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The pope complains

to the king.

tion. Neither were these menaces without effect: for soon after one Cincius, a Roman clerk, and prebendary of St. Paul's was taken upon the road near St. Albans', by men in masks, carried off, and kept five weeks in durance, and forced, at last, to pay a high composition for his liberty. The barns of the Italian clergy were broken open, their corn sold, and sometimes given to the poor: and when those that committed these outrages were questioned, they produced counterfeit letters-patent for their warrant; and it was thought these liberties were countenanced underhand by the magistracy. As for the Roman clergy, they were glad to retire into monasteries, and secure their persons: and yet, the men that appeared in these riots, were seldom above five-and-twenty.

When the pope was informed how his countrymen were of this usage outraged, he wrote an expostulatory letter to the king, in which he puts him in mind how much himself and his father had been obliged to the see of Rome. How they had been screened from the insults of their rebellious subjects, cherished with particular marks of favour, and taken under the protection of the Church: he next proceeds to A. D. 1232. mention the ill treatment of his nuncios and ministers: that one of those, who came with an authority from the holy see, was cut in pieces, and another left half dead: that the letters and credentials of their character were torn, and the bull trodden under foot: that the Italian clergy in England were seized, plundered, and harassed, just as if one of the ten- persecutions was acting over again, and the cruelties. of Nero revived. He charges some of the prelates with connivance at these disorders; and after a great many strong expressions respecting the ingratitude of the kingdom, he moves earnestly, that those who have suffered may have speedy reparation, and the malefactors be brought to condign punishment.

Conventiones Literæ, &c.


The election of Nevil being made void, the monks of Cantom. 1. p. terbury chose their sub-prior, John, for their metropolitan ; which election was approved by the king. The elect took a journey to Rome, underwent the test at the pope's court, and had nothing objected either as to life or learning.

However, he was refused upon the score of his age: the pope told him that since he was so far past the strength of

The monks


Two other

the see of

his years, it was more advisable for him to decline so publick HENRY a station. And thus being an easy goodnatured old man, K. of Eng. he was prevailed on to resign the election. of Canterbury were now to make a third trial, and pitched elections to upon Blund, an Oxford divine, and one who stood very well Canterbury in the king's esteem. But this elect had no better success annulled by than the two former: for the pope understanding he had received two thousand marks from his patron, the bishop of Winchester, fancied he had bribed the monks of Canterbury to give their votes for him: for this reason, and for his being a pluralist, the pope made void his election.

the pope.

Three elections to the see of Canterbury being annulled, the pope recommended Edmund, prebendary and treasurer of Salisbury. This Edmund being a person of known learning and piety, the monks of Christ's Church agreed to Antiquit. the pope's motion, and had the pall delivered to them on s. Edmuntheir coming from Rome.

Britan. in



About this time, the civil government was somewhat em- The state broiled. The barons were displeased with the ministry of embroiled. Peter, bishop of Winchester, and Peter de Rivallis, lordtreasurer, who persuaded the king to entertain a body of 435. foreign troops of Poictou. The barons thus displeased with the administration, took the field against the crown, and made Richard Marshal, earl of Pembroke, their general. Paris, p. During the course of these disorders, the king called a parliament at Westminster: and here, he charged several of the bishops, and particularly Alexander, bishop of Chester, with being in the interest of the earl Marshal; and that they were entered into a concert with the rebellious barons to dethrone him. The bishop of Chester or Coventry re- A. D. 1234. The bishops' sented this imputation of disloyalty with great indignation, and immediately excommunicated those who were concerned in so treasonable a practice, or reproached the bishops with a revolt from the crown: that the prelates, as this bishop adds, were heartily solicitous to preserve the king's person and honour; and that all these suggestions were pure calumny and malice. At this session, Edmund, elect of Canterbury, and most of the prelates, addressed the king against the ministry. They told him, the bishop of Winchester, and the treasurer, put his highness upon dangerous measures; that the government in the late reign had suf


strance to

the king.


fered by the direction of the bishop of Winchester. They Abp. Cant. petitioned therefore that these men and their creatures might be removed from the council-board. The latter end of their address grows rugged and exceptionable: for, they are so hardy as to tell the king, that unless these grievances are speedily redressed, they shall exert the censures of the Church against his highness himself, as well as all others who oppose so necessary a reformation. The king desired some little time to consider their petition, and so the session Id. p. 395-6. broke up.



In the beginning of April, this year, Edmund was consearchbishop crated archbishop of Canterbury, by Roger, bishop of Lonof Canter don. The solemnity was performed at Canterbury, where the king and thirteen bishops were present.


This year, at the meeting of the parliament at Westminster, the archbishop and his suffragans repeated their late remonstrance to the king, and prevailed with him to discharge Peter, bishop of Winchester, and Peter de Rivallis, and to send the Poictevins home.

To proceed the occasions of the holy war, and the late rupture between the pope and emperor, afforded the legates a strong pretence to squeeze the English. They preached and entreated, threatened and excommunicated, and left no Id. p. 400. expedient untried to gain their point and fill their pockets; and it seems they were so oppressive and griping that the kingdom was in a great measure impoverished by them. And to make the people part with their money more cheerfully the pope wrote a very moving letter upon the subject of the holy war.

The pope's

bull to en

holy war.

The letter, directed to all Christendom in general, comcourage the plains in allegorical expressions of the lamentable condition of the Christians in Palestine: that now mount Sion, from whence the law proceeded, 'the city of the great king,' the country dignified with the incarnation and passion of the Son of God, was sunk in her strength and prosperity; that the Church of Palestine lamented the loss of her freedom, and the tyranny of an infidel nation; that the solemnities of Jerusalem were now despised, and polluted with impious worship; that all Christendom ought to assist towards the recovery of the Holy Land; that no fatigue of march or hazard of combat should discourage the expedition; that


Christians ought to venture their persons with the utmost HENRY resolution, and be almost prodigal of their blood upon such K. of Eng. an occasion; that we can never engage too far in his service, nor be too forward for his honour, who suffered so much pain and ignominy for our sakes; and after some discourse upon the condescension of our Saviour's incarnation, and the history of our redemption, he proceeds to observe that, notwithstanding the ingratitude of Christians, and their failure in returns of obedience, the goodness of God was not withdrawn: his providence was still active for the happiness of mankind, his remedies were suited to their disposition, he proportioned the prescription to the disease, and made use of various methods for their recovery; that God, 'whose hand is not shortened that it cannot save,' who has omnipotence to execute his pleasure, would not have suffered the country which had been honoured with his birth, with his passion and miracles, to have lain thus long in the hands of the infidels, had it not been to try the zeal and resolution of the faithful. That the occasion of this service was offered as a most effectual atonement for the miscarriages of a negligent life; that a great many people would have despaired of undergoing the discipline of a regular course of penance; that the engaging in the holy war, and venturing their lives for the honour of our Saviour, was a most compendious way to discharge them from their guilt, and restore them to the favour of heaven. And, to prevent their being discouraged for fear they might die upon their march, he tells them, that in this case their commendable purpose would secure their condition; that God, who chiefly considers the good disposition of the mind, will reward them for what they designed; and that thus a great many people, who died before they could execute their holy resolves, gained the prize without running the course, were crowned as conquerors without fighting, and made happy by the strength of a noble intention.

The pope goes on in a long harangue, which I shall omit. The indulgence for their faults, and protection of their estates, together with what has been already mentioned, being the principal encouragements to the undertaking.

The contents of this letter were published, and the design recommended by the English clergy. The Dominicans and




Abp. Cant.


Franciscans were chiefly intrusted with soliciting this business. These monks had an authority from the court of Rome to receive people into the crusade, and to discharge them from their vow, in case they repented and were willing to fine. The countenance and commissions these new religious received from the pope, made them forget the mortification of their rule. These monks, who, by their order, pretended to nothing but poverty and self-denial, were now grown so vain as to court the respect of a publick procession The avarice in towns and monasteries. And having the power of grantof the pope's ing an indulgence to their auditors, they enlisted people for the service of the Holy Land one day, and, it may be the next, took their money, and released them from their engagement. And now, it seems, there was so much shuffling and collusion in this matter, such vast sums of money collected by the pope's agents, without any satisfaction as to the ends to which it was applied, that people grew cool in their zeal for the holy war, and were much discouraged in their contributions; and that which put farther scruples into their heads, and shocked their fancies, was the consideration of their receiving no account of the tenth lately given to the court of Rome to support them against the emperor. For that now, since the quarrel between his imperial majesty and the pope was at an end, the English had not a farthing of their money returned, neither was any part of it employed for the common interest of Christianity. And though the occasion of the tax was thus removed, the pope seemed resolved to lose nothing of the money, but made a Id. P. 403. strict enquiry whether any part of it was uncollected.

In this year, we must place the death of Hugh Foliot, bishop of Hereford. He was elected by the prebendaries in October, 1219. Upon this occasion the chapter received no letters from the king to check the freedom of the election. Though, by the way, as has been observed, (see Records, numb. 33,) the king's leave to elect did not impose a necessity of choosing the person nominated by the crown; nay, oftentimes there was no person mentioned, but the electors were referred to their own inclination. And when the king named any person, it was only by way of recommendation, without any penalty upon the chapters for refusal. And therefore the king called it his request to the clergy, and

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