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RICH- ander; and presses for the restitution of his ancient jurisARD, Abp. Cant. diction. Gervase, a monk of Canterbury, who lived at the same time, abets the archbishop's plea, and complains of the encroachment: and Diceto, another valuable author, who wrote soon after, plainly affirms, that the abbey of St. Augustine's had been subject to the see of Canterbury for five hundred years.


Chronic. col. 1434. Diceto,

Imag. His


It is true pope Alexander declared so far on Roger's side as to give him his benediction, and the marks of honour betoriar. col. longing to a mitred abbot. But, notwithstanding this Alford An- favour, he seems apprehensive the archbishop of Canterbury nal. tom. 4. might have wrong done to him: and therefore, in his letter to pars. poster. that prelate, he lets him know, that, at the benediction of the abbot of St. Augustine's, he put in a clause for saving the rights of the archbishop and his successors.

p. 284.

Chronic. Gervas. col. 144.

An heresy in

The heterodoxies of the Albigenses, in the territories of the earldom the count of Toulouse, are the next remarkable occurrence. of Toulouse. It seems these errors not only seized the common people, but gained ground among several of the priests, bishops, and principal laity. The earl gives an account of this heresy in a letter to the general chapter of the Cistercians. Now, there being several houses of this order in England, I shall give the reader a brief account of some of the most remarkable particulars. The count informs the chapter, that wherever this heresy prevailed, the churches were either scandalously neglected or pulled down. The sacraments of baptism and the holy eucharist were renounced and detested; penance disregarded, the resurrection denied: in short, all the sacraments of the Church vilified and disused: and, what is still more horrible, two independent principles of good and evil were maintained. Thus much from Gervase of Canterbury.


Gervas. col. 1441.


Hoveden's account is somewhat different; this historian reports, that these hereticks rejected the Old Testament, refused to own infant baptism, censured matrimony, declared against swearing upon any account, and expressed themselves with a great deal of satire and invective against the hierarchy. When they were convented before the bishops of the province and other persons of quality, both clergy and laity, they refused to submit to any other authority except that of the New Testament. The bishops


complied with them, cast the cause upon this issue, and HENRY argued with so much strength and clearness from the gos- K. of Eng. pels and epistles, that the hereticks seemed convinced, and professed an orthodox belief in most points: but the article of swearing they could not get over. Their ignorance in misunderstanding the texts in St. Matthew and St. James; Matt. 5. 34. their mistaking these texts, I say, with the obstinacy of James 5. 12 their humour, seemed to fix them in their error: and though it was demonstratively proved that these places were to be understood with limitation; that oaths were necessary for the support of society, and the determining differences, that the apostles, the angels, and God himself, were instances in Galat. 1.20. defence of swearing; yet these men were so overgrown with Hebr. 6. 17. self-conceit, that they would not be recovered.

Rev. 10. 6.

Hoveden, fol. 317 to

about the


And here, it may not be improper to mention a contest in 320. Scotland, about the choice of the bishop of St. Andrew's. 4 dispute King William recommended Hugo, one of his favourite choice of the chaplains, to the convent. But the monks took the liberty bishop of St. to pitch upon archdeacon Scot, an Englishman. The king swearing Scot should never enjoy that dignity, commanded the canons to make a new choice: and ordered Joceline, bishop of Glasgow, to inspect their management. The canons being thus overawed, elected Hugo.

The archdeacon Scot maintained his ground, and appealed A. D. 1178. to Rome for redress. Upon this complaint, the pope dispatched his sub-dean Alexius into Scotland, to examine the dispute. The king of Scotland at first refused to admit the legate; but afterwards yielding, Alexius made enquiry into the proceedings, and confirmed the first election; and, which gave a farther disgust to the court, excommunicated Joceline, bishop of Glasgow, and the rest of the clergy, that assisted at the second. And to give a finishing stroke to this affair, he convened the bishops, abbots, and clergy, at Holyrood-House and obliged Matthew, bishop of Aberdeen, to consecrate the archdeacon publickly upon Trinity-Sunday.

tires to

The new bishop, apprehensive of the king's displeasure, The new took a journey to Rome, and was honourably entertained bishop reby Lucius III., pope Alexander's successor. This pope Rome, and wrote to king William not to overrule elections, and en- the pope croach upon the liberty of the Church; but to permit the from an in against Scotland.




RICH- bishop, who was fairly chosen, to remain in his diocese Abp. Cant. Without disturbance. This letter, though penned inoffensively as to the manner, made no impression on the king; who, to shew his resentment, seized the revenues of the see of St. Andrew's, and banished those who abetted the bishop's interest. When the news of this rigour came to the pope, he resolved to put the kingdom under an interdict: but the bishop casting himself at his feet, begged him not to proceed to such extremities; adding, that he had much rather throw up his claim, and renounce his see, than that so many Christians should be deprived of the advantages of religious ordinances, and suffer so deeply in his quarrel. The pope was charmed at his resignation and goodness, and forbore the censure. Thus archbishop Spotswood. But Hoveden reports, that Roger, archbishop of York, being legate for Scotland, excommunicated king William, and interdicted the realm at the pope's order: and that Hugh, bishop of Durham, joined with him in pronouncing the sentence. And, to make good the matter of fact, he afterwards inserts Hoveden, pope Lucius's bull of absolution.

Annal. fol.

341. 351.

To return to Spotswood, who tells us that during the controversy, Walter, bishop of Dunkeld happened to die. Upon this vacancy, the king somewhat mollified, sent to recall the bishop, protesting that had it not been for the rash oath he had made, he would willingly have consented to his keeping the see of St. Andrew's: but now since he was tied up, both by honour and conscience, from that liberty, he desired the bishop to accept the bishoprick of Dunkeld.

The bishop communicated the king's offer to the pope, who advised him to return, and accept it. The bishop complied accordingly. This cession gave Hugo a good title to the see of St. Andrew's: however, he thought it necessary to take a journey to Rome, to get himself absolved for his intrusion. He succeeded in his business, but died on his Spotswood, way home, about eleven years after his election. This, Church of though happening at some distance of time, I mention here to make the story more entire.


Scotland, book 2. p.

39. Diceto,

Imag. Historiar. col.

To return to England. This year Richard de Lucy founded a convent of regular canons at Westwood, in the diocese of Rochester, in honour of the memory of arch


bishop Becket. The king likewise, the archbishop of HENRY Rheims, and several other foreigners of distinction, paid K. of Eng. a visit to his tomb. The same year, pope Alexander sent Hoveden, his legates all over Christendom to invite the prelates to a fol. 331. general council, which was to meet in the beginning of Lent next ensuing; two of these legates, Albertus de Suma and Petrus de Sancta Agatha, came into England. The latter, who had a commission to cite the bishops and abbots of Scotland and Ireland, took an oath that he would do nothing to the king's prejudice in his passage through his dominions.

The same year, the errors of the Albigenses, lately condemned, appeared again. The kings of France and England, being desirous to put a stop to this mischief, sent the archbishops of Berri and Narbonne, Reginald, bishop of Bath, John, bishop of Poictiers, with Peter, a cardinal legate, and several other ecclesiasticks of note, to attempt the recovery of these hereticks; and in case they could not prevail, to expel them the communion of the Church.

When these Albigenses were cited before the cardinal legate, and other bishops, earls, &c., they drew up a confession of their faith in writing, in which their heterodoxies were tolerably renounced; but when the Consistory endeavoured to prevent their prevaricating, and enjoined them to swear to the belief of their paper, they refused to give that satisfaction. They pretended, as formerly, the unlawfulness of taking an oath, though it was proved against them that they had virtually sworn in their very confession. Upon their declining to give this security, and reconcile themselves to the Church, they were solemnly declared excommunicate, and all the faithful admonished to avoid them.



In January, the beginning of the next year, the arch- fol. 328. bishops of Dublin and Tuam, with five or six Irish suffragans, arrived in England, in the course of their journey to the council at Rome. Several, likewise, of the prelates and abbots of Scotland, came hither for that purpose. All these foreign prelates took an oath not to do anything to the damage of the king or kingdom. There were only four English bishops who went to the council, viz., Hugh, bishop of Durham, John, of Norwich, Robert, of Hereford, and Re- Hoveden, ginald, of Bath. The abbots were more numerous. Hove

fol. 332.


RICH- den reports that the English prelates insisted upon it as a privilege that they should not send more than four of their order to a general council at Rome.

Abp. Cant.

A. D. 1179.
The council

The council was held in the beginning of March the year of Lateran following. I shall give the reader a summary account of under Alex- most of the canons.

ander III.

1st. To prevent schisms from double elections, and cut off the pretensions of an antipope, it was ordained that no person should be consecrated bishop of Rome, unless chosen by two-thirds of the cardinals. That, at the election of other bishops, a bare majority, pursuant to the direction of the canons, might be sufficient. But a particular provision was thought necessary for the Roman Church, because, if a contest should happen, there was no superior authority to appeal to.

To proceed to the rest of the canons, without mentioning the number. The Albigenses, and Publicans, or Waldenses, in Gascoigne and Provence, were excommunicated, and all Christians forbidden to entertain them in their houses or country, or keep any correspondence with them. No person was to be promoted to a bishoprick under thirty years of age. He was likewise to be unblemished in his birth, and well recommended for probity and learning. Benefices were not to be promised before a vacancy, nor kept void more than six months after the death of the incumbent. No clerks, from sub-deacons and upwards, were to involve themselves by secular commissions. Parochial priests are prohibited from having pluralities; and if the bishop ordained any person without a title, he was to provide for him till preferred. Jews and Saracens are not allowed to keep any Christian slaves; and those that submit to such servitude under them are to be excommunicated. They are likewise forbidden to sell any arms or provision of war to the Saracens. Lepers are enjoined to live by themselves, and to have a chapel and priest assigned them. Usurers convict are barred receiving the sacrament and Christian burial. Priests, monks, pilgrims, merchants, and husbandmen, are not to be disturbed in their journey or employments, but to be always under the protection of a truce. All ordinations made by schismaticks are declared null, and the benefices bestowed by them reckoned as vacancies. The Knights Templars, and

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