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RALPH, the bishops and other great men of the kingdom; and that, for himself, he was resolved not to give up any privilege granted to his ancestors by the apostolick see. In short, this legate, though honourably entertained, was forced to acquiesce, and go off without executing his commission.
Eadmer, 1. 6. p. 138.
A. D. 1122.
Eadmer having lived privately at Canterbury for almost two years, was advised by some bishops and other persons of quality, to insist upon the right of his election. They told him, that election went farther towards the character of a prelate than consecration; and that the canons would by no means allow him to throw up his claim. This advice letter to the being farther recommended by Anselm's precedent, Eadmer king of Scot- complied with it, and sent a letter to Alexander, king of Scotland. In this letter he returns the king thanks for the honour of pitching upon him, when there were so many other worthy persons in view: and after having declared his inclination to be serviceable to that prince and kingdom, he acquaints the king, that he did not address him out of any principle of ambition, or out of eagerness to put himself into a great post; but because all those he had consulted upon the question, told him that he was not at liberty to resign the bishoprick; neither could any person, during his life, lawfully accept of it. "But, sir," says he, "it may be your highness will object, I threw it up myself? To this I answer, that what I did was extorted from me by discountenance and hard usage; I perceived the business of my office impracticable, and, therefore, thought it proper to give way. But if your highness is pleased to remove these obstructions, and permit me the privilege of my character, I am ready to undertake my charge, and observe your commands in everything, not repugnant to the laws of God. But if your highness is pleased to refuse me upon these terms, I must desist. God, I question not, will take care of the interest of his Church, and reward every person according to the quality of his behaviour.
"However, that your highness may not think I have any intention to lessen the dignity and prerogatives of the crown of Scotland, I shall not trouble you with the conditions formerly mentioned, relating to the king of England, or the archbishop of Canterbury, but submit upon your own terms, as to that affair."
Eadmer, 1. 6. p. 139.
This letter of Eadmer's was seconded by another from HENRY I. the archbishop and monks of Canterbury, to the same purK. of Eng. pose. What impression this application would have made upon the king of Scotland is not known; Eadmer, in all probability, not living long enough for the trial. For now The death of having but just mentioned the death of the archbishop of archbishop Ralph. Canterbury, he breaks off his history, without the least touch upon that prelate's character. And since we hear nothing more of him in any matter, it is probable he died soon after.
He tif. 1. 1. fol.
As for archbishop Ralph, Malmsbury informs us, that he was a person of exemplary devotion, great learning, and of a most agreeable and condescensive disposition; that he made no other use of the advantage of his fortune, than to oblige his friends, and those that wanted; that if he had any little fault, it was indulging an entertaining humour sometimes too much, and relaxing the gravity of his character. However, his sallies of this kind proceeded from good nature and good meaning, and not from a spirit of levity. This year, John, bishop of Bath, departed this life. was born at Tours, and was a priest belonging to that cathedral. After he had raised a considerable fortune by the practice of physick, he was preferred to the bishoprick of Wells. He attempted to remove the see to Bath in the The episcoConqueror's time; but could not succeed till the reign of moved from William Rufus. Afterwards he bought the town of Bath Wells to of king Henry I. for five hundred pounds, and annexed it to The bishop his see. This place was then famous for its medicinal wa- purchases that town of ters, as Malmsbury relates, and had been so for a long time the king. before. This bishop seized the lands of the abbey founded by king Offa, and treated the monks somewhat hardly, not thinking their ignorance deserved any better encouragement; but afterwards, when they began to improve and grow more knowing and industrious, he returned them part of their Malmsb. de estates. He was a great benefactor to his church, both in Gest. Ponbooks and ornaments.
pal see re
About this time, Thurstan, archbishop of York, sus- pars 1. p. pended John, bishop of Glasgow, for refusing to make him The bishop a profession of canonical obedience. John took a journey to of Glasgow Rome to solicit there; but finding no encouragement at by the archsuspended bishop of York.
that court, he travelled to Jerusalem, and was kindly entertained by the patriarch.
But that John endeavoured to exempt himself from the Gest. Reg. jurisdiction of the archbishop of York against right and ancient custom, appears from several unquestionable records. To mention some of them. Pope Paschal II., in his bull to the bishops of Scotland, orders the prelates of that kingdom to receive Gerhard, newly consecrated archbishop of York, as their metropolitan, and pay him a proportionable submission. Pope Honorius II. wrote to the king of Norway to restore Ralph, bishop of the Orcades, consecrated by the archbishop of York, and subject to his jurisdiction, to the privileges and revenues of the bishoprick. Farther, William, king of Scotland, in his letter to pope Alexander III., gives his holiness to understand, that the churches of Scotland were anciently under the jurisdiction of the metropolitical see of York; that the king had thoroughly examined this title, and found it supported by unquestionable records, together with the concurrence of living evidence. He therefore desires the pope to discourage all attempts at innovation, and that things may be thoroughly settled upon the old basis. And to speak as to the particular case of John, bishop of Glasgow, pope Calixtus II. orders this prelate to make his submission to his metropolitan of York within thirty days; or otherwise, his holiness threatens to confirm archbishop Thurstan's sentence of suspension against him.
Monastic. Anglic. vol. 3. p. 144. et
The next year the great council of Lateran was held, deinc. ad p. under Calixtus. For though Binius and Baronius assign
A. D. 1123. it to the year 1122, yet Cossartius proves it must be set a
of Lateran year forward.
held under Calixtus. Concil. tom.
Now this being at that time reckoned a general council, the canons must by consequence be binding on the then 10. col. 893. English Church: I shall therefore mention some few of
The first canon declares against simoniacal ordinations and promotions, and that those who are thus promoted shall forfeit their character and benefice.
The fourth forbids the laity intermeddling with the revenues of the Church; and therefore if any prince, or
other lay person, pretends a right to dispose of any eccle- HENRYI. siastical estates, he is to be censured as a sacrilegious
K. of Eng.
The seventh decrees, that no archdeacon, arch-priest, or dean, shall give any cure of souls, or prebend, to any person, without the express consent of the bishop.
By the tenth, no person was to consecrate a bishop, unless he was canonically elected. The penalty of the violation of this canon was perpetual deprivation of the person consecrated and consecrating.
By the eleventh, those that served in the expedition to the Holy Land, and undertook the crusade against the infidels, had the grant of a plenary indulgence, and their families and estates were all put under the protection of St. Peter and the Church of Rome; whoever, therefore, disseized them, or did them any injury, in their absence, were to be excommunicated. And that those who refused to march, after they had undertaken the service, were obliged to set forward immediately, under the penalty of being debarred entrance into any church, and having their country and estates put under an interdict.
This year the king kept his court at Glocester at the Labb. et purification of the blessed Virgin : and here William Corbel, tom. 10. col. prior of St. Osith's, of Chiche, was elected archbishop of 868.etdeinc. Canterbury, and consecrated about the middle of March following, at Canterbury, by William, bishop of Winchester, and several other prelates of that province. Not long after, Continuat. this archbishop took a journey to Rome for his pall. And Florent. here Alford is mistaken in affirming William's journey to Alford AnRome was prior to his consecration.
nal. Eccles. vol. 4. p.
This archbishop was the first of his see who took the 285. title of Pope's legate. This new distinction gave occasion Florent. ad to farther encroachments of the supremacy, and brought the An. 1123. English Church into a state of servitude; for now the archbishop's authority looked dependent and precarious, and seemed derived from the court of Rome. In his legatine commission pope Honorius III. empowers him to convene the clergy to exercise discipline, and make constitutions for the government of the Church. All which favours carried dishonour and subjection along with them, and suppose the
WIL- archbishops of Canterbury unqualified for the functions of a
Abp. Cant. primate without a license from the pope.
Angl. Sacr. pars 1. p. 792.
This year, Robert Bloet, bishop of Lincoln, departed this life. He sat thirty years. Malmsbury represents him as a The death person very well skilled in secular business, and that he ter of Robert, governed to the satisfaction of the diocese. He ornamented bishop of the cathedral very richly, founded one-and-twenty prebends, and purchased lands for their endowment. He fell off his horse in an apoplectick fit as he was riding by the king's side at Woodstock, and died immediately. His epitaph makes him a very charitable and good-natured prelate, and Malmsb. de one that stood firm to his friends in their adversity.
Gest. Pontif. 1. 4.
fol. 165. Godwin in
This see was kept vacant but a short time, for towards the latter end of July, Alexander, archdeacon of Salisbury, Episc. Lin- and nephew to Roger, bishop of that diocese, was conse
crated at Canterbury.
A. D. 1124.
Ernulphus, bishop of Rochester.
The next year the see of Rochester was vacant by the The death of death of Ernulphus. This prelate was a great benefactor to several churches and monasteries, and wrote the history Malmsb. de of the see of Rochester.
tif. 1. 1. fol. 133.
In the latter end of this year pope Calixtus died, and was succeeded by Honorius II. Baronius gives him a very Angl. Sacr. honourable character; reports that he did glorious things in
a short compass of time; finished that which was impracticable to his predecessors, and perfectly disengaged the Baron. An- Church from the oppressions of the empire.
nal. ad An.
About this time, Ralph, bishop of Chichester, departed 12. sect. 8. this life. He was a person of great resolution, as appears The death of by his bearing up so boldly against the arbitrary proceedshop of Chi-ings of William Rufus. He was very remarkable in his charity, and gave all his estate to the poor. He was also a great benefactor to his see. It was his custom to visit his
tif. 1. 2. fol.
Malmsb. de diocese thrice a year; at which times he used to preach against the disorders he met with, with a great deal of satire and authority.
A. D. 1125.
The next year, John de Crema, priest and cardinal, was A council at sent legate into Great Britain by pope Honorius II. He
was stopped for some time in Normandy, but at last king Henry was prevailed with to let him pass into England. At his first landing he made a progress into the north, and