business. But when the legate told him the design was impracticable, the king was very much balked, probably thought himself overreached, and that he had gained no point by owning Urban for pope. However, it was now too late to go back, and therefore, to set the best countenance upon the matter, and preserve his honour from suffering, he resolved, since he could not have his revenge upon Anselm, to drop the dispute, and pretend himself reconciled.

Whitsuntide being now come, and the time of the truce, Ibid. p. 33. as Eadmer calls it, expired, Anselm was ordered from Mortlake to another manor of his see near Windsor, where the court was then kept; here most of the bishops made him a visit, to feel his pulse, and try if they could work him to a compliance. They were in some hopes the rugged usage he had met with might have tired him to a new resolution, and made him willing to purchase his peace of the king. But being interrogated upon this head, they found him inflexible; and being desired to give them his final answer, he told them once more, that he would never offer such an affront to his sovereign, as to make a bargain with him for his favour; but if the king was pleased to receive him without fining, he was ready to serve him as a subject; if not, he desired he might have the liberty to take his leave, and embark. The bishops, finding they could do nothing this way, endeavoured to work him upon another proposal: they told him, pope Urban, at the king's request, had lodged the pall in his highness's hands; that this distinction might now be procured at home, without the hazard and fatigue of a long voyage: it was therefore their

ANSELM, advice, that he should humbly offer the king as much money, Abp. Cant. by way of acknowledgment for the pall, as his journey to Rome would have cost him. But Anselm, though he expressed a great value for the pall, was resolved not to buy it of the court.

And is reconciled to the archbishop.


Eadmer. ib.


Angl. Sacr.


pars. 2. p. 267.

The king, finding Anselm immoveable, took the advice of his great men, and received him to favour upon his own terms, gave him leave to exert his character, and go on in his archiepiscopal functions. And thus the difference being reconciled, Anselm came to wait upon the king at Windsor, and was very graciously received by him. The pope's nuncio likewise, who was then present, endeavoured to cultivate the good understanding between them.

But when the discourse about the pall came upon the board, some advised him to receive it from the king's hands; they told him, the paying this respect to the king would dispose him to forget what was past, and fasten him farther in his highness's good opinion. Anselm could not acquiesce in this motion, and replied, that the granting the pall was a peculiar branch of St. Peter's jurisdiction, and not within the prerogative royal. This refusal made a pause upon the debate; but at last they fixed upon an accommodation, and agreed that the bishop of Alba, who brought the pall, should carry it down to Canterbury, and lay it upon the altar of the cathedral; and from thence Anselm was to receive it, as if it had been put into his hands by St. Peter himself.

Things being thus adjusted, and the day prefixed, Anselm set forward for Canterbury, and was immediately followed by two bishops, Robert, of Hereford, and Osmund, of Salisbury, who, upon their asking his pardon for their renouncing him at Rockingham, were absolved by him in a ' little church upon the road. When he came to Canterbury, he received the pall with great solemnity in June following. Soon after, Baldwin, his favourite monk, was recalled from banishment, and all former animosities at court seemed to be laid asleep.


In the beginning of this year, the famous Wulstan, bishop of Worcester, departed this life, in the eighty-seventh of his age. Several passages of this prelate's history being already mentioned, I shall only add, that Malmsbury, who wrote his life, reports several miracles wrought by him, both

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living and dead. He likewise relates, that when he WILperceived the monks of his Church very melancholy for fear K. of Eng. they should lose him, he desired them not to disturb themselves upon that thought; for that, after his death, he should be a much more powerful friend to the convent, and be more significantly present with them than ever.

Robert, bishop of Hereford survived his friend Wulstan but a few months. This Robert, who was a Lorrainer by birth, had made a great proficiency in almost all parts of learning, such as philosophy, rhetorick, musick, mathematicks, &c. The Conqueror had a great esteem for him, and preferred him to the see of Hereford. He was likewise a minister of justice at William Rufus's court. This prelate made an intimate acquaintance with bishop Wulstan, whom he admired for his extraordinary piety. He rebuilt the cathedral of Hereford upon the model of that of Aix la Chapelle. It is generally said by historians who lived about that time, that Wulstan appearing to him, advertised him of his death, of which warning he made a very pious and significant use, and died this year, in June.

Malmsb. de
Gest. Pon-

Dublin con

About this time, though Hoveden places it in the next tif. 1. 4. fol. year, the see of Dublin being vacant by the death of Donagh Godwin in O Haingly, Samuel O Haingly his nephew, a Benedictine of Episc Hereford, St. Alban's, succeeded him. This Samuel being elected &c. by the king Murierdach, by the clergy and burghers of Bishop of Dublin, made a voyage to Canterbury, according to custom, secrated by for his consecration. Anselm gave him an honourable bishop. reception, discoursed with him upon the functions of his character, and after having received his profession of canonical obedience, consecrated him at Winchester the Easter A.D. 1096. following, four other bishops of the province assisting at the solemnity.

the arch

This year Sampson, elected to the see of Worcester, and Gerhard, to that of Hereford, were both consecrated by the archbishop at Lambeth, which was then a manor belonging to the see of Rochester.

About this time pope Urban held a council at Clermont in France; and here, amongst other things, it was decreed, that no bishop, abbot, or clergyman, should receive any ecclesiastical dignity from any prince or layman whatsoever. In this synod, Philip, king of France, was excommunicated



Ibid. p. 268.



ANSELM, for marrying the countess of Anjou, when both the earl her Abp. Cant. husband and his own queen were living.

Mat. Paris. Histor. Major. p. 22. Baron. An

At the close of the council, the pope made an harangue, to excite the audience, and particularly the princes and nal. tom. 11. laity of quality, to undertake an expedition against the Saraad An. 1095. cens. This speech, giving great encouragement, if not a The pope's beginning to the holy war, it may not be improper to report

some part of it.

speech in
the council
of Clermont,
to encourage
the Holy


The pope told them, "That after the fall of the angels, God distinguished the earth into three divisions, and planted it with our first parents: that by the propagation of human kind, the loss of the apostate spirits might be repaired; and a new class of creatures brought into being, who, after they had served their Maker in this world, might be removed into a higher station, and be made happy with him in the other. But, alas! mankind quickly degenerated, and, revolting from their duty, forfeited the privileges designed for them: which apostacy was so general, that there was scarcely so much as a good man to be met with. That the belief of the generality of mankind was as wretched as their practice, and either blasphemed Christianity, or adored nothing but wood and stone." From hence he proceeds to give an account how the vast continents of Asia and Africk were over-run with pagans and infidels: that the Turks and Saracens had seized a good part of Europe: that Spain and the neighbouring islands had been in their possession about three hundred years: that they made incursions upon Dalmatia, carried their conquests as far as the Gulf of Venice, and expected to be masters of the rest of Christendom: and, which was still more to be lamented, "The sepulchre," says he, "of our Saviour was within their jurisdiction. They will not suffer our pilgrims to visit the Holy City without paying for it. The Holy City, I say, which, were we animated with any true principle of courage, would have none but Christians for its inhabitants. You, therefore, that are persons of distinction and command, prepare for the noble expedition against the enemies of our Saviour: extend the bounds of Christendom, and propagate the doctrine of your holy faith. And, as a mark of your belief and resolution, let the figure of the cross be wrought into your habit, and appear upon your shoulders. Let your arms,

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