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THEO- the sword for some time, and kept the people from cutting throats through all the seasons.
And now the archbishop of Canterbury and the bishop of Winchester prosecuted each other at the court of Rome. These two prelates, having particular advantages upon the score of their different characters and commissions, frequently clashed with each other. Theobald, the archbishop, looked upon it as a great diminution to his see to be under the jurisdiction of his suffragan. On the other side, the bishop of Winchester, being the pope's legate and the Nubrigens. king's brother, bore himself high upon these distinctions, Rer. Anglic. and carried his authority, to speak softly, to the utmost stretch. Theobald, therefore, to disengage himself from this pressure, prevailed with pope Celestine II. to discharge Dorobern. Henry of Winchester, and give the legatine commission to Cantua- himself. This occasioned great disputes and appeals to Theobald. Rome, not practised before.
1. 1. c. 10.
About this time the study of the canon law was brought The canon law first into England: one Vacarius being the first that professed professed in this faculty in Oxford. England. A. D. 1144.
Pope Lucius, as Rudburn reports, though he is two years
A design of mistaken in the time, sent a pall to Henry, bishop of Win
to make Winchester
chester, with a design to erect that see into an archbishopan arch- rick, annexing the seven dioceses to it which formerly lay bishoprick. within the kingdom of the West Saxons; but this new jurisdiction being generally disliked and complained of, the pope thought fit to let the project sleep, and wait for a better opAngl. Sacr. portunity. But his popedom lasting but one year, he had
pars 1. p. 285.
no time to put this design in execution.
This year the Jews are said to have crucified a Christian Waverley, child, called William, at Norwich.
A. D. 1145.
A clash between the archbishop and the le
The monastery of Boxley, in Kent, was founded in the year 1145, by William de Ipres: it was furnished with Alford An- monks from Clareval, and put under the protection of the nal, vol. 4. blessed Virgin.
The next year the order of the Præmonstratenses was The Pre- brought into England, and settled at New-house, in Lincoln
A. D. 1146.
ses settled in shire. The founder of this order was one St. Norbert, exEngland. tracted from a noble family in the diocese of Cologne. He was educated suitably to his quality, and lived for some time at the emperor Henry the Fifth's court. About thirty years
of age he was ordained deacon and priest; and soon after, MAUD, the entering upon a very strict and mortified way of living, he Empress. resigned his church preferments, and distributed a large patrimonial estate to the poor. Upon this, he took the rule of St. Augustine upon him, and retiring with thirteen companions to a place called Præmonstratum, in the diocese of Laon, in Picardy, he began his order there. This ground, with a chapel of St. John the Baptist's, was given to St. Norbert by Bartholomew, bishop of Laon, with the approbation of Lewis the Gross, king of France, who gave the Præmonstratenses a charter of privileges. The place was called Præmonstratum, because it was pointed out for the capital mansion of this order by the blessed Virgin, who likewise, Baron. Anas it is said, appointed them their white habit. In the year sect. 15. ad 1124, St. Norbert was obliged to quit his retirement and An. 1120. combat the heresy of Tancheline at Antwerp, in which em- glican. vol. 2. p. 579. et ployment he proved very successful. After this, he was, deinc. ad as it were, forced upon the archbishoprick of Magdeburg, Brompton and became very instrumental in propagating the Christian Chronic. religion through the northern parts of Germany.
nal. tom. 12.
Upon the death of Asceline, or Anselm, bishop of The bishop Rochester, Walter, archdeacon of Canterbury, and brother of Rochester to archbishop Theobald, was elected to that see. He was by the archbishop of chosen, according to custom, in the chapter-house of Can- Canterbury. terbury, by the monks of Rochester, the archbishop being present, and nominating the person. Bishop Godwin affirms, that Theobald transferred his right of electing the bishop of Rochester to the monks of that see: but this is a mistake; for, as Gervase of Canterbury reports, the bishop of Rochester, according to ancient custom, was always elected in the chapter-house of Canterbury by the convent of Rochester, governed by the archbishop's direction. When the election was over, the new bishop was obliged to take an oath of fidelity to the see and archbishop of Canterbury, never to attempt anything prejudicial to the honour and dignity of the Church of Canterbury. It was likewise the custom, upon the death of the bishop of Rochester, for the convent of that see to carry the pastoral staff to Christ's Church, Canterbury, and lay it upon the altar; and upon the vacancy of the see of Canterbury, or the absence of the archbishop, the bishop of Rochester was
to manage and officiate in his room, provided the convent of Abp. Cant. Canterbury desired him to take that employment. The election of this Walter is fixed to the year 1147 in Gervase's Gervas. col. Chronicon; but the learned Wharton proves it ought to be placed a year forward.
A. D. 1148.
though for bidden by king Stephen.
This year pope Eugenius III. travelled into France, and held a council at Rheims. To this council the pope summoned the archbishop of Canterbury, and the bishops of Archbishop Worcester, Bath, Exeter, and Chichester. Theobald apgoes to the plied to the king for his leave to take this journey, but was council of refused. The archbishop, conceiving himself obliged to attend the council, resolved to venture the king's displeasure, and undertake the voyage: however, the ports were strictly guarded to stop his passage. The bishop of Winchester, who had a pique against the archbishop, availed himself of the juncture, heightened the king's resentment, and brought Theobald under this dilemma, that in case he undertook the voyage he should forfeit his estate and be thrown out of the protection of the laws; or, if the prospect of these penalties happened to overawe him and keep him at home, the pope would punish him for contempt, and either suspend or depose him for his non-appearance. Of these two inconveniences the archbishop, choosing rather to fall under the displeasure of the court, went incognito to the sea-side, and venturing himself in an open boat, arrived with great difficulty in France.
part 1. p. 345.
Chronic. Gervas. col. 1363.
At this council, Henry Murdac, abbot of Fountain, with the delegates of the chapter of York, preferred an information against William, their archbishop, alleging that this prelate was forced upon them by king Stephen, and that neither his election nor consecration were according to the Stubs Act. canon. But Stubs gives a different account of this matter, and reports that this William, who was treasurer and prebendary of York, was preferred upon the strength of his merit, and chosen by the majority and most reputable part of the chapter. However, St. Bernard, being gained by the representations of the other party, gave William a very hard archbishop character to pope Eugenius III., and prevailed with him to of York, deposed, and depose that prelate. He declaims against William as a perconsecrated. son of scandalous behaviour; that, refusing to acquiesce in the sentence of Innocent II., he applied to his successor,
Pontif. Eborac. col. 1721.
nal. tom. 12.
1. 1. c. 17.
Celestine, imposed upon his holiness, and stole a consecra- MAUD, tion; that he made his way by force into the sanctuary of Empress. God, against conscience and canon, and in contempt of the holy see of Rome; and that it was not merit, but money and court interest, which procured him the mitre. With these Baron. Ansatirical invectives he pursues archbishop William in his sect. 23, 24. letters to Celestine II., and those written to his successor, ad An. Eugenius, are couched in the same strain of vehemence and dislike. Whether he deserved this harsh character or not, Nubrigensis, who wrote about this time, makes a great question. However, the reputation of St. Bernard, and the Nubrigens. allegations of the other party, prevailed with the pope to depose William, though, as Gervase of Canterbury relates, the pope acted somewhat arbitrarily in this affair, and that the major part of the cardinals were against the sentence. The reason of his deposition is laid upon his being nominated by king Stephen before his election by the chapter. Gervas. William being thus set aside, the chapter of York, by the Chronic pope's order, proceeded to another election. And here the prebendaries were divided, and made a double return. Hilary, bishop of Chichester, being chosen by one party, and Murdac above mentioned by the other. The dispute Ibid. being brought before the pope, he confirmed Murdac's election, and consecrated him himself. As for William, he retired to Winchester after his deposition; and here, being honourably entertained by the bishop, his uncle, he lived privately till the death of Murdac, after which period we shall hear farther of him.
To return to Theobald. This archbishop, after the busi- Archbishop ness of the council was over, set sail for England, and came returns into to his see. King Stephen, then in London, being displeased England at his arrival, went immediately to Canterbury; and here nished. several messages passing between king Stephen and Theobald, and the proposals not being agreed to, the archbishop was banished. He went first into France, from whence, at the instance of king Stephen's queen, he removed to St. Omer's, that the king's agents might come to him with the greater convenience. During his stay here he consecrated Gilbert, elect of Hereford, two Flemish bishops assisting at the solemnity.
After several unsuccessful attempts towards an accommo
THEO- dation with the English court, the archbishop threatened BALD, the kingdom with the Church's censures. In the meantime Abp. Cant. his tenants and dependents were very roughly used, and the revenues of the see seized by the king's officers. Theobald, desirous to relieve his friends, came over into England, and was honourably received by Hugh Bigod, earl of Norfolk. And now all the country which acknowledged king Stephen was put under an interdict. Neither could the archbishop be prevailed on to revoke the sentence, till the difference between king Stephen and himself was made up. Upon his return to Canterbury he gave his benediction to Clarebald, abbot of Feversham, having first received a profession of canonical obedience from him. And here the four bishops of Worcester, Bath, Exeter, and Chichester, were present, having been lately released by the archbishop from the suspension they lay under for refusing to appear at the Gervas. ib. council of Rheims.
A. D. 1148.
This year, Gilbert of Sempringham instituted the order of the Gilbertines, at Sempringham, in Lincolnshire. This Gilbert, as Nubrigensis and others represent him, was a person of extraordinary devotion, and particularly famous for laying down rules for the conduct of women: and having a design to refine upon the religious orders, and make some improvement that way, he applied to St. Bernard for his advice; and being now thoroughly furnished with scheme and fortune, he built two monasteries, and eight nunneries, stocked them with religious, and drew up orders for their Nubrigens. behaviour. These Gilbertines were a branch of the Cister
1. 1. c. 16.
2. p. 789,
cians, wore the same habit, and were obliged to much the same method of life. Their order was confirmed by pope Eugenius III. These monks and nuns, living near together, were charged with misbehaviour, in the popedom of Alexander III., their founder Gilbert being then living. But William, bishop of Norwich, clears their reputation to that pope, and avers, from his own knowledge, that the calumny was without truth or colour; that there was no such suspicious correspondence between the religious; that the monks and nuns had no communication; that the prior himself was not so much as allowed to see or converse with the women, and that all precaution imaginable was taken to prevent miscarriage.