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1824, 1827, 1831, before the completion of the second volume in 1835. The two volumes, (three in the translation), extend to the Reformation. Another volume, which has not yet appeared in Germany, is to bring down the history to the present time. Gieseler gives up the old division into centuries, and divides his work into periods. The first extends from the birth of Christ to the accession of Constantine. The second period embraces the events from Constantine to the controversy respecting images A. D. 324–451. The third period extends from the controversy just named to the Reformation. Appropriate divisions under these periods are made.

“ It will be seen by a glance at the main body of the work,” says the translator, “that by far the greatest part of it consists of extracts from the original sources; the text itself, though containing a complete view of the whole field of church history, being exceedingly compressed. The advantages of such a plan for a manual of this study will at once be manifest. On the one hand, the student does not wish to be encumbered with long disquisitions on subjects so hard and dry as for the most part are here treated of, and on the other it is important that he should have the means of investigating them on occasion ; whilst frequently the points involved are so refined and delicate that the mistranslation of a word, or even the substitution of one language for another, may essentially modify the idea.”

As a specimen of the manner of the author, we quote a few sentences on the internal relations of the christian church in the apostolic age. “ The new churches every where formed themselves on the model of the mother church at Jerusalem. At the head of each were the elders (πρεσβύτεροι, επίσκοποι), all officially of equal rank, though in several instances a peculiar authority seems to have been conceded to some one individual from personal considerations. Under the superintendence of the elders were the deacons and deaconesses. Rom. 16: 1. 1 Tim. 5: 9, 10. All these received their support, like the poor, from the free contributions of the church. I Tim. 5: 17. 1 Cor. 9: 13. It was by no means any part of the duty of the elders to teach, though the apostle wishes that they may be apt to teach (didaxtıxoi). 1 Tim. 3: 2. 2 Tim. 2: 24. The power of speaking, and exhortation was considered rather the free gift of the Spirit (zápiqua avevmatixóv), and was possessed by many of the Christians, though exercised in various ways (prophets teachers - speaking with tongues. 1 Cor. 12: 28–31. ch. xvi). There was as yet no distinct order of clergy, for the whole society of Christians was “a royal priesthood,” (1 Pet. 2: 9) -" the chosen people of God.” i Pet. 5: 3. Comp. Deut. 4: 20. 9: 29. They assembled for worship in private houses ; in cities the churches were often divided into several societies, each having its particular place of meeting.” The characteristics of professor Gieseler's work seem to be general candor and fairness - the great compression of ideas in the text — and the learning, research and judgment displayed in the notes, quotations and references. If this history gains currency among us, it will argue well for the cause of sacred learning. Recommendatory notices are prefixed from professors Stuart, Emerson, Hodge, Sears, and Ware. We know not what professor Sears means by saying that “ Mosheim's History can no longer be used.” Mr. Cunningham remarks very justly that “of all (the ecclesiastical historians bitherto accessible to the English reader), Mosheim alone is fitted for a general and comprehensive study of the subject.” “The translation by Dr. Murdock is particularly valuable for the great learning and fidelity displayed in the notes."

3.-Recent Travels in Spanish America. Mr. C. J. Latrobe, an English traveller, spent about three months in the beginning of the year 1834, in Mexico, mostly in the capital and its environs. The following he gives as the population of New Spain. 1. The Gachupin, the full blood European, or more properly the Spaniard, whose numbers have dwindled since the revolution, from 80,000, to probably not more than 10,000. 2. Crcoles of European extraction, 1,000, 000. 3. Mestizoes, the offspring of the European and the Indian, 2,000,000. 4. Mulattoes, the offspring of Europeans and negroes, 400,000. 5. Aboriginal Indians, 3 or 4,000,000. 6. African negroes and their descendants, 100,000. 7. Zamboes, the offspring of negroes and Indians, 2,000,000. 8. About 15,000 European foreigners. Total, about 9,000,000. The impressions of Mr. Latrobe in regard to the moral condition and political prospects of Mexico were any thing but favorable. “Of all countries I have ever seen, New Spain contains the largest proportion of canaille. No one who ever spent a month in Mexico will pretend to say that the present state of the country is flattering to the advocate of republicanism. He detects want VOL. IX. No. 25.



system, want of public and private faith ; want of legitimate means of carrying on the government, of enforcing laws, or maintaining order ; total absence of patriotism ; a general ignorance; indifference to the value of education, linked to overweening arrogance and pride ; an incredible absence of men of either natural or acquired talent of any description ; and intolerant support of the darkest bigotry and superstition. The meanest partizanship stands in the place of patriotism. The government of the moment has not the power of effectually governing, even if it were sincere in the desire.” “ In matters of religion, nothing could be more bigotted and intolerant than the reform government of the country. The Roman Catholic religion in its blindest, most revolting form, was the only one tolerated by law; and whatever there may be in other Roman Catholic countries, here there would seem to be no medium between the most debasing superstition and idolatry, and skepticism, and infidelity. It is said that there are 550 secular, and 1,646 regular clergy in the capital ; that in twenty-three monasteries there are 1200 individuals; and in fifteen convents, about 2000 souls, of whom 900 are professed nuns. The few Protestant residents in the metropolis, are not permitted to have a place of worship ; and were it not stipulated by a treaty with Great Britain, they would not be allowed a place of sepulture for their dead.” Out of a population of 160,000, in Mexico, 15,000 fell victims to the cholera in 1833. There are fifty-six churches besides the cathedral.

Among the latest travellers in South America, are Messrs. Smyth and Lowe, of the British ship Samarang, who in 1834 and 1835, passed from Lima to Para across the Andes, and down the Amazon. They are gentlemen of intelligence and veracity. The Pamba del Sacramento is thus described : “ It is so called, from its having been discovered by some of the newly converted Indians, in 1726, on the day of the festival of Corpo de Dios. It comprises the greatest part of the land lying between the Huallaga, the Ucayali, the Marañon, and the Pechitea ; and it is remarked, with apparent justice, that the two continents of America do not contain another country so favorably situated, and so fertile. It is about 300 miles long, from north to south, and from about forty to 100 in breadth. Two of its boundary rivers, the Marañon and Ucayali, are at all times navigable for vessels of large burden ; and the other two for boats and small craft. The productions are all indigenous, and in general spontaneously produced.” The temperature is extremely even, and the heat by no means oppressive. It is inhabited by ten distinct tribes of Indians, differing considerably from each other in their manners and habits. The only Catholic mission now existing, is that of Sarayacu, a town of 2000 inhabitants. Many of the Indians, who had been converted to the Roman Catholic faith under the Spanish government, have, since the desertion of the missionaries, relapsed into their foriner barbarous state. Among the half civilized Indians, intoxication is the cause of great depravity of morals. Domestic happiness seems to be nearly unknown.“ The Marañon, and most of the rivers which fall into it, are as well calculated for steam navigation, as any waters in the world, and there is an inexhaustible store of fuel growing on the banks of all of them.” Much valuable information, told in an unassuming manner, may be found in this volume.

These countries were visited in the years 1827–1832 by Dr. Edward Poeppig, a German, who, since his return to his native land, has published two quartos, containing between 900 and 1000 closely printed pages. He had previously visited the United States and Cuba. The visit to South America originated with some friends of natural history in Germany, who confided the execution of it to Dr. Poeppig, and supplied him with funds. He collected 17,000 specimens of dried plants, many hundred stuffed animals, and a great number of other natural productions, which were distributed among the patrons of the expedition. The introduction into gardens of very many plants before unknown; 3000 descriptions of plants made on the spot, especially with regard to such parts of the flowers as it would be more difficult to examine subsequently ; thirty finished drawings of landscape scenery; forty drawings of anodeae ; thirty drawings of orchideae; numerous sketches; and a private botanical collection of extraordinary extent, are a portion of the fruits of the journey.

Dr. Poeppig arrived at Valparaiso after a voyage of 110 days from Baltimore. He thinks favorably of the future prospects of Chili. “ The shaking off of the Spanish yoke, the rapid rise of commerce, and a sense of personal and national dignity, have influence not only on the moral character of the people of Chili, but have also extended their effects to the external appearances and forms of ordinary life. It was the congress, and the consti


tution of 1828 that abolished entails, the sources from which the misery, poverty, and ignorance of the peasantry are derived, well as the cause of great neglect of agriculture even in very fertile provinces. In Valparaiso the number of houses and of inhabitants, has more than doubled within ten or twenty years. The haciendas (farms) in the central provinces have from 10,000 to 15,000 head of cattle, and many even 20,000.

Brazil is in a very bad_state. “It was by no means an unusual occurrence,” says Dr. Meyen, another German voyager,

“ for five or six murders to be perpetrated in one night in Rio Janeiro. In many houses the slaves were chained down during the night, that their masters might sleep with a feeling of security. The capital resembled a volcano of which every one dreaded the eruption, without exactly knowing how it would break out.

Justice will avenge itself on the white man for the barbarities, which he has for centuries exercised on millions and millions of negroes.

The fate of Brazil is inevitable. Three fourths of the population are people of color, only one fourth being of Caucasian origin. To our astonishment, we found at Rio people of the country, distinguished for their education and humanity, who coolly assured us we were mistaken in imagining that the negroes belong to our species.”

- The hostility,” says Dr. Poeppig, “the hatred, of the many colored classes will continue a constant check to the advancement of the State, full of danger to the prosperity of the individual citizens, and perhaps the ground of the extinction of entire nations. The fate which must sooner or later befal the greater part of tropical America, which is filled with negro slaves, which will deluge the fairest provinces of Brazil with blood, and convert them into a desert, where the civilized white man will never again be able to establish himself, may not indeed afflict Colombia and Peru to the same extent ; but these countries will always suffer from the evils resulting from the presence of an alien race.”

4.-A Plea for Voluntary Associations in the Work of Missions.

New York : John S. Taylor, 1837. The first chapter in this work exhibits the general advantages of voluntary associations over church organization in the work of spreading the gospel. The disadvantages of the latter are as follows: 1. “ For church-courts to assume the control and direction

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