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Having thus reported the precedent under Lanfranc, the HENRY I. synod told Anselm, that many of themselves were present at K. of Eng. this determination; that it was approved by men of character and distinction in the Church, and therefore they desired to be governed by it in the present affair; in defence of which they argued a fortiori, and affirmed, that the princess Maud's allegations were better supported than the instance under Lanfranc; because the veil was perfectly forced upon her, which cannot be so fully alleged in the other case.

When Anselm heard these reasons, he was satisfied with the judgment of the synod, and so the matter was concluded.


1. 3. 56,

And now, all difficulties being removed, the princess Maud was married to the king. And, to prevent calumny and misreport, when the wedding was solemnized, and a great appearance of the nobility and people were crowding about the church, Anselm, seating himself higher than the rest, gave the company an account of what was lately decreed in the synod, and asked them, if they had anything to object against it? To which they unanimously shouted, that the matter was rightly settled. Thus far Eadmer, who, as I observed, was an eye-witness of what passed. From hence it appears how much Matthew Paris, who Hist. Nov. wrote in the reign of Henry III. was mistaken in this rela- 57, 58. tion. This historian reports, that queen Maud married Matthew against her will: that she declared herself a nun; that she taken. was perfectly over-ruled and tired out by her friends and relations; that she was prevailed on by the suggestion of politic considerations, by the prospect of uniting the Norman and English royal families, and that this match was the only expedient to make the latter acquiesce, and settle the government. And that, after all, her conscience was still unsatisfied; that she engaged with great reluctance, and threw out a barbarous wish against her issue, in case she had any. Thus far he: but, as this circumstance of her Matt. Paris, making an ill wish, is by no means suitable to the charac- Hist.Major. ter of that admirable princess, so neither has the pretence

Paris mis

P. 58.

of her being a nun any truth in it.

This year, Guido, archbishop of Vienne, came into Eng- A. D. 1100. land, with a commission from the pope, to be legate in the whole island. This was looked upon as an authority primæ


The arch

ANSELM, impressionis, and everybody was much shocked at it. It Abp. Cant. being a thing never heard of, as Eadmer speaks, that any person should represent the pope in England, excepting the bishop of archbishop of Canterbury. For this reason, Guido's chaVienne's le- racter was universally disowned; neither was he allowed to gatine character exercise it in any one instance. disowned by the English Church.


Thus, we see, the English Church stood upon their ancient right, and would not submit to every imposition of 1. 3. p. 58. the court of Rome. They did not offer to disprove Guido's commission, nor question the truth of his credentials, but refused him upon the score of an unprecedented authority.

This passage in Eadmer must not be understood so strictly, as if the pope had never sent a foreign legate hither before; for Alexander II. sent Hermenfrid, bishop of Sitten, and two others, with a legatine commission, in the reigns of Edward the Confessor and William the Conqueror; but then, when this was done, Stigand, archbishop of Canterbury, lay under the censure of suspension at the court of Rome. As for Hubert, who was afterwards dispatched from the pope to the Conqueror, his instructions were limited to court business, which makes him no more than a nuncio.

Alford Annal. vol. 4. p. 179.

But as for Eadmer's instance, Alford is very much hampered with it: he grants the matter of fact, owns Guido's legatine commission, but is at a loss to account for the reason of his being refused. To clear this point, and maintain the modern notion of the pope's supremacy, he is forced to have recourse to precarious suppositions. He fancies the English Church disclaimed his legatine character, because his powers were not penned with a non obstante to the privileges of the see of Canterbury. But all this is mere conjecture; for neither Eadmer, Malmsbury, Florence of Worcester, &c., take any notice of this pretence. And to come to a more modern authority, Baronius does not so much as mention Guido's coming into England; neither does Alford himself cite any historian to make good his assertion.

The controversy between the king and Anselm being reported by Guido, at his return into France, Ivo, bishop of Chartres, a prelate of great reputation, wrote to king Henry to persuade him to drop the contest. The letter runs thus:


to the king.

Henrico Excellenti Anglorum Regi, &c. "Since Providence has been pleased to seat you on your father's throne, we cease not to put up our prayers to God Ivo's letter Almighty, to bless your highness with your father's virtues and nobleness of temper; that your highness may not fall short of the intrinsic greatness and good conduct of your ancestors. And since affairs can never go well without a good correspondence between the crown and mitre, we entreat your highness that you would give free passage to the word of God in your dominions; always remembering, that the kingdom of this world ought to act in subordination to the kingdom of heaven, of which the Church has the administration. For as the body is apt to grow unserviceable when not governed by the mind, in like manner, the temporal authority is never in good condition unless guided by the instructions and discipline of the Church. And as the state of a man's constitution is easy and undisturbed, when there is no contest between flesh and spirit, so the best expedient to secure the peace of the secular government, is to forbear attempting anything against the kingdom of God. Your highness may likewise please to remember, that God has placed you in that station of empire, to protect the Church, and not to make yourself master of her jurisdiction; and that the more undisturbed the ecclesiasticks are under your government, the better disposition they will be in to pray for your highness's prosperity."

Baron. Annal. tom. 12.


Baronius is charmed with this letter, and would have it ad Ann. frequently inculcated to princes. But though the substance of the advice may be seasonable enough, yet the address, take it altogether, has some crude expressions, and seems penned with too lofty an air.

of Thomas,

His charac

This year Thomas, archbishop of York, departed this The death life. He has the character of a very valuable person, both archbishop for his learning and conduct. He was a great benefactor to of York. his church, which was in a very low condition at his coming ter. to that see. To give some particulars: he found but three canons for the chapter at his first coming, and those altogether unprovided, either with houses or maintenance; but in a little time he filled up the number of the canons, and made a handsome provision for them. He likewise built the cathedral from the foundation, as it stands at present, and

K. of Eng.

ANSELM, furnished it with ornaments and a good library. He likeAbp. Cant. wise begun the office of dean, treasurer, and precentor in that church. And as for the canons, he settled a prebend upon each of them, and put them in a condition to live by themselves; whereas formerly, like university scholars, they eat at a common table. He likewise divided the diocese into archdeaconries. To conclude with him: he was a person of more than ordinary learning, considering the age; he wrote several things in prose and poetry; composed a great many hymns, and set them for the choir, having good skill both in vocal and instrumental musick. He died at Ripon, in November, about three months after he had crowned king Henry.

This year Robert, duke of Normandy, returned from the Holy Land, with an expectation not only of recovering his duchy, mortgaged for three years, but likewise of succeeding to the crown of England upon the death of his brother William. But he quickly found himself disappointed, and that his brother Henry had stepped into the throne before him. This duke, conceiving himself injured, resolved to pursue his claim by force; and while he was deliberating upon the measures, Ralph, bishop of Durham, lately imprisoned in the Tower, making his escape into Normandy, inflamed the difference between the two brothers, gave the duke an expectation of a great interest in England, and encouraged him to the expedition.

Nunnery of

About this time the nunnery of Clerkenwell, and the reand priory ligious house of St. John's of Jerusalem, were both founded

of St. John's by Jordan Brisset.

of Jerusalem

tus Pontif.

Stubs. AcEborac. p. 1708. God

win in Ar

chiepisc. Eborac. 282.


Alford An

nal. vol. 4

To return to Anselm: The Easter to which the controversy between the king and the archbishop was to sleep being come, and their respective agents to Rome not yet arrived, the truce, as we may call it, was continued till their


Anselm very

In the meantime, the court was very much alarmed at duke Robert's preparations; and as it appeared afterwards, many of the great men were in the Norman interest. The serviceable king, therefore, to tie the English the faster to him upon so to the king important a juncture, repeated the engagement he had forbrother the merly made for an equitable administration. And here Anselm was pitched upon by the nobility and commons to

against his

duke of Normandy.

p. 176. Stow's Sur

vey of Lon

don, p. 483,


A. D. 1101.

receive the king's promise and take the public security. In HENRY I. that part of the engagement which related to the clergy, the K. of Eng king promised to continue the Church in her former franchises; that he would neither sell nor farm out any estates belonging to ecclesiasticks, nor make seizure of bishopricks or abbeys upon any vacancy.

Mat. Paris,
Hist. Major.

Things being thus adjusted, the king levied a consider- p. 55.
able force to defend himself against his brother; Anselm
likewise brought the king a body of men, and appeared very
active in his service. However, duke Robert had gained
part of the fleet which was to intercept his passage, and
landed with a formidable army at Portsmouth. And now
many of the great men declared for duke Robert. The
king, being in great danger of losing his crown, made large
promises to Anselm, gave him an assurance that he would
leave the business of religion wholly to him, and be always
governed by the advices and orders of the apostolick see.
On the other side, Anselm did his part to prevent a revolt
from king Henry; he harangued the great men and the
army, and put them in mind how detestable falsehood and
perjury would make them, both to God and man; and that
they ought rather to lose their lives than break through
their oaths, and fail in their allegiance to their prince. And
thus, as Eadmer reports, the archbishop strengthened the
king's party, and kept the crown upon his head. To pro-
ceed both princes were now near a balance, and ready to
try their fortune in the field; but by the interposing of some
great men on either side, they were brought to an accom-
modation; and Robert was contented to quit his title to the
crown, and take a yearly pension of three thousand marks
in lieu of it. There was likewise an article, that if either
of the brothers died without issue male, the survivor should
be heir to his dominions.


Robert being disappointed in his expectations from the 13. p. 59. Huntingt. English, was contented to sign this agreement, especially Hist. 1. 7. since he knew Anselm would certainly excommunicate him Westminfor an invader in case he refused to comply.

fol. 216.

ster Flores. Hist. ad

The archbishop having been thus serviceable to the Ann. 1101. crown, it was generally thought he would have met with no farther disturbance. But the king would by no means pass over the old controversy. The agents, therefore, being now

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