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suggestions, 551.-Prohibitions, 551.-The laity discouraged from taking an

oath spiritual courts, 552.—Jews, 552.-Breach of sanctuary, 553.—The

clergy injured in their property, 553.-Bishops' sees and abbeys damnified in

the vacancy, 554.-Bishops' proxies not allowed, 554.-The clergy molested

by Quo warranto's, 554.—And put upon unreasonable defences of their titles,

555.-Suit and service demanded of the clergy against law, 555.-The ordi-

nary hindered in the disposal of the goods of intestate persons, 556.—A brief

recital of the most material occurrences in the state, 556.-The king resigns

most of the English provinces in France, 557.-The Oxford provisions, 557.—

The king's half-brothers chased out of England, 558.-The battle at Lewes,

558.-A controversy between the king and the barons referred to the French,

559.-The rebels defeated at Evesham, and the government recovered, 559.—

Pope Alexander the Fourth's letter to the English barons, 560.-The king

moves the pope for a revocation of the constitutions of Merton, 561.-The

pope defers the confirmation, 561.-The king's letter to the bishop of Here-

ford to enjoin him residence, 562.-The national council at London under the

legate Othobon, 562.-The rise of commendams, 568.-The death of Boniface,

archbishop of Canterbury, 570.—An attempt upon prince Edward's life, 570.

A quarrel between the monks and townsmen of Norwich, 571.-King Henry

dies at St. Edmundsbury, 571.-The council of Lyons, 571.-The Greek and

Latin Churches reconciled, 572.-The privileges of clerkship lessened, 573.—

Archbishop Kilwarby resigns his see, 574.-A synod at Reading, 575.—The

statute of mortmain, 576.-No land to be alienated in mortmain upon the

penalty of the forfeiture thereof, 577.-Who shall take the benefit of the for-

feiture, 577.-A mistake in Fuller rectified, 578.—A provincial synod at

Lambeth, 578.-The cup taken away from some of the laity, 578.-Parish

priests obliged to explain the principal articles and duties in religion four times

a year, 580.-The fourteen articles of faith, 580.-A brief exposition upon the

Decalogue, 581.-The seven works of mercy, 584.-The seven deadly sins,

584.-The seven principal virtues, 585.-Pope Martin notifies his promotion

to the king, 586.-The Welsh conquered again, 587.-Pope Martin's menac-

ing letter, 587.-The king complies with the pope's demands, 587.-The

strictness and impartiality of the archbishop's discipline, 588.-Pluralists re-

duced, 588.-Non-residence punished, 588.-Debauchery and licentiousness cor-

rected, 589.-The statute of circumspecte agatis, 589.—In what cases the king's

prohibition does not lie, 589.-The authority of the act made good, 590.-Re-

marks upon the statute, 591.-Matters within the cognizance of the spiritual

court, 591.-Adultery, &c., 591.-Churches and churchyards, 592.-Tithes, 593.

-Mortuaries, 593.-Laying violent hands on clerks, 594.-Defamation, 594.—

Breach of faith, 595.—Sandford, bishop of Dublin, 596.-The queen dowager

takes the veil, 596.—Heterodoxies condemned by the archbishop of Canter-

bury, 596.—The death and benefactions of Hugo de Balsham, bishop of Ely,

597. The archbishop's injunctions to the clergy of his diocese, 597.-A

diocesan synod at Exeter, 598.-The laity there receive the communion in

both kinds, 599.-A Church calendar, 599.-A dispute between the bishop of

Lincoln and the university of Oxford concerning the admitting their chancel.

lor, 600.-The contest between Balliol and Bruce for the kingdom of Scot-

land, 600.-The cause referred to the king of England by the competitors, and

his sovereignty over Scotland acknowledged, 601.—The commissioners assigned

to examine the cause, 602.-The title of Hastings, Bruce, and Balliol, 602.-

Hastings' and Bruce's title rejected, and why, 603.-The Jews banished Eng-

land, 604.-The state of their civil and spiritual government, 604.-The

rigours with which they were treated, 605.—And the encouragements they

had to turn Christians, 605.—The death of Pecham, archbishop of Canterbury,

606.-Winchelsey elected archbishop of Canterbury, 607.-The king forces

the clergy to consent to his demands in a tax, 608.-The archbishop excom-

municates Madock Llewellyn for rebellion, 608.—The king's rigour against

the clergy, 609.-An encroaching bull from Rome, 609.-The clergy thrown

out of the king's protection, 609.-They come towards a compliance, 610.—

The archbishop stands out and his estate is seized, 610.-The Dominicans de-

termine for the king, 610.-The king seemingly reconciled to the archbishop,

611.-Those who break Magna Charta, &c., to be excommunicated, 612.-The

Minorites circumvented by the pope, 612.-King Balliol renounces his

homage, 613.-But afterwards surrenders himself, 614.-King Edward's

rigorous use of his victory against the Scots, 614.-The pope claims a juris-

diction over the realm of Scotland, 615.-The barons address the pope, and

disclaim his jurisdiction in temporals, 615.-The king maintains his sovereignty

over Scotland in a letter to the pope, 617.-The Culdees overborne by the

pope, 617.-Their order sinks and is extinguished, 618.-The pope's bull

checked by the king, 619.-The king refuses to break with France at the

pope's solicitation, 621.—The pope carries his supremacy to an extravagant

pitch, and quarrels with the king of France, 621.-The progress of this con-

test, 621.-Winchelsey's constitution with reference to rectors and vicars,

623. The pope absolves the king from his engagements to keep Magna

Charta, 624.—The king expostulates with the archbishop, and charges him

with high treason, 625.-The archbishop is dispirited and makes no defence,

625.-The king makes the pope a rich present, 625.-The archbishop banished

by the king, and suspended by the pope, 626.—The bishops of Norwich take

the first-fruits in their diocese, 626.-The king yields the profits of the arch-

bishoprick to the pope during Winchelsey's suspension, 627.-The exactions

of the court of Rome complained of at the parliament of Carlisle, 627.—No

payments allowed to foreign Religious, 628.-Articles drawn up against the

encroachments of the court of Rome, 628.-The provisions of the parliament

at Carlisle, 629.-A satirical remonstrance against the court of Rome, 630.—

The king dispenses in favour of the pope, 634.-Annates, what, when first

paid, and to whom, 634.-The death and character of king Edward, 636.-

The knights of counties made a standing part of the parliament, 636.-The

burgesses, when first summoned to parliament, 636.



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A. D. 1066.

Gest. Reg.

DUKE WILLIAM having mastered the difficulties of the expedition, was importuned to take the title of king; this dis- K. of Eng. tinction of style being most agreeable to the English. He accepted the motion, and accordingly prepared for his coronation, which was solemnized at Westminster upon Christmas-day following. This ceremony, though customarily Malmsb. de performed by the archbishop of Canterbury, yet the king fol. 57. King Wilwas not crowned by Stigand, but by Aldred, archbishop of liam not York. And here, Brompton informs us from some histo- crowned by archbishop rians, that William desired Stigand to set the crown upon Stigand, and his head, and that this prelate refused to be concerned in why. the solemnity. His reason was, because duke William had invaded the country, and seized the government in prejudice of the right heir. Others affirm, and not without probability, that William refused to be crowned by Stigand, because this prelate lay under the censures and suspension of the court of Rome. For the pope having countenanced king Brompton William in his expedition, we may reasonably suppose he Chron. p. would not be forward to disgust his holiness; and, which is Malmsb. ib. most likely, the king might gratify his own resentment, in declining the assistance of Stigand at the coronation solem


fol. 58.




nity for by his rugged treatment of this prelate afterwards, Abp. Cant. he seems to have had a pique against him for appearing too much an Englishman; for making a stand against him for some time, and declaring for Edgar Atheling. And it may be, the check he is said to have met with in Kent might not sit easy upon his memory.

The king is

taken an

oath to the English at his corona


Malmsbury reports, that when archbishop Aldred crowned said to have king William, he took an oath of him, that he should govern his subjects with justice and clemency, and treat the English upon an equal foot with the Normans: that as long as the king managed by these measures, the archbishop treated him with all the regard due to the royal character, but when he began to harass the subjects with insupportable taxes, Aldred sent some of his agents to court to remonstrate against the grievance. These deputies, not admitted to the presence without difficulty, were dismissed with a rugged answer. Aldred, receiving no satisfaction at court, was so hardy as to bestow some ill wishes on the Conqueror and all his family, justifying this freedom by saying, that he might reasonably give his curse to those who had misbehaved themselves under his blessing. These passages being related to the king, he was advised to give the archbishop satisfaction, and ask his excuse. The king condescended to this suggestion, and dispatched some gentlemen to York, but before they came thither the archbishop was dead. It is thought his sympathizing with the calamities of the country made an ill impression upon his health, and shortened his days. This Aldred built the abbey church, now the cathedral of Glocester. He likewise bought several estates, and annexed them to the archbishoprick, and was a great benefactor to the abbey of Beverley.

He governs

As for the oath above mentioned, if it was taken by the arbitrarily. conqueror in the terms related by Malmsbury, it is plain this prince broke through it in a little time: for when he found himself well settled, he pulled off the mask, and governed in an arbitrary manner. He threw the English out of their privileges and estates, and gave away the country to his Normans. And here Thorne, a monk of St. Augustine's, Canterbury, reports, that Egelsin, the abbot of that monastery, perceiving he lay under the king's disfavour for having appeared so resolutely in defence of the liberties of

Gest. Pon

tif. 1. 3. fol. 154.


Thorn. Chronic. p. 1787.

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