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other way. He tells us moreover, that notwithstanding the LIAM, prevalency of Innocent's interest in England, France, and Abp. Cant. Germany, Anacletus maintained his ground, and held up Hist. No- his character to his dying day, which was no less than eight
velle, 1. 1.
years after his election. And even after his death, his party chose another successor, as Baronius confesses. It is true, they surrendered their division in a little time, and were reBaron. An- conciled to pope Innocent.
nal. tom. 12.
sect. 3. ad
Things being thus dubious, as Malmsbury calls them, it An. 1138. is no wonder to find the English Church stand neuter, and
unresolved for some time.
A. D. 1131.
The year following Robert Beatun was promoted to the see of Hereford, and consecrated in June by the archbishop of Canterbury. To which we may add the death of Harvey, first bishop of Ely, which happened about two months after.
About this time the king returning from Normandy into England, summoned a convention of the bishops and temporal nobility at Northampton. And here it was concluded, that the empress should be returned to the earl of Anjou her husband at his request, which was accordingly perfol. 220. formed. The oath of allegiance to the empress was repeated The oath of allegiance at this convention, and likewise taken by all those who had repeated to
the empress. not given that security before.
Malmsb. Hist. Novell. 1. 1.
The next remarkable occurrence is the founding the bishoprick of Carlisle. This place, called Luguballia by the Romans, is a town of great antiquity, but had the misforrick of Car- tune to be entirely destroyed by the Danes about the year
of our Lord 900. It continued in this condition of rubbish for almost two hundred years; when William Rufus marching that way into Scotland, and considering the strength and pleasantness of the situation, and the richness of the country, resolved to make it a fortification against the Scots.
About three years after this project was put in execution, the town was rebuilt, fortified with a wall and castle, and planted with a colony of southern English. The town being thus rebuilt, the king made one Walter, a rich clergyman, governor of it. This Walter built a church there to the honour of the blessed Virgin. He had likewise a farther design to found an abbey, and settle his whole estate for the endowment; but this project was prevented by death. Adelwald, confessor to king Henry now reigning, persuaded
this prince to bestow Walter's estate upon the building of a HENRYI. college, and furnish it with regular canons, who should be K. of Eng. obliged to officiate in the church above mentioned. When the structure was finished, the king settled Walter's estate upon the college, added six advowsons of his own, and put the house under the government of a prior.
To give a farther light to this story: we are to observe, that in the year of our Lord 679, Egfrid, king of Northumberland, made a grant of this town, and of the country fifteen miles round it, to St. Cuthbert, bishop of Holy Island. In process of time, the ravage of the Danes was such, that the bishops were forced to remove for shelter: indeed, the country was destroyed almost to a solitude, insomuch that for several miles together there was scarcely a man to be met with. During this desolation, the government of this part of the diocese grew impracticable. This interruption being followed by a neglect by some of the succeeding bishops, who were now settled at Durham, the archdeacons of Richmond began to seize the opportunity, and by degrees lay claim to the jurisdiction of all Cumberland and Westmoreland. After the college above mentioned was finished, Thurstan, archbishop of York, happened to travel thither: who viewing the magnificence of the church, and considering the commodiousness of the place for a bishop's see; and that the archdeacon of Richmond had no right to the jurisdiction of the country, applied to the court for a new erection: the king being willing to prefer his own foundation, consented to the archbishop's request: there was likewise an authority procured from the pope; and the business being thus settled, the choice of the bishop was left to the canons, and the counties of Cumberland and Westmoreland assigned for the diocese. The canons pitched upon the prior Adelwald, or Adelwolf, for their bishop, who was consecrated at York.
And having mentioned this cathedral's being furnished with Episc. Carregular canons, it may not be improper to acquaint the reader briefly with their distinction, and the time of their institution. And here we may observe that these regular Regular canons are different from the canons instituted in the ninth instituted, century; for first, those of the ninth age had benefices an- and what. nexed to churches, and were under an obligation to perform
the offices of the cure; whereas many of these regulars were Abp. Cant. altogether unbeneficed. Secondly, though it was the rule of the secular canons to live in common upon the Church revenues, yet they had the liberty of keeping their private patrimony to themselves; whereas the regulars were obliged to renounce all property no less than the monks. Thirdly, the first sort were allowed to disengage, and quit their manner of living; whereas the latter were tied up to their institution for their lifetime. To which we may add, that these regulars lived in common, under an abbot or prior, and professed poverty, constancy, and obedience, though not under the monastick forms of a vow. Besides the service of the church or monastery to which they belonged, they were sometimes intrusted with a parochial cure, and permitted the exercise of other ecclesiastical functions. Ivo, afterwards bishop of Chartres, began this reform in the monastery of St. Quintin, in the year of our Lord 1078: afterwards, that religious house furnished France with many other convents of its order; from whence, in a short time, it spread into other countries.
Du Pin, New Eccles. Hist.
I shall conclude this year with the mention of the consecent. 11. c. cration of Nigellus to the see of Ely.
To proceed: Gilbert, bishop of London, had lately set forward to Rome about the interest of his Church; but whatever the particulars of his business were, he did not live to finish them; for, upon crossing the Alps, he fell sick and The death of died. He is called the Universalist, from the compass of his learning; for which Huntington gives him a large commendation. His abilities promised great things at his promotion; but, it seems, he loved money too much, which made him dwindle in his character, and fall short of expectation. He left a commentary upon the Psalms, and an exposition upon Walter, &c. the Lamentations, which are still extant in manuscript. Angl. Sacr. pars 2. p. 698.
A. D. 1134.
King Henry, who had now been in Normandy about three Wharton de years, fell sick at Leun, and died there upon the first of Episc. Lon- December. This prince, as appears by the archbishop of Rouën's letter to the pope, made the best use of his sickness, The death of composed himself very religiously for death, and promised king Henry the prelates that were present a reformation in case of reBaron. tom. covery. He likewise ordered that the forfeited estates should 1135. be returned, and those that were banished recalled; that his
A. D. 1135.
12. ad An.
debts should be paid, and a large distribution of charity to HENRY I. the poor.
K. of Eng.
To say something of this prince by way of character: he His characwas bred to learning, and for his unusual improvements be- ter. yond those of his quality, was called Beauclerk. His fancy seems to have lain pretty much this way, as appears by this saying, which he would sometime speak in his father's hearing, "that a king without learning was little better than an ass with a crown upon his head." He seems to have been Malmsb. de well qualified for a governor. His directions in the cabinet Gest. Reg. were generally well formed. He was a person of great foresight and penetration, and wanted no courage for the executing part. He was, likewise, a good speaker; notwithstanding he wanted no courage for the field, his inclinations lay mostly for peace. And though he declined engaging in a war, as far as was consistent with honour, yet when he thought there was a necessity of coming to blows, no prince went through the contest with more bravery and resolution. He is said to have been remarkable both in his friendship and disaffection; pushing his resentments too far in the one case, and being no less liberal of his favours in the other. The hardship put upon his brother Robert, and his cousin the earl of Mortaigne, are reckoned among the blemishes of his reign. He is likewise charged with covetousness, and oppressing the subject with unnecessary taxes. Neither were the liberties of his pleasures at all defensible. How- Malmsb. ever, with all these abatements of character, his government Huntington was very much preferable to that of his successor. His Histor. 1. 8. body was brought over into England, and buried in the 326. abbey church of Reading.
1. 5. fol. 91.
Upon the news of king Henry's death, Stephen, earl of Stephen,earl Boulogne, notwithstanding his oath to the empress, posted of Boulogne, into England, and set up for himself. This Stephen was throne. third son to Stephen, earl of Blois, by Adela, daughter to William the Conqueror. His uncle, king Henry, created him earl of Mortaigne, in Normandy, bestowed a great estate upon him in England, and preferred him to the marriage of the daughter and heir of Eustachius, earl of Boulogne. Orderic. Standing upon this ground of advantage, and being a person cles. Hist. of great courage and ambition, he was resolved to lay hold 1. 13. of the opportunity of the empress's absence, and push his
fortune. Upon his landing at Dover, the burghers refused Abp. Cant. to entertain him; and when he came to Canterbury he found the gates shut. Notwithstanding this discouragement, he marched on to London, where he was well received; and Mat. Paris, having seized a hundred thousand pounds in the exchequer, Hist. Ang. p. 74. and gained the nobility, he moved for his coronation. And The prelates when William, archbishop of Canterbury, refused to perform and nobility the ceremony, upon the score of his oath to the empress,
one Hugh Bigot, lord high steward, swore that king Henry, upon his death-bed, disinherited the empress, his daughter, and released the English and Normans from their engagements to her. This slender pretence, it seems, satisfied the 1340. archbishop and the rest of the prelates and nobility. HunMat. Paris, tington laments the insincerity of this compliance, ventures to say that the archbishop was cut off soon after for his perfidiousness; and that Roger, bishop of Salisbury, for being forward in the revolution, and making his court to the Huntingt. usurper, was afterwards, by the just judgment of God,
Histor. 1. 8.
cruelly used by him.
fol. 221. The grounds It seems the prelates were too eagerly disposed to receive of this revolution unsa. satisfaction, otherwise they would never have transferred their allegiance upon so weak a motive. Hugh Bigot swore the king had disinherited his daughter; what then? Why should they believe a single testimony against a national and publick act? Besides, Malmsbury tells us expressly that the matter-of-fact was otherwise; and that the king, in his last sickness, declared the empress his successor to all his dominions.
vell. 1. 1. fol. 100.
Besides, it was not in the king's power to release the subjects from their engagements; for the oath, at his instance, was made to the empress; and therefore none but herself could discharge the obligation. So that, had the crown been devisable by will, the king had foreclosed his right for any farther disposal.
To proceed: king Stephen (for that title was his due at last) had miscarried in his attempt, had it not been for the interest of his brother, Henry, bishop of Winchester. This prelate undertook for his brother's management, and prevailed with the rest of his order. That which engaged the bishops was a prospect of favour to the Church. As if the Church could be served by breach of faith, and doing injury