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CRITICAL PRONOUNCING DICTIONARY

AXD

EXPOSITOR

OF

THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.

ABRIDGED.

TO WHICH IS ADDED AN ABRIDGMENT OF

WALKER'S KEY

TO THE CLASSICAL PRONUNCIATION OF GREEK, LATIN, AND

SCRIPTURE PROPER NAMES.

BT KREOTYPED BY A. W. KINSLEY, ALBART.

BELLOWS FALLS, Vt.
PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BYJAMES I,CUTLER & CO,
AND SOLD BY THEM WHOLESALE AND RETAIL, AT THEIR BOOKSTORE

1824.

DISTRICT OF VERMONT,

TO WIT.

B
2E IT REMEMBERED, That on the tenth day of October, in

the forty-seventh year of the Independence of the United States of America, the Reverend CARLTON CHASE, of the said District, hath deposited in this office the title of a book, the right whereof hé claims as proprietor, in the words following, to wit :

« Walker's Critical Pronouncing Dictionary and Expositor of the English Lan. guage, abridged. To which is added an abridgment of Walker's Key to the classical pronunciation of Greek, Latin, and Scripture proper names. "

In conformity to the act of the Congress of the United States, entitled "an act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of Maps, Charts and Books to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned.”

JESSE GOVE, Clerk of the District of Vermonts A true copy of record examined and sealed by me

Jessed Goveredlemme}

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FEW subjects have of late gears more employed the pens of every class of criticks, than the improvement of the English Language. The greatest abilities in the nation have been exerted in cultivating and reforming it ; nor have a thousand minor criticks been wanting to add their mite of amendment to their native tongue. Johnson, whose large mind and just taste made him capable of enriching and adorning the Language with original composition, has condescended to the drudgery of disentangling, explaining, and arranging it, and left a lasting monument of his ability, labour, and patience ; and Dr. Lowth, the politest scholar of the age, has veiled his superiority in his short Introduction to English Grammar. The ponderous folio has vindicated the rights of analogy; and the light ephemeral sheet of news has corrected errours in Grammar, as well as in politicks, by slyly marking them in Italicks.

Nor has the improvement stopped here. While Johnson and Lowth have been in. sensibly operating on the orthography and construction of our Language, its pronunciation has not been neglected. The importance of a consistent and regular pronunciation was too obvious to be overlooked ; and the want of this consistency and regularity has induced several ingenious men to endeavour at a reformation ; who, by exhibiting the regularities of pronunciation, and pointing out its analogies, have reclaimed some words that were not irrecoverably fixed in a wrong sound, and prevented others from being perverted by ignorance or caprice.

Among those writers who deserve the first praise on this subject, is Mr. Elphinston ; who, in his principles of the English Language, has reduced the chaos to a system ; and, by a deep investigation of the analogies of our tongue, has laid the foundation of a just and regular pronunciation.

After him, Dr. Kenrick contributed a portion of improvement by his Rhetorical Dictionary ; in which the words are divided into syllables as they are pronounced, and figures placed over the vowels, to indicate the different sounds. But this gentleman has rendered his Dictionary extremely imperfect, by entirely omitting a great number of words of doubtful and difficult pronunciation--those 'very words for which a Dictionary of this kind would be most consulted.

To him succeeded Mr. Sheridan, who not only divided the words into syllables, and placed figures over the vowels, as Dr. Kenrick had done, but, by spelling these syllables as they are pronounced, seemed to complete the idea of a Pronourcing Dictionary, and to leave but little expectation of future improvement. It must, indeed, be confessed, that Mr. Sheridan's Dictionary is greatly superiour to every other that preceded it; and his method of conveying the sound of words, by spelling them as they are pronounced, is highly rational and useful.-But here sincerity obliges me to stop Numerous instances of impropriety, inconsistency, and want of acquaintance with the analogies of the Language, sufficiently show that his Dictionary is upon the whole imperfect, and that ample room was left for attempting another, which might better answer the purpose of a Guide to Pronunciation.

The last writer on this subject is Mr. Nares, who, in his Elements of Orthoepy, has shown a clearness of method and an extent of observation which deserve the highest encomiums. His Preface alone proves him an elegant writer, as well as a philosophi. cal observer of Language; and his Alphabetical Index, referring near five thousand words to the rules for pronouncing them, is a new and useful method of treating the subject; but he seems on many occasions, to have

mistaken the best usage, and to have paid too little attention to the first principles of pronunciation.

Thus I have ventured to give my opinion of my rivals and competitors, and I hopa without envy or self-conceit. Perhaps it would have been policy in me to have been silent on this head, for fear of putting the public in mind that others have writtez on the subject as well as myself; but this is a narrow policy, which, under the colour of

[4 cenderness to others, is calculated to raise ourselves at their expense. A writer who is conscious he deserves the attention of the public, (and unless he is thus conscious he ought not to write) must not only wish to be compared with those who have gone before him, but will promote the comparison, by informing his readers what others have done, and on what he founds his pretensions to a preference ; and if this be done with fairness and without acrimony, it can be no more inconsistent with modesty, than it is with honesty and plain dealing:

The work I have offered on the subject has, I hope, added something to the public stock; as I have endeavoured to unite the science of Mr. Elphinston, the method of Mr. Nares, and the general utility of Mr. Sheridan.

With respect to the explanation of words, except in very few instances, I have scrupulously followed Dr. Johnson. His Dictionary has been deemed lawful plunder by every subsequent lexicographer ; and so servilely has it been copied, that such words as he must have omitted merely by mistake, as Predilection, Respectable, Descriptive, Sulky, Inimical, Interference, and many others, are neither in Mr. Sheridan's, Dr. Kenrick's, nor several other Dictionaries.

N. B. The preceding preface is extracted from that originally prefixed to the quarto Dictionary by Mr. Walker. A TABLE OF THE SIMPLE AND DIPTHONGAL VOWELS REFERRED TO

BY THE FIGURES OVER THE LETTERS IN THIS DICTIONARY. English sounds.

French sounds. 1. &. The long slender English a, as in fåte, på-per, &c.

é in , épée. 2. å. The long Italian a, as in fár, få-ther, pa-på, mám-må a in fable, table. 3. å. The broad German a, as in fåll, wall, wå-ter

â in âge, Châlons. 4. a. The short sound of the Italian á, as in fåt, måt, mår-ry a in fut, matin. 1. ¢. The long e, as in mé, hère, mé-tre, mé-dium

i in mitre, epitre. 2. &. The short e, as in mët, lët, get

e in mettre, neite. 1. The long dipthongal i, as in pine, title

až in laïque, naïf. 2. I. The short simple i, as in pin, tỉt-tle

. i in inné, iitré, 1. d. The long open o, as in no, note, nd-tice

o in globe, lobe. 8. The long close o, as in move, prove

ou in mouvoir, pouvoir. A. The long broado, as in nồr, för, 8r; like the broad å . o in or, for, encor. 4. 8. The short broad 6, as in nôt, hôi, gốt

o in hotte, cotte. À. The long dipthongal u, as in tube, Çu-pid

iou in Cioutat, chiourme. ů. The short simple ú, as in tůb, củp, súp

eu in neuf, venf: i å. The middle or obtuse u, as in båll, fall, påli

ou in boule, foule, poule. Es. The long broad 8, and the short i, as in dil,

oï in cycloïde, heroïque. on. The long broad 8, and the middle obtuse ů, as in thổ8, påůnd aoû in Aoûte.

Th. The acute or sharp th, as in think, thin.

Th. The grave or flat Tu, as in This, That. When G. is printed in the Roman character, it has its hard sound in get, gone, &c. as go, give, geese, &c. ; when it has its soft sound, it is spelled in the notation by the consonant J, as giant, ginger, ji-ant, jin-jer. The same may be observed of s: the Roman character denotes its hard sound in sin, sun, &c. as so, sit, sense, &c ; its soft sound is spelled by Z, as rose, raise, &e. rozk, raze, &c.

IF The figures over the letters refer to the vowels in the words at the top of the page. The parts of speech are distinguished by the first letters or syllables of each: as s. for substantive ; a for adjective; ad. for adverb ; v.a. for verb active ; v. n. for verb neuter; prep. for preposition; conj. for conjunction; int, for interiection; pret, for preterive tense: pass, for passive and part.for participle. WALKER'S CRITICAL PRONOUNCING DICTIONARY.

SCHEME OF THE VOWELS. Fåte, får, råk, fåt-mè, mét-pine, pin-nd, move, ndr, nðt-tůbe, tåb, bůll--011

påůnd-thin, this. ABB

ABJ an article set before nouns of the sin- Abbreviature, åb-hrè've-a-tshåre s. a mark gular number; as, a man, a tree. used for shortening

[to resigo Before a word beginning with a vowel, it Abdicate, åb’de-kate v. a. to give up right, js written an ; as, an ox. A is sometimes Abdication, åb-de-ka'shủn s. the act of ebé à noun, as great A. A is placed before. dicating [implies an abdication a participle, or participial noun; as, a Abdicative, áb’de-ka-tiv a. that causes or hunting, a begging. A has a significa-Abdomen, åb-do'mén s. the lower part of tion denoting proportion; as, the land

the belly lord has a hundred a year:

Abdominal, åb-dôm'me-nål ? a. relating to Abacus, åb'å-kús s. a counting table; the Abdominous,åb-dôm'me-nůs) the abdomes

uppermost member of a column Abduce, åb-duse' v. a. to withdraw one Abaft, å-båft ad, from the fore part of a part froin another

ship towards the stern [sert, to forsake Abducent, åb-dů'sềnt a. drawing away Abandon, å-bằn'dủn v. a. to give up, to de- Abductor, åb-důk'tór s. the muscles whicha Abandoned, å-bân'důnd part. given up; cor- draw back the several members

rupted in the highest degree (abandoning Abed, å-béd' ad. in bed Abandonment, å-hån'důn-ment s. the act of Aberrance, åb-ér'rânse s. a deviation front Abarticulation, åb-år-tik-à-là'shủn s. that the right way: an errour [right way

species of articulation that has manifest Aberrant, âb-ér'rånt a.wandering from tho motion

Aberration, åb-ér-ra'shản s. the act of deAbase, å-båse' v.a. to depress, to bring low viating from the common track Abaseinent, å-båse'mềnt s. the state of be-Aberring, åb-éi'ring purt. going astray ing brought low ; depression

Aberuncate, åb-e-růn'kåte v. a. to pull up Abash, å-bảsh' v. a. to make ashamed by the roots Abate, å-båte' v. a. to lessen, to diminish Abet, å-bắt' v.a. to support, encourage, help Abate, å-båte' y. n. to grow less

Abetment, å-bết'mênt s. the act of abetting Abatement,a-båte'měnts.the act of abating, Abetter, or Abettor, å-bềt'tür s. he that

the sum or quantity taken away by abat- abets ; the supporter or encourager oi ing

another

[to loathe Abater, a-bá túr s. cause by which an abate-Abhor, åb-hôrv.a. to hate with acrimony; ment is picured

Abhorrence, åb-hðr'rense 3. the act of Abh, åb s. the yarn on a weaver's warp Abhorrency, åb-hðr'rén-sé abhorring Abbacy,

, ab'bå-sè s. the possessions or privi- Abhorrent, åb-hðr'rênt a. struck with ableges of an abbot

horrence ; contrary to, inconsistent with Abhess, åb'bểss s.the superiour of a nunnery Abhorrer, åb-hỏr'růr s. a hater, detester Abbey, or Abhy, ab'bé s. a monastery of Abide, å-blde' v. n. to dwell in a place, not religious persons

to remove ; to bear or support the conseAbbot, ab'bûts, the chief of a convent of men quences

(or dwells in a place Abbreviate, åb-bré'vé-åte v.a. to shorten Abider, å bl'dår s. the person that abides Abbreviation, åb-bre-ve-d'shún s. the act of Abiding, å-bl’ding s. continuance [ible shortening

[bridges Abject åb'jékt a. mean,worthless,contempt. Abbreviator, åb-bré-ve-a'tår s. one who a-Abyss, áh'iềkt s. a man without hope

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