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About this time Henry of Blois, abbot of Glassenbury, HENRY I. and the king's nephew, was promoted to the bishoprick of K. of Eng. Winchester, and consecrated at Canterbury upon the 15th of November; where Gosfrid, nephew to the Baron de Clinton was consecrated bishop of Chester in December following.
Upon the death of pope Honorius, the cardinals were ad An. 1129. divided about his successor, a double election was made, A. D. 1129. and a new schism broke out at Rome. And though Alford 4 new follows the authority of his Church, and declares for Inno- Rome. cent II., yet he grants the case was so perplexed at first, A. D. 1130. that it was hard to discover where the right lay; and that the countries remote from Rome were at a stand for some time. And since the English Church seems to have stood at gaze with the rest, it may not be improper to give a short account of this matter.
Baronius informs us, that immediately upon the death of The pretences of Honorius, the most considerable churchmen, both for qua- Innocent lity and sense, designed to meet at St. Mark's church, and and Anacletus briefly that the election should be carried on in a publick and examined. customary way. But those who were most intimate with the late pope declined meeting there, for fear of a tumult; and before the death of Honorius was published, chose one Gregory, cardinal deacon of St. Angelo, who took the name of Innocent II. Another party understanding the pope was dead, met at St. Mark's church, and made choice of Peter, a cardinal priest, and son to Leo, a Roman prince, a great many bishops, cardinals, clergy, and temporal nobility concurring in the election. Thus the story is told by Sugerius, abbot of St. Dennis, an author of character in that age.
sect. 1. ad
It is true, Baronius produces a considerable list of vici Regis bishops and cardinals, who appeared for Innocent; but it Baron. Anseems Peter, who took the name of Anacletus II., had the nal. tom. 12. best interest in Rome. Baronius will have it, that he pre- An. 1130. vailed chiefly by the length of his purse and greatness of his family, and lays a heavy load of disorder and sacrilege upon his party. But Anacletus and his friends deny the charge, and retort it upon their adversaries.
The famous St. Bernard appeared vigorously for Innocent, which seems to have turned the scale in England and
France, and was of mighty service to his cause. The writer LIAM, of St. Bernard's life reports this saint brought over king Henry and the English bishops, though not without a great deal of difficulty. And Huntington and Hoveden inform ard. 1. 2. c. 1. us, that Lewis, king of France, was persuaded to acknowHuntingt ledge Innocent, by the interest of king Henry. Histor. I. 7.
1. fol. 275.
And though Malmsbury affirms, that upon Innocent's Annal. pars being forced to quit Rome, and pass the Alps, all the Citramontane Church declared for him; yet it is plain, by the Citra-montane Church he meant only the bishops of the French king's dominions; for he distinguishes king Henry from this Citra-montane Church. Indeed, there is no reason to question the testimony of William, the writer of part of St. Bernard's life. To dispute the authority of this author, is in effect to question the sincerity of St. Bernard himself; See Alford's from whom, in all likelihood, he had the relation.
Annal. vol. 4. p. 307.
See Du Pin,
cent. 12. in
A. D. 1130.
And notwithstanding Innocent gained ground westward, yet it is pretty evident, Anacletus was supported by a considerable part of Christendom. For St. Bernard, reckoning St. Bernard. up the countries who acknowledged Innocent, mentions no more than Germany, France, Great Britain, Jerusalem, and Spain; from whence we may infer, that Italy, and the rest Innocent's of the Latin Church unnamed, adhered to Anacletus. Besides, this pope was not without some abetters even in Epist. 125. France; for the famous Ildebertus, archbishop of Tours, Baron. An- stood off for some time from Innocent: and Gerhard, bishop
St. Bernard's de
nal. ad An. 113.
of Angouleme, was a stout champion for Anacletus.
To examine the election a little farther, and to begin in the first place with St. Bernard's defence of Innocent. This holy man reports, that Innocent was chosen first, and that his electors were the most considerable, both for value and number. And then as to the merit of the persons, Innocent was a man of so unexceptionable a conduct, that his enemies could not fasten a blemish upon him; whereas, the failings of the other could scarcely be covered by the partiality of his friends: besides, Innocent was consecrated by the bishop of Ostia, to whom the performance of that ceremony regularly belonged. From hence he concludes, that to endeavour to set up a rival and depose a prelate thus strongly recommended, thus canonically chosen, is to overbear all right
Bernard Epist. 124. Ibid.
K. of Eng.
and religion, and to run counter to the inclinations of all good HENRYI. men. Thus far St. Bernard in his letter to the bishops of Aquitaine.
On the other side, Anacletus was supported by persons 125. of great figure in the Church, as appears by the letter of al. ad An Peter, cardinal and bishop of Porto; one of the principal of 1130. Anacletus's party, to four cardinal bishops in the interest of Innocent. The letter runs thus:
Peter, bishop of Porto, to the four bishops William of The bishop Præneste, Matthew, of Alba, Conrade, of Sabina, and John, letter in of Ostia: "How much I am afflicted upon your account is Anacletus. behalf of only known to the Divine Omniscience: however, I had acquainted you with something of it, had not my pen been stopped by the order and authority of the Church: as con- Malmsb. of cerning the commendation or censure of the persons vell. b. 1. fol. whom there are such various reports, I do not think this a 99. Baron. proper time to determine there is one that will certainly 12. sect.8.ad examine and pronounce upon this matter. However, if any person is prepared to bring in a charge, I question not but the defence will be no less ready than the accusation. This, I think, I may very well say, since both the competitors have been unexceptionable in their conduct, and managed their respective stations to advantage enough; as is well known both to yourselves and me, and indeed to the whole Church. I conceive it therefore for the interest of your character, not to precipitate your judgment, nor grow lavish and satirical in your discourses. Besides, if you insist upon reports, things have a very different face from what your letters suggest. To which I may add, that if you do but consider your own plea, and the method of your proceedings, I cannot conceive which way you can be furnished with a sufficient assurance to call your factious appearance an election; with what colour can you pretend your man ordained, when there was nothing of order or form in the whole course of the affair? Have you been thus instructed to choose a pope? Is this to be done in a private absconding manner, in darkness, and in the shadow of death? If you were desirous to have a living pope in the room of a dead one, what made you give out that the dead one was still living? It had been much more advisable to pay the cus
tomary respects to the person deceased, before you had LIAM, thought of the satisfaction of a successor: but now, since you have set up the dead thus preposterously to assist the living, you have done disservice to both."
Malmsb. Hist. Novelle,
By the way we may observe, that Innocent's party gave out that the late pope Honorius was living, when the fact was otherwise; and that he had named this Innocent for his successor. To proceed to the cardinal of Porto's letter.
"And last of all, continues this prelate, it was neither your business nor mine to govern the election; but only to give or refuse our vote, after the choice made by our brethren. Since therefore you have set aside the customary methods, violated the canons, broken through the order made by yourselves, and drawn your own anathema upon you, since you have not consulted me your superior, nor several others of our brethren of a character preferable to yourselves. Since you are but upstarts in your station, disoret prioribus. derly in your proceedings, and very inconsiderable in your
numbers, you must needs confess upon your own rules and maxims, that all you have done is no better than mere nullity and presumption. But God Almighty has been pleased to assist us with a speedy direction, and point out the way to give a check to your irregularity. For your brethren the cardinals (who have a principal share in the election) unanimously made choice of the lord cardinal Peter for bishop of Rome: this they did in open day, and under publick notice, with the concurrence of the whole clergy, at the instance of the burghers, and with the approbation of the temporal nobility. This election I was present at, saw it regularly carried on, and confirmed it as far as my commission from God Almighty would give me leave. This person is acknowledged and reverenced by the Church, visited by bishops and abbots, by princes and lords of the laity. As for that savage and rough usage you complain of, we see nothing of it: for whoever applies to his holiness for business and direction, is well received, and dismissed in a friendly manner. In the name of God therefore recollect yourselves, and recover your conscience and understanding: do not make a schism in the Church, and ruin the souls of the people: break off your undertaking, and
work your cause no farther: let the fear of God overrule HENRYI. K. of Eng. your motions, and be not ashamed to disengage from an error. I hope he that sleeps will take in the other part of the apostle's sentence, and arise from the dead. Rely no longer upon calumny and falsehood, which is nothing but the refuge of ill men." And after having justified himself from a misreport, he concludes with these words :-"I have all along kept close to the Church, and endeavoured its unity, and this shall be my practice for the future. I shall always take care to adhere to the honest side; not doubting in the least but that truth and justice will be a good protection."
Thus it appears, Anacletus had a strong party on his The pretences of side, and was not destitute of plausible arguments to back either side his pretensions. And had it not been for the interest and tolerably activity of St. Bernard, he might probably have carried the cause; for it was by the strength of St. Bernard's character that Innocent was received in France. The French king, before he would acknowledge this prelate for pope, called a council at Estampes, to examine the election: and here, it seems, the arguments on both sides were so well balanced, that the council finding it difficult to come to a resolution, referred the point wholly to St. Bernard, who determined for Innocent. And had Anacletus's agents been there to Du Pin, defend his title, it is possible the issue had been otherwise. And farther, since St. Bernard was not upon the spot at cent. 12. in the election, it is not impossible he might be misinformed. It is granted, he was a person of great reputation for learning and sanctity; but then, to give some counterpoise to his character, the famous monastery of Mountcassin declared unanimously for Anacletus; and thus we have no less than a whole convent of saints on the other side.
sect. 59. ad
To this we may add, that Malmsbury, one in the first nal. tom. 12. class of our English historians, seems to be at a loss where An. 1130. the right lay. For notwithstanding Anacletus was at last disowned in England, and Malmsbury might safely have taken the freedom of his pen against him, yet when he mentions this competitor he is not so hardy as to call him a pretended pope, but that it was said, he was pretended: which modest expression looks as if his own opinion lay the