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bishop of St.Andrews.

Normandy, Alexander, king of Scotland, sent three agents HENRYI. to him, with a letter to congratulate him on his return into K. of Eng. England, to acquaint him with the vacancy of the bishoprick A. D. 1120. of St. Andrew's, and to desire Eadmer, a monk of Canter- elected bury, might be sent into Scotland to govern that see. envoys, after they had succeeded at Canterbury, took a voyage into Normandy, to procure the king of England's leave. The king, at the instance of the Scotch king and the archbishop of Canterbury, gave his consent.

Eadmer, 1. 5. p. 130,

Things being thus prepared, Eadmer was sent to Scot- 131. land with a recommendatory letter from archbishop Ralph. At his coming he was immediately chosen bishop of St. Andrew's by the clergy and laity, the king concurring in the election. And here, as he writes himself, the preliminaries were very smooth and agreeable; for he was neither obliged to take investiture from the king by the pastoral staff, nor yet to do homage. But the next day the king consulting with him about his consecration, would by no means allow that solemnity to be performed by the archbishop of York; and when Eadmer informed him that the 4 dispute jurisdiction of the see of Canterbury included the whole island, and that he designed to receive his consecration tion. from thence, the king was shocked with this answer, and refused to permit the archbishops of Canterbury any authority over the see of St. Andrew's.

about his



Idem. p.


As for Eadmer, he seems to stretch the privileges of the see of Canterbury too far: for, in the dispute between Lanfranc and Thomas, in the Conqueror's reign, the metropolitical jurisdiction over all the Scottish bishops was expressly yielded to the see of York. Eadmer therefore was See above,in in the wrong, for moving for his consecration at Canterbury. the year On the other side, the king not receiving satisfaction, seized the revenues of the bishoprick, and was not without some difficulty persuaded to consent, that the pastoral staff might be laid upon the altar, and Eadmer receive it from thence.

In the meantime Thurstan, archbishop of York, put in his claim to consecrate Eadmer, and prevailed with the king of England to write to the archbishop of Canterbury, and the king of Scotland, not to proceed in Eadmer's consecration. It seems Thurstan had been lately very serviceable in procuring a peace between England and France. The


RALPH, success of this negotiation raised his interest at court, and Abp. Cant. made the king appear so vigorously for him. These difHoveden, ferent sentiments and interests embarrassed the affair; and Annal. f. 273. the king of Scotland being unwilling to disoblige the king of England, began to draw in his regards, and grow cool to the elect of St. Andrew's. Eadmer finding himself under a discountenance, acquainted king Alexander that he designed to take a journey to Canterbury, to consult about farther measures. The king seemed surprised at this motion, told him he was now perfectly disengaged from that see; and that as for himself, he would never give his consent, that any Scotch bishop should come under the primacy of the archbishop of Canterbury. To this Eadmer made a very lively reply, that he would not renounce his relation to the see of Canterbury, no, not to gain the kingdom of Scotland. The king finding him thus untractable, treated him roughly, and seized the revenues of the bishoprick. Upon this Eadmer consulted the bishop of Glasgow, and two monks of Canterbury in his family, what was to be done. These three went to court upon the occasion, and after having discovered the king's temper and resolution, acquainted Eadmer, that it was impracticable for him to do religion any service in that kingdom; that his character would certainly be maimed, and made insignificant; that the king was of an arbitrary temper; was resolved to be everything himself, and not suffer any jurisdiction, of what kind soever, to be independent of the crown; and, which was more, he had an irreconcileable aversion to his person: they advised him therefore to resign, and go off; adding withal, that unless he delivered up the ring and pastoral staff, the king would by no means suffer him to go out of his dominions.

He quits his

turns to

Eadmer governed himself by this advice, sent the king see and re- the ring, which it seems he had received from him; laid the Canterbury. pastoral staff upon the altar, and quitted his bishoprick, upon condition that the king of England, the archbishop and convent of Canterbury, should agree to the resignation. Upon this he set forward for England, and was well received at Canterbury. The king of Scotland sent a letter to the archbishop of Canterbury, in which he complains of Eadmer's obstinacy, and his own disappointment.


1. 5. p. 133, 134.

liam cast


1. 12. p. 868.


This year a very sad accident happened to the English HENRYI. court; upon the 24th of November the king embarked for K. of Eng. England, at Barfleur. Prince William set sail some few Prince Wilhours after him, with a great train of nobility of both sexes away at Barfleur. on board. The master and some of the crew having drank A. D. 1120. too much wine, ran the ship upon a rock, where she split, and sunk immediately. And here prince William, his natural brother Richard, his natural sister Maud, countess of Mortaigne, and a great many others of the first quality, were lost; none escaping, excepting one very obscure person. Id. p. 1835. This was a terrible calamity, and made the king extremely Vitalis Ecdisturbed at the first shock: however, he recovered in a short cles. Histor. time, and behaved himself with great resignation to providence. Hildebert, bishop of Manne's, wrote him a con- The bishop of Manne's solatory letter upon the occasion; I shall give the reader consolatory part of it. He begins with a commendation of the king, for letter to the his temper and fortitude; tells him, that the command of himself is much more for his advantage than the extent of his dominions; that the force of good example does business better than the sword; that when princes give a precedent of virtue, they correct wickedness without punishment, or executions; and thus the world is reformed, and nobody suffers by the expedient: but when the sword is drawn, heat, and other passions, have oftentimes a share in the discipline. "Your highness knows," continues the bishop, "that it is the interest of a prince to begin his government with himself; and that unless he conquers his own infirmities, all the successes in the field are but imperfect victory. It is the force of these precepts which makes you rise upon your misfortunes; it is this which sets you above any visible disturbance, and throws a cheerfulness into your face. The aspect is a good index of the mind, and a composed air without, is a true sign of greatness and fortitude within. It is true, your highness has had a severe trial: fortune, if we may so speak, has played her strongest artillery upon you. But I perceive your armour is proof, and your mind impregnable. You stand upright and undismayed amidst all the ruins about you; you are not indisposed for the functions of publick or private life, but maintain the character of a prince and a philosopher, with great decency and exactness."



After this the bishop enlarges on the description of a Abp. Cant, wise man, which, though somewhat pagan in its air, is sound and significant at the bottom.

"A wise man," says he, "is always prepared to combat that which you call fortune. He has always something about him to repel her force, and guard against surprise. He never applies to foreign assistance: he is his own defence, and his armour is always at home, and ready to make use of. He lies always under covert and protection; despises the attacks of fortune, and is above both her menacing and caresses; neither her flattery nor her outrage can make any impression upon him. He is immoveable under all vicissitudes; superior to all accidents: and whatever happens, does only give him occasion for a new conquest." From hence the bishop proceeds to lament the unhappiness of a person not fortified in this manner; and then applying himself to the king, he breaks out in this expression: "God forbid," says he, "that the instability of human affairs should render you thus unhappy, and that the loss of your children should make you lose your firmness and fortitude. If the violence of fortune has wrested your temper from you, you are worse wrecked upon land, if I may say so, than Epist. 56. those who were lately lost at sea." He proceeds to fortify the king from other topicks, but what is said may be suffi12. part. 1. cient for this occasion.



Patr. tom.

f. 333.

A. D. 1121.

nal. tom. 12.

ad Ann. 1121.

The next year, pope Calixtus, improved in his interest, Baron. An- raised an army, besieged the anti-pope Burdin, at Sutri, took the town, and secured his competitor in a prison. The pope, being now at ease, began to set about a reformation, and suppress several ill customs. He made the roads to Rome safe, and protected strangers in the town from ill usage. And, whereas formerly the great men of Rome used to plunder the offerings made to St. Peter, and affront the popes that took the least notice of their rapine, he forced them to desist from this scandalous practice, and applied the treasure to the publick service of his see: and if we may believe Malmsbury, who commonly writes with freedom enough, this pope was not at all tinctured with covetousThe pope's ness. He seems to have had a particular regard for the favour to the English pil- English pilgrims, and was willing to relieve them in the grims. length of their journey. For this reason he advised them

to make their visits of devotion to Compostella rather than HENRY I. K. of Eng. Rome; and that those that went twice thither to St. James, should receive the same benefit of indulgence, as if they had been once at Rome. But the great business performed by Malmsb. de Gest. Reg. this pope was the taking up the controversy between the Angl. 1. 5. crown and mitre, settling the freedom of elections, and fol. 95. bringing the emperor Henry V. to a solemn renunciation of ibid. fol. 96. investitures by the ring and pastoral staff. But this has al tom. 12. been mentioned already.


Baron. An

ad An. 1122. sect. 12.

second mar

After the queen's death and the loss of the prince, the The king king, by the advice of the nobility, married Alice, daughter engages in a of Godfrey, duke of Lorraine, as Eadmer, or Louvain, as riage. Dunelmensis calls him. When the nuptials were solemnized, it was the privilege of the archbishop of Canterbury to crown the queen; but Ralph perceiving the king's crown upon his head without his knowledge, refused to proceed in the office till he had taken it off, and put it on himself. The king had the goodness to satisfy the archbishop in his stiffness, and unseasonable scruples.



p. 1661.

At this publick appearance, the old difference between Act. Pontif. the sees of York and Canterbury was brought under debate; inter 10. and since the pope insisted so earnestly on Thurstan's resti- Script. tution, he was permitted to return to his see; but, with this condition, that he should not officiate in any part of his character, excepting in the diocese of York, till he should make the usual submission to the Church of Canterbury. And, to Eadmer, 1. 6. p. 136. conclude the history of this contest, notwithstanding Ralph and his successor William, made their utmost efforts to bring Thurstan to an acknowledgment, his interest and activity were such, that he always baffled their designs, and maintained the independency of his see.

Malmsb. de
Gest. Pon-


The pope, as has been observed, being disencumbered tif. 1. 3. fol. from the trouble of a rival, sent his legates into all parts of Christendom. Amongst the rest, one Peter, a Roman, had a commission to visit France, Great Britain, Ireland, and the Orcades. The king sent Bernard, bishop of St. David's, to attend him in Normandy, and convey him into England, where he was well received at court. And when he insisted upon the exercise of his legatine authority, the king told him that he must take time to deliberate upon that head; that it could not be done without the consent of

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