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ANSELM, now the pope thought fit to come to a compromise, and make Abp. Cant. some advances towards gratifying the king. For though he would not yield up the point of investitures, yet he dispensed so far as to give the bishops and abbots leave to do homage for their temporalities. Part of his letter to Anselm runs thus:-he imputes the king's tractableness and good disposition to the effect of Anselm's prayers; he desires the archbishop not to be surprised at his condescensions to the English court; that it was only done out of a pious motive to recover them from their error, and fix them more firmly to their duty; that he that designs to lift another up, must of necessity stoop his own body; that this bending posture, though it may seem to look towards a fall, does by no means throw a man off his legs: his holiness, therefore, absolves those who lay under excommunication about the matter in contest, and gives Anselm leave to communicate with such as had received investitures from the crown. He likewise, at the king's instance, restores those former agents to comIdem. p. 77. munion who had misreported his holiness at their return. The king re- The king was much pleased with this relaxation, and sent immediately to invite Anselm into England; but the agent finding him sick, the king was so gracious as to set sail into Normandy, and make him a visit at the abbey of Bec. And here all differences were perfectly adjusted. The king remitted the impositions, and redressed the grievances begun upon the Church in the late reign; promised never to seize any part of the revenues of the vacant sees; to return the money lately extorted from the clergy; and to restore Anselm all the profits of his archbishoprick which had been seized in his absence.

conciled to Anselm.

Pope Pasto Anselm.

chal writes

A. D. 1106.

Anselm's arrival in England.

And now Anselm, embarking for England, arrived at Dover, and was received with an extraordinary welcome. To omit other circumstances of respect, the queen herself was so condescensive as to make part of the procession, and travel before him upon the road to provide for his better entertainment.

Eadmer, P. 89.

King Hen

This year duke Robert came into England, to treat with his brother about the restitution of what he had lost in tacking his Normandy. But the king was so far from parting with his Normandy, conquest, that he resolved to try his fortune for the re

ry's pretence for at

brother in

mainder. However, Matthew Paris reports, that he was

K. of Eng.

Histor. ma

de Gest.

A. D. 1106.

touched with remorse of conscience for his usurpation of the HENRYI. crown of England, which apparently belonged to Robert, upon the score of his being the elder brother; the con- Mat. Paris. sciousness of this injustice made him apprehensive, the sub- jor. p. 61, 62. jects might, one time or other, appear for the right line, and rise upon him. These jealousies might make him desirous to disable his brother, and wrest the duchy from him. For this purpose he convenes the great men to London, harangues upon his brother's miscarriages, and the haughtiness of his temper, and makes the English large promises of good government; and by these means persuades the nobility to assist him in his expedition into Normandy. Malmsbury reports, the king attacked his brother only upon the score of maladministration: that he had formerly ex- Malmsbur. postulated with him upon his misconduct, advised him to act Reg. Angl. with the vigour of a prince, and not suffer his subjects to be 1. 5. fol. 89. harassed by ill ministers: but it seems the duke did not think it fit to have rules set him for the government of his own dominions; and therefore, when proposals were sent Ibid. him by the king to deliver up all the places of strength, the whole administration, and half the country of his duchy; the king promising on his part that he should enjoy the other moiety without disturbance, and have a yearly equivalent in money for the half he should resign; when this proposal was sent him, he acquainted his nobility with it, who, being highly disgusted with the overture, persuaded him to reject it, as they seemed to have good reason to do. The king, Orderic. perceiving his advice slighted, was for some time unresolved Vital. Ecin his measures. He thought the attacking his brother 1. 11. p. 120. would look harsh and unnatural; and, on the other side, the refusing to succour the duchy under so great oppression was what he could not well digest. Being at this uncertainty with himself, blood and nature, as Malmsbury goes on, had carried the point against publick advantage, had not the authority and elocution of pope Paschal animated him to the expedition. It seems the pope, among many other things, had told him, that the attempt would not fall under the notion of a civil war, but be a noble rescue of the Malmsb. ib. country: but, without doubt, for one prince to interpose in The grounds the government of another, to prescribe measures to an in- of the war unjustifidependent sovereign, and invade him upon pretence of mal- able.

cles. Hist.




ANSELM, administration, is a very unwarrantable ground of war. For Abp. Cant, where there is no authority to command, there is no right to punish. Besides, a prince's oppressing his own subjects is no injustice to a foreign state. Now where there is no injury done, there is no reparation due, and, by consequence, no colour for acts of hostility. To this we may add, that supposing the subjects never so much oppressed, they cannot take the benefit of a foreign deliverance; for, if they desert the government and join the invader, they are false to their allegiance, and fall under treason: for this reason, I suppose, Alford taxes Malmsbury with partiality to king Henry, and endeavours to clear the pope from giving any encouragement Alford An- to the expedition.

nal. Eccles. Angl. vol. 4. p. 218.

King Henry gains the battle of Tenerchebray, and by that the duchy of

So much for the grounds of the war.
As to the event,
the two brothers encountered each other at the castle of
Tenerchebray, where, though the Normans fought with
great resolution for some time, yet, being overpowered with
numbers, the victory at last fell to the king. In this fight
duke Robert, a prince of great personal valour, was taken
prisoner, together with the famous William, earl of Mortaigne,
and several other persons of quality. And thus the duchy
Normandy. was entirely lost: and as, about forty years before, the Nor-

mans had conquered England under William I., so now the
English had their turn of success, and conquered Normandy
under Henry his son.

The king wrote Anselm an account of this victory, and
desired his prayers, that the success may not turn to his dis-
advantage, but that he may behave himself suitably under
the blessing.

The king having now possessed himself of the duchy of cords, num. Normandy, returned into England.

A. D. 1107.

The settling of the Church affairs was deferred for some little time, because pope Paschal, being now come to hold a council at Troyes, in Champagne, had sent for William and Eadmer, ib. Baldwin, the late agents at Rome. The king, therefore, expecting some farther account from his holiness, postponed the business of the Church till their return.

The pope dispenses with the canons in the case of

The pope having been consulted about the case of clergymen's sons, whether they were to be admitted to benefices or not, was contented to dispense with the canons, as ap

clergymen's pears by his letter to Anselm, in which he grounds the in


Eadmer, 1. 4. p. 90. See Re

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K. of Eng.


cords, num.

dulgence upon the particular circumstances of the English HENRYI. Church; where, as he observes, the greater and most valuable part of the clergy were the sons of priests; and there- Eadmer, p. fore, considering the necessity of the times, he gives An- See Reselm a commission to promote such persons in the Church, 17. provided they were well qualified in other respects. He A. d. 1107. likewise empowers him to dispense with the canons in other cases, where the untractableness of the English and the interest of religion should make it necessary.

From hence it appears, that all the efforts of St. Dunstan, of Lanfranc, and Anselm, had not been able to discountenance marriage, nor impose the celibacy of the clergy.

the investi

This year the bishops, abbots, and temporal nobility, were convened at London. And here the king solemnly relin- The king quished the giving investitures by the ring or pastoral staff. renounces Anselm likewise declared, on his part, that he would never tures. refuse any person consecration for his doing homage to the king. Matters being thus agreed, the vacant sees were filled.

At this convention Anselm demanded a profession of canonical obedience from Gerard, upon his translation from Hereford to York. To this the king answered, that he conceived the canonical obedience promised by Gerard to his primate at his promotion to his see of Hereford was sufficient; for though he had changed his diocese, his person was the same, neither had he ever been discharged from his first engagement. This satisfied Anselm so far as to dis- Eadmer, ib. pense with the circumstances of the form, and only require a verbal promise, which was given him accordingly.

Soon after the recess of this meeting, there were five bishops consecrated at Canterbury, viz. William, of Winchester; Roger, of Salisbury; Reinelm, of Hereford William, Id. p. 92. the king's late ambassador, of Exeter; and Urban, to the diocese of Landaff.


When Anselm perceived the king had taken off the weight of the regale, and left the Church to her liberty, he gave the pope an account of it in a letter; where, amongst other things, he informs his holiness, that the king, in the choice of bishops, was by no means governed by his own Id. 93.

ANSELM, pleasure, but resigned himself wholly to the advice of the
Abp. Cant.
prelates and clergy.

We are to observe, that, before the king renounced the
claim of investitures, other lay persons who had the patron-
age of abbeys, used to give possession by the delivery of the
ring and crosier. But now the laity were all barred from this
pretension; and, therefore, when the queen promoted one
Ernulph to the abbacy of Malmsbury, she wrote to Anselm
to give him the usual benediction, and deliver him the pas-
toral staff. Her letter is written in an unusual strain of
ceremony, and is, part of it, as follows:

She acquaints the archbishop, "that his letters were always a great satisfaction to her; that nothing could be nobler in the sense, or more moving in the expression; that his elocution was not inferior to that of Demosthenes or Tully; that, in his correspondence, he entertained her with the learning of St. Paul, with the correctness of St. Jerome, and with the manner and genius of St. Augustine and St. Gregory; that her understanding was informed, her zeal quickened, and her conduct much benefited by these instructions."

See Records, num. 18.

The queen's letter to Anselm.

Anselm, Epist. 1. 3. Ep. 119.

Epist. 1. 3.
Ep. 120.

Hunting. Histor. 1. 7. fol. 217.

The archbishop wrote her a very respectful answer, but excused himself for not giving Ernulphus possession of the abbey, because that person had disqualified himself by sending Anselm a bribe.

This year, Edgar, king of Scotland, departed this life; and Alexander, his brother, by the allowance of king Henry, succeeded him. This prince, upon his accession to the throne, wrote to Anselm to desire his prayers for his brother lately deceased, and to send him some directions for his station. Anselm, in his answer to king Alexander, returns him only general advice for a conscientious management: "that it would be his interest to give justice and religion the ascendant in his administration. That the way king of Scot- to be happy in his government, was to make the law of God

Anselm's letter to Alexander,


the measure of his actions; that a prince was then absolute
in the best sense, when he reigned over his passions; that
virtue and conscience were no less royal qualifications than
courage; that his conduct should be such, as to make him
beloved by the best, and dreaded by the worst of his sub-

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