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Dublin, and a great part of Leinster; Patrick, I say, was thus recommended, as appears by Lanfranc's letter to this K. of Eng. prince. It runs thus:




letter to

"Most honourable son; our reverend brother and fellow- Reverendissime Filis. bishop, Patrick, sent to us by your excellency for his consecration, was entertained suitably to his quality and business. And having performed the office, and given him the character requested, we have furnished him with a testi- Lanfranc's monial, according to the custom of our predecessors. Now, Gothric, notwithstanding this prelate has acquainted us with a great king of Dubmany commendable instances of your highness's government, yet we hope it may not be improper to incite your excellency to a farther progress in virtue and true greatness: for as fire burns brighter, and spreads to a greater flame by being blown, so a worthy disposition rises and improves upon commendation. We entreat you, therefore, with a regard that so worthy a son of the Church ought to be treated, that you take care to preserve that faith and doctrine which was delivered by our Saviour and his Apostles, and handed down to succeeding ages by the holy fathers. And that you endeavour that your life may be answerable to your belief; that you make your power a protection to the humble and obedient, and a terror to the stubborn and ungovernable. It is reported that some of your subjects are so irregular as to marry their own or their wives' near relations, and that others divorce themselves at their pleasure; some are so licentious as to transfer their matrimony, barter away their wives by way of exchange, and take those of their neighbours. This is horrible merchandizing, and therefore, for God's sake and your own, exert your authority, and punish such scandalous crimes as these; and, by God's assistance, manage your administration in such a manner, that the good may be farther encouraged, and the bad afraid to go on in an evil course. I had written a longer letter to your excellency, but your bishop being so well furnished with judgment and learning, and so very valuable upon all accounts, I shall refer you to his farther advice and information. And in case you fail not to govern your conduct by his instructions in matters of religion, and treat him as your spiritual father, we hope, through the mercy of God,



Abp. Cant.

LAN- that you will neither fall into any dangerous mistake yourself, FRANC, nor suffer your subjects to continue long in their obstinacy and misbehaviour. God Almighty protect your excellency Baron. An- against your enemies of all kinds; and, after a long reign nal. ad An. upon earth, translate you to a more glorious and neverending happiness in heaven."

1089. tom.


Donagh, first bishop

This bishop Patrick succeeded Donagh, who, as Sir James

of Dublin. Ware believes, was the first bishop of Dublin. This Donagh, with the assistance of Sittricus, built the cathedral of Christ's Church for regular canons, in the year 1038. The record of the foundation of the church gives the following account :—

Ware de Præsul. Hibern. ibid.

"Sittricus, king of Dublin, son of Ableb, or Amlave, earl of Dublin, gave to the Holy Trinity, and to Donagh, first bishop of Dublin, a place where the arches or vaults are founded, to build the church of the Holy Trinity on, together with the lands of Beal-Dulek, Rechen, Port-Rahern, with their villains, cattle, and corn, and gave also silver and gold enough to build the church and the whole court."

This Donagh, after the church was finished, built the bishop's palace in the place where the dean's house now stands. He likewise built St. Michael's chapel, afterwards turned into a parish church, and died in the year of our Lord 1074.

And, to put all Lanfranc's Irish transactions together, I shall just mention his consecration of Donogh, or Dongus O Haingly, successor to bishop Patrick. This Donogh having received his first education, and studied for some time in Ireland, travelled afterwards into England, and turned Benedictine at Canterbury. Upon the vacancy of the see of Dublin, he was nominated by king Torlogh, elected by the clergy of Dublin, and consecrated by archbishop Lanfranc; to whom he made a profession of canonical obedience, acWare. ibid. cording to the usual form, in the year of our Lord 1085. Lanfranc's letter to Torlogh, king of Dublin.

To proceed: several ill customs having gained ground among the Irish, archbishop Lanfranc wrote to king Torlogh, to press him to make use of his interest towards a reformation. In the first place, he takes notice of the disorders about marriages, and arbitrary separations and ex


changes above-mentioned: from whence he goes on to point WILat some irregularities in the Church: that bishops were K. of Eng. consecrated by one bishop only: that a single borough or city was governed by a plurality of bishops: that infants were baptized without consecrated chrism: that money was sometimes taken by the bishops for holy orders. Now, as he goes on, all these, and such like practices, were forbidden by the holy Scriptures, a notorious breach of the canons, and quite counter to the fathers, as any person that was but moderately acquainted with antiquity and the Scriptures might easily understand. All which enormities being so abominable in the sight of God, ought to be so much the more discouraged by the prince, and punished with the utmost severity, in case of incorrigibleness. That kings cannot do more acceptable service to God Almighty than by making good laws for the assistance of religion, and the state. And, therefore, as he expects to give a comfortable account of his administration to God Almighty, he intreats him to convene the bishops and clergy: that himself and the great men of his kingdom be present at the synod, and all use their joint endeavours to extirpate these ill customs, and all others which stand in so apparent a contradiction to the Gospel, and the canons of the Church.

Baron. An. tom. 11. ad

In the year of our Lord 1079, Robert, a priest of great An. 1089. learning and exemplary piety, was consecrated bishop of A. D. 1079. Hereford by Lanfranc, archbishop of Canterbury, of whom something more afterwards.

This year the pope was very much disturbed at the Conqueror's refusing to give any of the English bishops leave to go to Rome. This his holiness looked upon as an intolerable strain of the regale, and wrote upon that subject to Hubert, his legate in England, requiring him to put the king in mind of this indefensible rigour: in his letter he tells Hubert, the holy Church of Rome had several grounds of complaint against the Conqueror: that his forbidding the bishops to make their appearance at Rome, and pay their respects to the apostolic chair, was an unprecedented encroachment, and that no pagan prince ever ventured upon such a presumption. He therefore commands Hubert to bring the king to a sense of this mismanagement, and to suggest to him, that since he would certainly be displeased



with the omission of respect from his own subjects, he would FRANC, do well not to make it his business to lessen the observance Abp. Cant.

due to the holy see; but rather, by paying proper acknowledgments, endeavour to procure the favour and protection of St. Peter: that himself, out of his apostolic clemency, and in regard of the former friendship between them, had hitherto forborne him in his faults: but in case he refused to desist and take new measures, the legate was to acquaint him, he would certainly incur St. Peter's high displeasure. The pope proceeds in his instructions, and orders the legate to invite two of the English prelates out of each province to the synod at Rome, which was to be held in the Lent following. And if they happened to complain of the shortness of Baron. An. the warning, they were then to take care to be there at Easter. The cardinal takes notice, that the king gave the pope satisfaction; which remark holds good in some measure, as appears by a letter of this pope, in which he declares the king was not carried off by the German schism; but continued in his obedience to the apostolick see, for which he is pleased to call him," a jewel of a prince."

tom. 11. n. 20. ad An. 1079.


But here we may observe, that this letter was written when the pope was much distressed by the emperor Henry IV. at which juncture, any countenance from other princes was very welcome: but that the Conqueror did not give his holiness full satisfaction, appears by the legate's answer, who informs him, he could not persuade the king to a thorough compliance, that is, he could not bring him to do Baron. ibid. homage for his kingdom, as we shall see afterwards.

n. 21.

Greg. 1. 7.
Epist. 25.

The next year the emperor Henry IV. being assisted by a considerable party of the German clergy, set up Guibert, archbishop of Ravenna, against Gregory VII. This antipope, Guibert, took the name of Clement III. Hugo Candidus, a cardinal, appeared strongly against the first, and wrote to Lanfranc in behalf of this Clement, in which he draws up a high charge against Hildebrand, entreats the archbishop to join with the bishops of Germany, and come into Clement's interest; and to bring the English prelates more effectually over, the emperor sends an embassy with letters to king William, but the king refused the ambassador audience. As for Lanfranc, he wrote an answer to cardinal Hugo's letter, which runs thus:



"I received your letter, but am not pleased with some part of the contents. Your falling hard upon Gregory, K. of Eng. calling him Hildebrand, and giving his legates an odd name, is more than I understand; and then your flourishing so much upon Clement's character seems going too far on the other hand; for it is written 'we are not to pronounce a man Ecclus. 11. happy (or to commend him, as the Vulgate has it) before his death,' neither are we to detract from our neighbour. The good qualities and merit of men are somewhat mysterious, and lie out of sight at present; neither is it possible for us to pronounce with truth upon their future condition. However, I believe the illustrious emperor would not embark in so great an undertaking without being founded upon good reason; neither do I imagine he could have prospered so far without the signal blessing of God Almighty. I cannot concur with you in your taking a voyage into England, unless the king's leave can be first procured. For as yet our island has not disclaimed Gregory, nor indeed declared for either of the competitors; but when the cause shall be thoroughly examined, and the pretences of both sides come upon the board, we shall then be better qualified to come to a resolution in the case."

Baron. An. tom. 11. n.


This letter, though written in the eighth year of Gregory's 23. ad Ann. popedom, speaks in terms of neutrality, and gives both the pretenders to the papal chair the titles they had assumed. And though Lanfranc does not approve of Hugo's invective against Gregory, yet he seems rather to suppose the emperor's party was in the right. And at last adds, that the English Church stood undetermined, and was not yet come to a judgment upon the point.

The bishop

This year Walkerus, bishop of Durham, was barbarously Ann. 1080. murdered. This prelate having purchased the earldom of of Durham the king, restrained the people from flying out into rebel- murdered. lion, and endeavoured to reconcile them to the Norman government: his murder was occasioned by the mismanagement of those that governed under him. One Gilebert, his kinsman, represented him in the courts of justice: and as for the spiritual jurisdiction, it passed mostly through the hands of Leobine his chaplain. Both these persons were well qualified as to skill, courage, and activity; but had too much heat and haughtiness to make them agreeable. The


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